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ethnography and those of political geography coincide. The Greek state does not include the whole of the Greek nation, but it does include a considerable Albanian population in the western half of its territory north of the Morea. The whole population of Greece is about 2,200,000.1 The Albanian population on the northwest probably numbers 175,000 souls. On the other hand, the Turkish state in Europe contains part of the Greek nation, part of the South Slavic nation, and part of the Albanian nation ; the Greeks in the territory on the east and south, the Slavs in the middle, the Albanians. in the west, and the Turks thrown in between the Greeks and the Slavs. The proportion is, in the rough, 1,250,000 Greeks to 1,500,000 Slavs, 1,500,000 Turks, and 1,500,000 Albanians. Moreover, the Turkish state in Europe maintains a nominal suzerainty over a territory and population north of the natural boundary of this geographic division. This population is for the most part Slavic, and numbers nearly 4,000,000 of souls. It needs no argument to show that this state is in a very precarious condition by reason of its ethnical status, and that its political dissolution is only a question of a little time.

In our sixth division the lines of physical and political geography fairly coincide. The kingdom of Sweden-Norway is separated from other states by broad bodies of water on all sides except across the neck of the peninsula, where it is separated from Russia, for the most part, only by the insig. nificant streams of the Tornea and the Tana. The superficial area of the two kingdoms is 294,184 square miles, of which 170,979 lie in Sweden and 123,205 in Norway. The population of this state is almost exclusively North Teutonic or Scandinavian; but about 25,000 Finns and Lapps occupy a broad strip of its territory, extending from the neck to the

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1 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 325, 538. 2 Ibid. p. 538; Andree, Geographisches Handbuch, S. 790. 8 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, p. 538. 4 Ibid. pp. 496, 507.

crotch of the peninsula, and separating the Teutonic population into an east and west branch. So influential has this condition been in the political development of this people as to make the political system of this state bipartite, or at least to aid in making it so. Moreover, not all the northern branch of the continental Teutons are resident within the kingdom of Sweden-Norway. The Danes must, I think, be classed ethnologically with the Swedes and Norwegians. The population of Sweden-Norway is now nearly 7,000,000.1

In our seventh division the lines both of political geography and of ethnography diverge from that of physical geography. The territory of the German Empire, measuring 211,135 square miles, covers the most of it; but the states of Denmark, Luxemburg and Switzerland, about three-fourths of Holland, about one-fourth of the Austrian Empire and some 15,000 or 20,000 square miles of Russian territory lie within it.2 On the other hand, a part of the German Empire lies outside of this division, viz; East Prussia, i.e. Prussia beyond the Vistula, some 15,000 square miles in area. The ethnographic and politico-geographic lines diverge almost as widely. The German empire fails on the northwest, south and southeast to comprehend the entire German nation; while on the east and northeast it includes a considerable Slavic population. There are thus no natural boundaries etween the German Empire and Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, Austria and Russia. The German Empire has now a population of nearly 50,000,000 of souls. Of these about 3,000,000 are Slavs, about 3,000,000 are Walloons and French, about 160,000 are Lithuanians, and about 150,000 are Scandinavian Teutons. About 44,000,000 therefore are Germans. Denmark has a population of something over 2,000,000, nearly all North Teutonic. That part of Holland included within this division is inhabited by about 3,500,000 persons, nearly all Germans. That part of Switzerland included in this division has a population of 2,000,000, four-fifths German and the other one-fifth French. Lastly, about 14,000,000 of the subjects of the Austrian Empire and about 3,000,000 of the subjects of the Russian Empire are resident within this seventh division of Europe's physical geography.1

1 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 496, 507.

2 Denmark has an area of 14,124 square miles; Luxemburg, of 998; Holland, 12,648, about one-fourth of which lies in our third physical division ; Switzerland, 15,892, about 500 square miles of which lies in our fourth physical division. Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 23, 58, 117, 377, 378, 439, 521.

In our eighth division the lines of political geography are again greatly divergent from those of physical geography and ethnography. About two-thirds of the Austrian Empire, the whole of Servia, and those Turkish provinces assigned by the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 to Austrian administration, vis; Bosnia, Hertzegovina and Novi Bazar lie within it. should make the parallel of latitude from Kronstadt in the eastern angle of the Carpathians to the Black Sea a part of the boundary of this division instead of following the curves of the Carpathians, which I hardly think so correct scientifically, then would this division contain also that part of Rumania originally named Wallachia and the Turkish autonomic province of Bulgaria. On the other hand, about one-third of the Austrian Empire lies outside of this division. That is to say, the larger part of the Austrian Empire - all of it lying to the south of the Noric Alps and the Carpathians — is geographically united with Servia, Bosnia and Hertzegovina, and geographically separated from that part of its territory lying to the north, northwest and northeast of these ranges. The Austrian Empire has an area of 240,942 square miles, of which about 51,695 lie in our seventh physical division, and about 30,307 in the ninth. Servia has an area of 18,750; Bosnia, 16,417; Hertzegovina, 4,308 ; Novi Bazar, 3,522; Bulgaria, 24, 360; Wallachia, 27,500.2 In the second place, the political boundaries within this division do not correspond any more nearly with those of ethnography. The western and northwestern parts of the Austrian Empire are inhabited by Germans, to the number of about 8,500,000 souls; the northern, northeastern and southwestern parts by Slavs, to the number of about 13,000,000; the eastern by Rumans and Magyars, to the number of about 3,500,000; and the middle and southern parts by Hungarians, to the number of about 12,000,000. About 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 more of these different nationalities are scattered throughout these different parts so as to make a mixture of all these elements in greater or less degree in each of these parts. Servia, Bosnia, Hertzegovina and Novi Bazar are pretty thoroughly South Slavic. The population of Servia must number at this date about 2,000,000; that of Bosnia, Hertzegovina and Novi Bazar about the same. The South Slavic race also makes up about two-thirds of the population of Bulgaria; the other one-third is for the most part Turkish. Taken together, we may count them, at present, for about 2,000,000 souls. Finally the state of Rumania in both of its original parts, viz; Moldavia and Wallachia, is mostly national Rumanian, with a Turkish population on the southeast border.1

If we

1 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 23, 58, 117, 378, 439, 521. 2 Ibid. pp. 23, 407, 463, 538, 546.

Our ninth physical division is covered almost entirely by the territory of the great Russian Empire in Europe, to the vast extent of 2,095,504 square miles. Only about 15,000 or 20,000 square miles of this immense territory lie outside of this division, viz; a strip on the western boundary, which must be reckoned in the seventh division. On the other hand, I think the state of Rumania, about 48,000 square miles in area, the principality of Bulgaria, 24, 360 square miles in area and about 15,000 square miles of the territory of Prussia, should fall within this division. The lines of political geography and ethnography are still more divergent. Russia in Europe has a population of more than 90,000,000 of souls. About 70,000,000 or more of these belong to the Slavic race or nation. They inhabit the centre of the Empire, and reach nearly to the circumference on all sides; but on the western limit there are about 2,000,000 Teutons, 3,000,000 Jews, 2,500,000 Lithuanians and 1,000,000 Tschuds; on the northern about 2,000,000 Finns; on the eastern about 1,500,000 Finns, 2,000,000 Tartars and 100,000 Kalmucks; and on the southern about 2,000,000 Caucasians, 1,000,000 Tartars and 700,000 Rumans. The population of Rumania is almost wholly national Ruman, and numbers about 5,500,000 souls ; that of Bulgaria is about 2,000,000 of souls, of whom twothirds are South Slavs, and the remainder for the most part Turks.

1 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 23, 407, 463, 538. 2 Ibid. pp. 117, 407, 440, 546.

Finally, when we turn to North America again, we find a very

different set of relations between political and physical geography and ethnography from those obtaining in Europe. In the first place, the United States occupies about all of this territory that is well fitted for the geographical basis of a great state. Its area, excluding Alaska, is about 3,000,000 of square miles.

It stretches over the second, third and fifth physical division of the continent, ignoring the natural separation of its domain into three parts by the Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains, and recognizing the boundaries of climate rather than those of mountain ranges. In the second place, the population of the United States, numbering some 63,000,000 of souls, is far more cosmopolitan than that of any European state. As I have already indicated under Div. II of this chapter, its base is English ; but it has become amalgamated in more or less degree with German and Celtic elements, so that of the 63,000,000 hardly more than 29,000,000 can be regarded as pure American, as I have elsewhere shown. Moreover, Romanic elements have entered into the

1 See page 18.

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