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IIO

III

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II2

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123, 124

PART II. COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

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175-177
196

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6. All appropriations of money shall be made by law

197

c. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just

compensation

197

Due process of law in exercising the right of eminent domain

explained

198

2. Procedure in the exercise of the power of taxation .

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a. Taxes on exports from Commonwealths forbidden

198

b. Direct taxes shall be levied in proportion to the population 199

c. The rate of taxation shall be uniform.

199

d. The general government may not tax the necessary governmental

instrumentalities of the Commonwealths

199

3. Immunities against judicial procedure

199

a. General search warrants prohibited

6. Trial by jury

c. Billeting of soldiers on citizens regulated

Implied exceptions .

B. Immunities against the Commonwealths.

I. Personal Immunities.

1. No “state ” shall pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, 201, 202

2. Slavery and involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime

abolished.

Interpretation of the XIII Amendment

203

The social incidents of involuntary servitude not affected thereby 204

Enumeration of the civil incidents that are abolished

205

Two avenues of approach to the civil immunity

205

(a) Apprenticeship laws

205

Doctrine of Turner's Case

206

(6) As a punishment for crime

3. The XIV Amendment.

Necessity therefor.

Analysis of the XIV Amendment

a. No “state" shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property

without due process of law, or deny to any person within its

jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws .

208

Civil Rights Acts of 1870 and 1875

209

Interpretation by the Supreme Court: "state" defined

“Person,” “life,” “ liberty ”

“Due process of law" defined

211, 212

The XIV Amendment does not interfere with the police power

of the Commonwealths — doctrine of Barbier v. Connolly 213

“ Police power" defined

213

Etymology and history of the term

214, 215

Principles governing the police power in modern political

science

• Equal protection of the laws" defined

217

6. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the

privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States 218

Who are citizens of the United States

218

History of the term

219

Citizenship of the United States is conferred by the constitution

of the United States

219

Confusion of thought on this subject .

220

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