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D. E. Gardner, Toledo, Lucas county.
E F. Drake, Xenia, Greene county. Mr. Klippart introduced the subject of crop statistics, comparing our own facil. ities for obtaining correct data with those of other nations, and speaking of the deception practiced by speculators, which he thought might be avoided by united action on the part of agriculturists. His remarks were founded upon the following extract from the Cincinnati Gazette of May 30th, 1860.
Respecting crop prospects, the Cincinnati Gazette of Wednesday remarks:
“The season has advanced sufficiently to enable us to arrive at a tolerably re. liable conclusion as to the prospects of the growing wheat crop. In the South, where the season is considerably earlier than in this latitude, the harvest will, unquestionably, prove unfavorable. Things are now too far advanced to admit of the hope of any change for the better. If Kentucky produces half an average crop, it will be all that those who are pretty well informed anticipate. In Georgia, Alabama and Tenạessee, the deficit will be still greater. In many portions of those States the crop is almost an entire failure, and in no section is the yield likely to reach one-half an average.
“In Obio and Indiana, there will be fair but not large crops. This State will probably do better than Indiana, but neither will reach an average. The aggre. gate product, however, will be larger than last year. Missouri will do badly. In Illinois, Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota, very good crops are promised. Pennsylvania promises much better than last year, and in New York the prospects are fair. Upon the whole, therefore, we shall, no accident or disaster occurring between this time and barvest, have a larger yield of wheat in the Northern States than last year or the year before; while in the South there will be a heavy deficiency. This deficit in the South will have to be made up mainly from the Central West. It has for a month past had a very decided influence upon prices in this market. It may be said, indeed, to have saved holders of flour here from heavy losses.
“ Throughout the next season a market will be found in the South for a large amount of Obio and Indiana flour. So much for wheat. As regards corn, the farmers have done their part well. The foundation bas been laid for a very full crop. It is safe to say that the amount of ground occupied is larger than in any previous year. Two wet ks, or even one week ago, the growing prospects were
not flattering in many sections, owing to the dry weather, but within the last week the drought has been effectually broken, and the plants are now looking thrifty. Some replanting had to be done, but this labor was not as heavy as the average of ordinary years. The yield, of course, will depend upon the character of the season hereafter. All that can be said now is, that the prospects are decidedly favorable for a large crop. With reference to other grains, we are not prepared to speak at present, further than to say we have not noticed any general complaint "
Mr. Klippart further said: Under this newspaper cry of short growing crops which, for aught the farmers or anybody else knows, may or may not be well founded, breadstuffs, it appears, have gone up. But not much perhaps of last year's crop is now in first hands, and the rise comes therefore just in time to do the farmer no good; it benefits the middle man.
We may observe from the scope of these newspaper remarks that it is not only the farmer in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, etc., that is interested in knowing the actual promise of the growing grain crop, but the planter in the Southern States is equally interested.
Observe how confidently it is stated that Kentucky may consider herself as doing well if she produce balf a grain crop; that in Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee, the deficit will be still greater; while Ohio and Indiana, though they may do better, yet in neither will the husbandmen reap an average crop.
It may be well to ask whence this writer derives his information ; upon what data are bis estimates, calculations and statements made, and where are they ? The farmers are, or ought to be, interested enough in the matter to see that the information upon which the price is set upon the annual fruits of their labor comes from reliable sources. Among all the schemes of the day for benefitting the farmer, cannot some plan be devised for keeping him posted up as to the prospects of the growing crops and the state of them after harvest ?
In this connection, Mr. Klippart called the attention of the Convention to the importance of preparing for the World's Fair, to be held in London during the month of May, 1862, and proposed that such steps would be taken by the Convention as would secure to Ohioans an opportunity of exhibiting and competing at that Fair in the most effective and economical manner.
Mr. Berry. of Wyandot county, moved to appoint a committee to report on the subject introduced by Mr. Klippart.
Mr. Stiers, of Hocking, moved an amendment, that the committee report this afternoon.
Mr. McCarty thought that immediate actiốn was necessary. The Fair was to be held in May, 1862; whatever was proposed to be accomplished must be done at once. Motion carried.
The Chuir appointed Messrs. J. H. Klippart, C. Berry, W. B. McCarty, M. Stiers, and M. Reynolds.
The following is their report, which was adopted :
The committee to whom was referred the proposition submitted by J. H. Klippart, for a system of monthly reports of crops, respectfully recommend that the Corresponding Secretary of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture be instructed by the State Board to prepare a suitable blank embracing the condition of crops, as well as all manner of agricultural products, to be forwarded to the several Secretaries of County Societies, whose duty it shall be to fill said blanks with the proper information requested in the blank, and return it to the Secretary of the State Board.
The information solicited shall be-
And that the Corresponding Secretary of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture be requested to make an abstract from the data acquired by the returned reports, with a statement of the exports from the State, in the Ohio Farmer and Ohio Cultivator.
We cheerfully recommend to the Convention the propriety of instructing the State Board to take efficient steps to collect samples of the various agricultural products of the State, to be exhibited at the World's Fair in London in 1862.
J. H. KLIPPART,
Mr. McMillen, of Greene, then read the following questions, prepared by the State Board, in accordance with a res s'ution passed at their previous meeting:
1. What is the most profitable kind of sheep for farmers ?
2. What class of horses is most needed to answer the wants of the farmer and the public generally ? and by what system or mode of breeding can they be most certainly and readily obtained ?
3. What is the best method of feeding cattle for market, embracing the following topics : At what age should feeding commence? Wbat kind of food, and how prepared ? The best age for selling ? The whole to be considered with reference to profit to the farmer.
4. Wbat are the external indications of soil requiring lime as a manure ? 5. What are the external indications of soil requiring plaster as a manure ?
6. What manure, or combination of manures to be applied as a top dressing, will most effectually prevent bitter rot, and other diseases in our fruits ?
7. Are the Agricultural statistics of Ohio taken at such a time of the year, and with such care and competency as to insure their correctness? If not, under what circumstances, and at what time should they be obtained so as to make them reliable ?
8. What new feature, if any, should be introduced in the management of agricultural exhibitions ?
9. What has heretofore been tolerated or encouraged which should be excluded from agricultural exbibitions ?
Mr. Conard, of Highland, moved that the first question be discussed. Carried.
Mr. Gardner, of Lucas, made a few remarks upon the importance of sheep culture, and called on Dr. Townshend.
Dr. Townshend, of Lorain, had supposed Mr. Gardner was ready to make a speech. Had kept sheep for twenty-five years, and was not prepared to settle the question. It was not settled in his own mind. His father's flock of sheep were Cotswolds. Of late, however, we are going back to Leicesters again. Land with us is too high priced to devote to growing fine wools ; hence we raise meat and grain for market. Our flock averages about six pounds of wool per head, and this sells at from twenty-five to forty cents per pound, averages perhaps thirty-three cents. We sell our wethers at from two to three years old, and have received as much as $16 per head for those that would dress forty pounds to the quarter, when it was worth ten cents per pound in New York. Frequently sell mutton for from $5 to $10. The wool brings about as much per fleece as fine wool. Leicester sheep make excellent mutton. Lincolns and Cotswolds are rather large and coarse fleshed. Found a demand for Leicester bucks, but in crossing with Cotswolds, have got too large size. My opinion is, that for North ern Ohio, the Leicesters are better than any other. Southdowns give fine mutton, but less of it, and has less fleece than any other. No sheep keeps well on hay alone, but all sheep pay for shelter and grain in winter.
Mr. Palmer, of Geauga, said he had an experience of twenty-seven years in wool growing. He commenced with Spanish Merino sheep, descended from the Wells & Dickinson flock, and goes on the principle of raising those sheep that will give the greatest yield of fine wool to the acre. I selected my first flock of ewes with especial reference to constitutional vigor, and crossed them with pure Silesian bucks. The result was, they yielded me four pounds and two ounces per head of clean wool. I raised no other. It is not fair to sell dirt for wool, and then say your sheep averaged so much wool. This year I sheared four hundred sheep, that yielded five pounds, worth fifty cents per pound. Large sheep cannot be herded in such numbers as small ones without deteriorating in size. His experiments with the French Merino sheep have satisfied him that they are not the most profitable sheep. His Spanish and Silesian sheep gave twenty-five per cent. more profit than sheep raised from the largest ewes, crossed with one of Mr. Bingham's best French Merino bucks. He is decidedly in favor of fine wool, and of a cross between Silesian and Spanish Merinos.
Mr. Hunt, of Clark, called for the experience of Mr. Chamberlain.
Mr. Chamberlain, of Clark. I am a young breeder, have been breeding Spanish Merinos for a number of years. Think they have more constitution, will bear more exposure, and flock together better than any other breed. I have flocked Long.wools and French Merinos with the Spanish, and found the latter always the best. My sixty head averages six and three-fourths pounds per head. I pasture my ewes on rye at the season of lambing, and like the practice.
Mr. McMillen, of Greene, What is the expense of keeping sheep ?
Mr. Chamberlain. Could not form an estimate of the expense. His were productive. He had one lamb to each ewe every year. This year he had more than one lamb to a ewe.
Mr. Quinn, of Columbiana. With him fine wool had been a failure. He kept the Spanish and Cotswold breeds, and the latter took on three pounds of flesh to one for the former. They are very quiet, eat, and lie down, while the fine wools roam about the field to see what they can find, and thus work off their food. Gets about twice as much for a Cotswold wether as for a Merino, and is not insulted when he takes them to market. At five months old his long wooled lambs weigh more than fine wool sheep ever weigh. in
Mr. Palmer, of Geauga. Can you keep as many to the acre as of fine wool ? Mr. Quinn thought he could.
Mr. Palmer thought he could keep three fine wooled sheep where he could keep but one coarse wooled sheep.
Mr. Quinn. I think coarse wool worth more than farmers generally get for it. Sold his for 45 cents. Was of the opinion that coarse-wooled were twice as profitable as fine wooled sheep.
Mr. Easton, of Huron. Those who can make the most by raising wool, should grow fine wool. Those who can make the most by mutton should raise coarse