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and perseverance. He then, after touching on his own history, and his adoption of the philosophical tenets and habits of the Stoic sect, in continuation docet insanire omnes’ (v. 81.), and ends with a satiric description of the foibles of the poet himself.

The objects of general satire are specified in vv. 78., 79. Avarice is taken first (vv. 82–160.) Then Ambition (vv. 165. sqq.) Then Luxury (vv. 224. sqq.) Then Superstition (vv. 281-295.)

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Sat. IV. This satire contains a string of precepts, burlesque often in meaning as well as manner, upon cookery. They are delivered as a lecture by Catius (perhaps an imaginary person, perhaps the “Soyer" of his day), in formal philosophic style, beginning 'ab ovo' (v. 12.), and running through cabbages and tough hens, mushrooms and mulberries, shellfish, solids, wine, and sauces, whatever provokes appetite or promotes digestion.

They conclude (v. 76.) with reflections upon misplaced parsimony, and the neglect of (supposed) minor points, essential really to comfort and refinement.

SAT. V. On fortune-hunting. An imaginary dialogue between Ulysses and Tiresias, whose advice, we must suppose, represents the actual trickeries resorted to by the dependents of rich men and needy expectants of a legacy.

The methods exposed are presents (v. 11.), com: panionship (v. 17.), legal aid and advocacy (v. 27. sqq.), general suppleness and direct flattery.

Their usual success is described ; their occasional detection and rebuff is illustrated in the story of Nasica and Coranus (vv. 56–69.).

SAT. VI. This satire contains a graceful acknowledgment of patronage received, and a cheerful and contented description of the enjoyment of it. Incidentally, we are introduced to the round of employments which occupied the day at Rome; and, after a passing sketch of the poet's rise into public notice, the freedom and ease of retirement to the country seat is contrasted with them; and the moral iz supplied by the epilogue of the town and country

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Sat. VII.

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Davus, a slave, is here the speaker. He asks and obtains leave to retort upon his master his own doctrines.

He begins by arguing that the fickle, inconstant character is as worthless as the wholly unscrupulous.

Horace himself is then lectured as one who praises the 'good old times, yet loves the luxury of the modern (v. 23.); who loves the country when in town ; who hates parties when not invited out; but who, if invited, is off at a moment's notice (vv. 30—35.).

He is then compared with his own dependents whom he leaves in the lurch, and has abused for being discontented (v. 40.).

But he is open to a worse contrast; he is not merely on a level with Mulvius the parasite, but with Davus the bought slave (v. 43.).

The contrast in this part is too coarse to be dwelt on, but concludes (v. 68. sqq.) that he who, after warning or escape, hankers for vice, or is restrained only by circumstances, is as little upright as the thief who is kept from filching by publicity is honest. He is 'passion's slave," incapable of emancipation by any outward relief or change.

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“ Who then is free?" The question is finely answered (vv. 83–88.); and the sense may be expressed nearly in Hamlet's words:

“ One in suffering all that suffers nothing ;
A man that fortune's buffets and rewards

Hast ta’en with equal thanks.” The subject passes on presently to picture fancying (v. 95.), to the luxuries of the table (v. 102.), to their costliness (110.), to the miseries of restlessness (v. 112.), indolence, and ennui. Here the lecture (as if it touched on a sore point) is abruptly closed by the wrath of the listener.

SAT. VIII.

This is the account of a supper given by Nasidienus Rufus, a vain, rich gourmand. The narration is in the mouth of the comic poet Fundanius, who was among the guests. The entertainment appears to have been conspicuous for vulgar display; and the host's affected, and perhaps blundering, gastronomy is ridiculed throughout. Much of the description may be compared with the rules of the Fourth Satire.

SATIRES.

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