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same objects. This, like the bill empowering The accident and sickness insurance bill, in the Imperial Government to acquire all the the form in wbich it was first laid before the German railroads, was rejected; the Reichstag Reichstag in the previous session, proposed objecting to them because they would great that the Imperial Government should insure ly increase the patronage of the Government the work-people, and the employers and comand its influence in elections; also, because munes provide the premiums. The existing these monopolies would place under the control law of employers' liability required masters of the executive the machinery for raising a to provide the means for caring for employés large part of the revenue, and the power of in- injured in their service without fault of their creasing it at will; although its expenditure own. It was ineffective, on account of the would still depend on the vote of the Reichs- difficulty of proving that an accident is not tag, the effect would be to free the Govern- due to a workman's own negligence. The inment still more from parliamentary control. surance companies were accused of overcharg. The Government would, moreover, by the con- ing and defrauding the working-people. The trol of the railway system, have power to favor bill was opposed by a large majority of the or coerce individuals, towns, and districts. The Reichstag, on the grounds that Government command of the Prussian railroads already insurance would ruin the existing companies, places it in the power of the central authorities that it would reduce the working-men to tbe to bring pressure on the other lines, and, as condition of pensioners and destroy their inthe Prussian budget makes an excellent show- dependence, and that it would place great ing for state management, there is a prospect powers of coercion and interference in the of the eventual accomplishment of the railroad hands of the agents of the Government. The scheme. In the session of 1883 Prince Bis- bills were withdrawn and remolded, and when marck asked for an accession to the sources of again laid before the Reichstag in the session revenue in the shape of timber-duties. It was of 1882-'83, were freed of the feature of Gov. opposed by the wood-working industries, and ernment administration. The new bills proafter an excited contest the bill was rejected, posed that insurance should be undertaken by only by the temporary defection of the Polish the existing companies, trade-guilds, and comdeputies from the Center.

munal institutions. It was proposed that the À favorite scheme of the German Chancel- state should furnish part of the premiums. lor for rendering the Government finances in a This share was to be one fourth, another measure independent of the exigencies of party fourth was to be assessed on the employers politics was to induce the Reichstag to vote and presumably paid out of their profits, and the budget biennially. The Liberal Opposition the remaining one half was to be estopped has been weakened and divided by his parlia- from the wages of the workmen and likewise mentary policy to such an extent that there collected from the employers. Accident-inwas not the material in the present Reichstag surance was made obligatory on all employed to resist the Emperor's appeal. To escape the in mines, factories, and other industrial estabnecessity of voting the budget for two years, lishments, on railroads, and by steamship and yet show becoming respect for the wishes companies. In the case of an accident, the of the Emperor, the deputies took up the sick workman was to be a charge on the sick-inand accident insurance bills. But in the end, surance fund for the first three months, and by the aid of the Clericals, who were concili- then, if the disability continued, the charge ated by the modification of the May laws, the would be transferred to the accident-insurance supplies for two years were submissively grant- fund. There was bitter opposition to both ed. As soon as the budget was forced through, bills. The clauses making insurance compulthe Emperor closed the session, June 12th. It sory and laying part of the burden on the Imwas the longest on record, having opened perial Government, were especially obnoxions April 27, 1882.

to the believers in the traditional doctrines of The first fruit of the high tariff, in the way political economy. The scruples of those who of relief for the poorer classes, was the abo- were alarmed at the socialistic features of the lition of the two lowest categories of the class. project were met by the argument that the tax in Prussia. The Prussian Diet declined to bills form part of a series of projects which grant Prince Bismarck's demand for an aug, would take the place of all other pauper legismentation of the excise duties, which he de- lation. It was a matter of imperial concern to clared necessary in default of the tobacco mo- legislate for the extinction of pauperism, which nopoly, and for the exemption of all incomes is usually the result of sickness or accident. below $300, but abolished the class-tax on By helping to tide the workman over periods incomes below $215, whereas previously all of incapacity, and enabling him to retain his households whose annual incomes exceeded position as a self-supporting member of so$100 were liable to the class-tax-that is, the ciety, the state would relieve the commones tax on incomes between $100 and $750. which have already to support the indigent Nearly 3,750,000 persons, or about one fifth and helpless by the poor-rates. In support of of those subject to this tax, were relieved.*

nearly 68 per cent, belonged to housebolds with incomes fall* According to the returns of 1881, 80 per cent of the ing within the class-tax, and only 23 per cent, had over $750 population of Prussia had less than $100 of annual income, income.

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the clause compelling employers to provide a Retirement of Parllamentary Leaders.—During part of the premium, the preventive effect of the debates on the church bill Herr von Bensuch a provision was urged. It would impel nigsen, leader of the National-Liberal party employers, whose neglect is the frequent from its foundation, discouraged by the mancause of accident and sickness, to employ pre- ner in which Prince Bismarck treated him and cautions for the safety and health of their his party after he lost their support and by employés. The alternative proposal of vol- differences with the remnant of the great party untary insurance would fail altogether, be- who still followed his lead, resigned his seats cause the working-people could not save the in the Reichstag and Prussian Landtag and premiums out of their wages, and the employ- retired from political life. Only a few months ers would not voluntarily contribute. By the before, Eduard Lasker, the other great Liberal opponents of the bills it was argued that the leader, had laid down his mandate and permaeffect of the state subsidy and assessment on nently retired. the employers would simply be to reduce Prussia and the Vatican.—Just before the close wages by so much. The fate of the measures of the session the Prussian Minister of Worship, depended on the course which the Center Von Gossler, introduced in the Landtag a bill party would take. With them the objections relaxing the May laws, which embodied the against the accident insurance bill prevailed, concessions that the Government was willing and the subsidy provision was stricken out. to make for the reliof of the spiritual deprivaThe bill was consequently withdrawn, to be tions of the Catholic population. The bill, presented again in the following session. The which was passed by a majority of 224 Consick-insurance bill received their support, and servatives and Clericals to 107 Liberals and was carried by a majority rarely got together Free Conservatives, fell short of the demands in the present divided and distracted state of of the Vatican, but in the minds of the Liberthe popular representation, showing the co- als imported nothing less than the penitential gency of the various motives which actuate pilgrimage to Canossa. In the negotiations the different parties to approve legislation for with the Curia since the re-establishment of the benefit of the “poor man." The vote was diplomatic relations, the fundamentally differ216 to 99, the two Vonservative fractions, the ent principles of the Prussian state and the Center, the National - Liberals, the People's Papacy could not be harmonized so as to afford party, and eleven Secessionists, voting in the the basis of an agreement, but a modus vivendi affirmative, and the Progressists, most of the was equally desired on both sides. On Dec. 3d, members of the Liberal Union, and the Social- 1882, the Pope wrote to the Emperor William, Democrats, in the negative. The Liberals ac- expressing his satisfaction at the reopening of cuse the Chancellor of venting his antipathy diplomatic intercourse by the return of the against the trading and manufacturing classes Prussian legation to Rome. The Emperor's in his legislative programme, which imposes reply, sent December 22d, expressed the hope many new burdens on them, while it relieves that such a conciliatory step would be met by the land-owning and farming classes of a part concessions showing a like disposition on the of their burdens. They made it a condition of Pope's part, and intimated that, if the Vatican their adherence to the sick-insurance project would agree to notify the civil authorities of that its provisions should be extended to agriecclesiastical appointments, the Government cultural laborers. An amendment to this effect would feel encouraged to move in the matter was added, but at the last hour it was rejected, of recasting the legislation which is necessary and the bill passed in almost the original shape. to protect the rights of the state which are

Cabinet Changes-Surprise and a degree of assailed when it has to sustain a contest with dissatisfaction were felt at the removals, with the Church. The Pope replied, January 30th, in a few days of each other, of the chiefs of offering a concession, viz., that the bishops the war and naval ministries, who had held should thenceforward be permitted to give notheir posts for ten years. The retirement of tice to the Prussian Government of new apGen. von Kameke was due to a difference be- pointments of cures, without waiting for the tween him and the Emperor. The Progressist revision of the ecclesiastical laws, imposing, deputies would only agree to an augmentation however, the condition that the revision should of military pensions on the condition that offi- be extended to the laws which impede the excers should be subject to direct taxation the ercise of ecclesiastical duties and the training same as civilians. The Minister of War was of the clergy. The immediate object of the willing to accept the compromise, but the negotiations was to supply pastors to the nuEmperor William insisted on perpetuating the merous parishes which had long been bereft invidious privilege. A disagreement with the of all cure of souls, an evil and a scandal which Chancellor is said to have led to the resigna- the Government had stronger motives for remetion of Baron von Stosch. It was expected dying than the Pope. The points in controthat the place would be filled this tiine by a versy involved the three main provisions of naval officer, but the Emperor's predilection for the Falk laws, which formed the subject-matthe military profession had again to be grati- ter of the three principal acts: 1. That the ecfied by the appointment of an infantry general clesiastical dignitaries should advise the proto the direction of the navy.

vincial authorities of all appointments to eccle

siastical posts. 2. That disciplinary authority Clause 4 provides that the Government authorities over priests should be exercised solely by Ger. shall continue to be entitled to oppose the appoint

ment of any candidate who shall appear to be unfit mans. 3. That education in a German school

for an ecclesiastical office on account of his civil or and university and a state examination were political position, or whose education has not been essential to qualify a person for the discharge completed according to the prescribed laws. The of clerical functions. A note from Cardinal reasons for opposing the appointment of a candidate Jacobini to Herr von Schlözer, Prussian envoy

are always to be given, and the Church authorities

will be allowed to appeal against this decision to the to the Vatican, explained the position taken Minister of Public Worship, who represents the highby the Curia. The Prussian Government in est Court of Appeal, reply, May 5th, expressed willingness to agree Clause 5 enacts that the holy sacraments can be adto the appointment of vicars without notifica- ministered by missionary priests in all vacant parishes,

e as well as in those where the priests have been forbidtion, while requiring it for the priests who are

are den to conduct religious services, under the May laws. appointed to a parish connected with a bene- And clause 6 repeals all former legislation which is fice, so that the Church would be enabled to contrary to the above five clauses. provide for the reading of the mass and the The bill was passed with the exception of administration of the sacraments independently the fourth clause. The ecclesiastical courts of the Government, the only requirements be- which administered the veto power over eccleing that the officiating priests should be native siastical appointments had been the subject of Germans who have received the legally pre continual reproaches from the Clericals. The scribed education. The Government promised transfer of its jurisdiction to the Ministry of a revision of the May laws, and agreed to re- Worship was not, however, looked upon in the nounce the right to forbid the appointment of light of a concession by the adherents of the priests, but insisted that the Pontiff should first Vatican, though satisfaction was expressed concede the right of notification, deeming it a with regard to the main provisions of the act. point of honor that he should grant the right The Pork Question. The prohibition of Amerwhich is conceded to other governments. The ican pork products raised a subject of dissatisonly answer made to the demand of the Pope faction and controversy between Germany and to have the education of young priests placed the United States. (See Pork, PROHIBITION OF under the direction of the bishops was that AMERICAN.) In April the Chancellor chose to the Government had already shown much com- take offense at a dispatch from Minister Sarpliance with regard to state examinations of gent to the Government at Washington, in

idates and the opening of priests' semina- which the motive for the interdict was stated ries. The Vatican returned an unfavorable to be, not fear of trichinosis, but tbe protecanswer. The Government, instead of pursu- tion of German hog-growers. Reflections were ing the negotiations in which it continually made also on the lack of harmony between Gerlost ground, seized the opportunity to execute man public opinion and the Government. This one of the sudden strokes for which Prince confidential dispatch was reproduced from a Bismarck is famous, interrupting the negotia New York paper in the North-German Ga

3 by the proposal in the Diet of the new zette," and the American minister was angrily ecclesiastical law, and thus endeavoring to cov

attacked. An apology was afterward offered, er its retreat by an assumption of independence. with comments on the indiscretion of the AmerThe bill embodied larger concessions than were ican Government in publishing confidential disoffered in the note of May 5th. The parishes patches. of which tbe patronage was in the hands of the Spanish Treaty.-In the latter part of August Government were already provided with priests the members of the Reichstag were startled by under the laws of July 14, 1880, and May 31, a summons to an extraordinary session. When 1882. The present act removed all responsi- they assembled on August 29th, it was exbility from the Government for the lack of spir- plained to be for the purpose of ratifying the itual ministrations in the remaining parishes treaty of commerce with Spain. The Emperor of which the bishops have the patronage. The had signed it provisionally, expecting to ask bill consisted of six clauses :

from Parliament, when it met regularly, an act The first and most important clause enacts that the of indemnity for this divergence from constibishops shall no longer be required to notify to the tutional forms. But organs of the press called Government authorities the names of those candidates in question the right of the Government to for the priestly office whose appointments can uncon

act as it had done, and the applicability of the ditionally be canceled, or who are only appointed as substitutes or delegates. The bishops will thus be principle of indemnity recognized in other enabled at once to provide the vacant parishes with states to the Imperial Constitution. The Prochaplains, vicars, adjuncts, etc., without any previous gressists assailed the Government for the violanotification to the Government. By clause 2. how

tion of the Constitution, but the majority simever, this concession is not to extend to the cases of

ply approved the treaty and the fisheries conthose priests who are intrusted with the administration of parishes.

vention, and the Reichstag was then prorogued. Clause 3 declares that the Ecclesiastical Court is no The treaty runs until June 30, 1887. longer the highest tribunal of appeal for the clergy The most important concession made by Geragainst the decisions of the Government authorities in

many is the reduction of her dock dues from matters regarding the appointment of candidates, the discipline in clerical seminaries, or episcopal rights in

forty to ten marks, and of her customs duties vacant dioceses.

on southern fruits, fresh grapes, olive-oil, chocolate, raisins, etc. She has further promised notes of alarm on the same subject, one of not to raise her duties on wine, with one ex- which was uttered earlier in the year, imme

ception, rye, and other articles. Spain defi. diately after Signor Mancini's announcement · nitely fixed her duties on several articles of of the triple alliance in the Italian Parliament,

import, especially spiritnous liquors and spirits, the time was chosen when there seemed to be iron and steel wire, and rails.

the least occasion for it. It had the appearCopyright Treaty.- A copyright treaty between ance, therefore, of a menace, and did not fail France and Germany was concluded April 19th, to give offense to the sensitive French people. This convention replaces the former ones be. The appointment of King Alfonso to the bonortween France and single German states. An ary colonelcy of the regiment garrisoned in author obtains under this treaty all the rights Strasburg excited the Parisians to the demonof native authors, except as to the duration of strations at the station which Alfonso was subthe copyright, which must not exceed that ac- jected to on his return from Germany. The corded in his own country. Manuscripts, as German press called upon the Government to well as published works, are protected. Pub- take up the insult, but Prince Bismarck was lishers can obtain copyrights. The rights ex- careful not to provoke the French popular tend to musical compositions, works of art, temper too far. The attendance of King Aletc., and can be secured by the heirs, assigns, fonso of Spain, and King Milan of Servia, beand legal representatives of the author. Copy- sides the King of Saxony, the Crown Prince righted literary productions can be drawn from of Portugal, and the Prince of Wales, as the in the preparation of school-books or of works guests of the Einperor at the autumn manæuof a scientific character. The restriction of the vres, which began September 14th, was among reproduction of articles from newspapers and the indications of the supreme influence of periodicals to publications of the same class Bismarck and his peace policy in Europe. and the obligation to cite the source of a re- Alsace-Lorraine.—The imperial province was production are not continued in the new trea- agitated more than usual, in 1883, by the lanty. According to French law, every use of a guage question. The deputies in the Reichstag melody without the permission of the com- kept up their attitude of opposition. In Auposer is illegal, but the German principle was gust, the lieutenant-general, Marshal Manteufretained in the treaty, which requires only that fel, called forth indignant protests by refusing a composition should have distinguishing char- perinission to one of them, M. Antoine, to acteristics, though an unauthorized arrange- start a French journal in Metz. The order ment of an air is forbidden. Public presenta- that discussions in municipal councils should tions of musical or dramatic compositions with be conducted in German was followed a few out authority are made actionable. An author months after by an attempt to banish French preserves the right of translation for ten years from the schools. The four hours a week if he has a translation published in either coun- which were devoted to the teaching of French try within three years, otherwise he can not were reduced to two. restrain the publication of a translation in the Inundations.-In November and December, other country. Authors of musical and dra- 1882, the Rhine and its tributaries, the Main matic productions also retain exclusive rights and the Moselle, rose above the highest floodof translation for the same periods. No regis- mark recorded in the century. Between Cotration or other formality is required to secure logne and Coblenz the plains were entirely anthors' rights. The convention is binding on submerged, and many towns and villages inunboth governments for six years, and then re- dated, among them the city of Coblenz. Below mains in force until one year after a notice of that place inany houses crumbled down. T'he repeal has been received from either party. waters subsided about the middle of Decein

Relations with Franee.—The continuance of the ber, but a week or two later heavy rains fell Austro-German alliance, which was said to be and the waters rose to a higher point than bein danger of breaking off, was confirmed by the fore. The rise was so rapid as to cause a large annual meeting of the Emperors at Ischl, and loss of life. Nearly all the towns and villages by other convincing signs. The influence of on the lowlands of the Rhine valley were Prince Bismarck was seen to prevail in Europe under water. In seven villages alone 400 to an extent which excited the susceptibilities buildings fell in. Near Carlsruhe a bridge of the French. Not only was Italy's under- fell, precipitating 20 persons into the river, standing with the allied empires admitted by and on the Bailen state railroad a derailed the Italian Minister of the Exterior and the train plunged into the water, drowning several Hungarian Premier in public announcements, passengers. A boat capsized and drowned 28 but the Spanish commercial treaty, the visit of peasants who had just been rescued from their King Alfonso to the Emperor, and the return houses. In Mayence, soldiers were employed visit of the Crown Prince, showed that Spain night and day in constructing protective emalso had gravitated toward the league of peace. bankments, and bridges for the escape of the In September the German Chancellor, in the citizens in case these gave way. A lake, five “North-German Gazette," the official organ, miles broad, formed between Wesel and Emraised a warning cry against France as the merich. In Frankenthal, 6,000 people were disturbing influence in Europe. Like similar driven from their homes. The distress was

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