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LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 3, 1889. though it reappears in another Arabian version,

viz., the 'Story of the Fisherman's Son,' in the CONTENTS.-No 158.

Wortley Montagu MS. of The Nights '*- & NOTES :- Aladdin's Lamp. 1-The 'Ars Moriendi' Block second talisman was necessary to the hero for two Book. 2_Dickens and Figaro in London,' 3-Notes on

purposes : (1) to enable him to escape from the Epictetus-Queenie-Colt, Coltes-Reverend and ReverentBush, 4 - Londonshire - Flies and Wolves - Taco-Casa cave by means of the slave of the ring; and (2) to novian&— Curious Etymology-Hampole's Version of the Psalms, 5-Pope's Vision - Mediæval Names - European

his royal bride, carried away by order of the Women among Savages-Sheffield Plate-Marriage, 6.

magician as soon as he had exchanged " new lamps QUERIES :-John Bunyan-Monody on Henderson'-Bir A.

; for old " very advantageously. The slave of the Hart-Great Seal of Katherine Parr - Monte Video-Bishops of Norwich-Longitude and Marriage, 7-"A cool hundred " -Polydore Vergil - Death Warrant of Charles I.-Cross

But the great blunder is, that the genie is sumTree - The Sorbonne-"A laity with a strong backbone"Soapstone Figures -- Medal Portraits -Water-marks-W. moned (like him of the ring) by rubbing the lamp; Fielding. 8 Betham-Altar Inscriptions Vertue-Mill's | while Aladdin found it burning in the cave, and * Logic - Capt. Marryat-Beveridge-Baptist May- Authors Wanted, 9.

had, of course, to extinguish the light in order to

carry it away. And what the author forgot is that REPLIES :-Wetherby, 9 -- Egyptian Hierograms, 10 -- Dr.

whenever the lamp was lighted the genie would inGuillotin - Charlemagne-“Bring" and "Take"-Friar's Lanthorn-Belgian Custom, 11-Sir M. Livesey-Chartist stantly appear" to obey," &c.; and so he fell back G. Borrow's First Publication-Book on Bank-note Issue

upon the usual manner in which magical rings are -New English Dictionary'- Constable's Pictures-Pitshanger, 12-Kirk-Grims, 13-Quarles-Anonymous Poem

employed to summon their “slaves"-by rubbing Children - Buonaparte's Habeas Corpus, 14 - Amsterdam Bourse-Agincourt : Davy Gam-Herrick, 15-Beans in Leap Year-Lord Lisle's Assassination - Rolling a Ball-West

of Aladdin—which is evidently of comparatively minster Library-Hammonds-Poison-Aston's 'Brief Supplement,' 16- Nightcap Stratagem - Curiosities of Cata

must be lighted in order to summon its attendant loguing--Pendulum Clocks-Swift's Polite Conversation' * Bombastes Furioso' - Chaucer's Balade of Gentilnesse,' 17

spirit. Thus in the German story of the 'Blue - Brussels Gazette'-" Our Father"-Arbuthnot, 18. Light,' in Grimm's collection, no sooner does the NOTES ON BOOKS:- Foster's * Alumni Oxonienses'

| old soldier light the lamp he found at the bottom Loftie's Kensington, Picturesque and Historical.'

of the dry well than there appears before him “a Notices to Correspondents, &c.

black dwarf, with a bump on his back and a feather in his cap," who demands to know what he

wants, and so on. Aotes,

But there is an Indian story, in Mrs. Meer ALADDIN'S WONDERFUL LAMP. Hasan Ali's 'Observations on the Mussulmans of I fancied that I had said “the last " for a long

India' (London, 1832), vol. ii. p. 324 ff., in which time to come about the story of Aladdin ('Alá-ed-1

a lighted lamp has the same property : Shaykh Día) and his lamp in my 'Popular Tales and Fic

Saddú, a hypocritical devotee, wandering into a tions,' and afterwards in Appendix to vol, iii, of

of neighbouring jungle one day, finds a copper cup, Sir Richard F. Burton's 'Supplemental Nights';

whereon were engraved certain characters which but I find that I have somehow overlooked what

hat he could not with all his learning decipher. He now appears to me a very great absurdity in that

takes it to his retreat, and at nightfall, being just world-renowned romance, as regards the mode of

then in want of a good-sized lamp, he puts oil and using the lamp.

a wick into the cup, and the instant it was lighted In by far the greater number of versions, variants,

a “figure resembling a human being "stood before and analogues of the story, both Asiatic and

him." Who art thou," demanded the shaykh, European, the wonder-working thing is a magical

" that dost thus intrude at this hour on the privacy gem or ring, commonly obtained by the hero from

m of a hermit ?" The figure replied : “I come at a serpent, "for services rendered "; and the hero

the summons of your lamp. I The possessor of that having befriended certain animals, generally a dog

vessel has four slaves, one of whom you see before and a cat, when his precious talisman is stolen

you. We are genii, and can only be summoned by these grateful animals recover it for him. I have

the lighting up of this vessel. The number of your elsewhere pointed out that this is probably the

slaves will be in due attendance according to the original form of the story; and, if so, then it is cer

number of the wicks that it may please you to tainly of Buddhist invention. But in the tale of

light. Demand our attendance at any hour you Aladdin the young hero has two talismans, namely, * This story is translated in Dr. Jonathan Scott's edi. the ring, which the magician gives him for his pro- tion of the Arabian Nights Entertainments, vol. vi. tection before he descends into the cave, and the pp. 210-212; and in Sir R. F. Burton's Supplemental lamp, of which he becomes possessed through the Nights,' vol. iv. pp. 314-329. magician foolishly shutting him in the cave-to

† Sometimes a magical ring has different properties perisb, as he vainly believed.

according to the finger on which it is placed.

As the element of Evidently it was a lamp, not a cup, as the sbaykh the grateful animals is omitted in the story- supposed.

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choose, and we are bound to obey." This wicked plate x, which, as is well known, has for years shaykh gives the four genii of his lamp many tasks been an enigma to connoisseurs.

wions fo to perform, most of them such as were repugnant It may be well first to observe that the famous

as of sell to them (for it appears these were very "scru- original, purchased by the British Museum in 1872

a lespir pulous" genii, such as would not have suited Alad. for upwards of 1,0001., is a block-book, executed,

My which

ich 1 din's pretended uncle, the Maghrabl), and one of in the opinion of the Keeper of the Printed Books, in thing the tasks at once recalls Aladdin and the Princess" in the best style of art prevalent at the time of acest Badr-ul-Badúr. He caused them to convey the king's its production,"and consists of but twelve separate the daughter to him, " and she was his unwilling com- sheets, of two leaves each, printed on the inner panion" in his retreat. But there was soon to be side only. There are eleven illustrations, each an end of his wickedness ; for when the genii, by occupying & whole page, opposite each of which is his order, were beginning to raise a remarkable given an explanatory letterpress. The Holbein mosque, situated at a considerable distance, in Society's reproduction of this small and unique to the a order to carry it to the place where the shaykh volume has the great advantage of an introduction, dwelt, the devotee who had bis abode therein- in which the writer, Mr. George Bullen, F.S.A., a man of undoubted sanctity-sent them off“ with besides giving much interesting bibliographical ina flea in their ear," in this wise : “Begone," said formation, describes the various plates, and ex- mp3 the pious man, in a tope of authority that deprived plains their often recondite meaning. them of their strength. “A moment's delay, and Having myself examined a good deal of this I will pray that you be consumed with fire. Would literature in preparing my Christian Care of the Shaykh Saddú add to his crimes by forcing the Dying and the Dead,' I hope I may say, without house of God from its foundation ? Away this presumption, that the introduction seems to me to moment! else fire shall consume you on the spot." be admirable, one explanation only, that of plate ., They fled in haste to their profane master, whose being excepted. It begins on p. 15 thus :rage was unbounded at their disobedience, as he termed their return without the mosque. He raved,

"Following this is an engraving (No. 10] of the good

angel who comes to support and console the dying man, stormed, and reviled them in bitter language, while thus tempted to endanger bis salvation through inwhile they, heartily tired of their servitude, caught dulging in the sin of avarice; the accompanying letterup the copper vessel, and in his struggle to resist press being headed' Bona inspiracio ang'li contra avaricia':* them he was thrown with violence on the ground,

In this engraving the guardian angel stands, as before, in

front of the dying man, with his right hand raised in ex. and his wicked soul was suddenly separated from

hortation, and with a scroll on the right of the pictura his impure body.

bearing the words, 'Non sis auarus. Above the canopy Here we have the lamp of Aladdin, but put to of the bedstead, on the right, is a representation of its proper use-lighted-in order to summon the the Blessed Virgin, and next to this, on the left, is a fullgenii; we have also the princess being conveyed to length figure of the Holy Jesus stretched on the cross (). Aladdin, as I have before remarked, and a reflec

Next to this on the left, somewhat lower down, are three

figures of sheep, shown principally by their heads. Next tion of Maghrabi's causing the palace to be re- to these, on the left, are three figures, namely, of a man moved to a far distant place. It would be interesting and two women (c); just below the second woman is the to ascertain the source whence Mrs. Meer Hasan figure of a maiden (6), and above her, on the extreme Ali derived this singular story, which bears out, I left, is the head of a man (d). What this group of figures think, my opinion that the author of the tale of Iture. The manie), standing as he does next to the sheen.

of is intended to symbolize it would be difficult to conjecAladdin has greatly blundered in representing the and with a staff in his hand, is perhaps a representation lamp as requiring to be rubbed, and not lighted. of a good shepherd. They all of them, however, appear The appearance of one or more of the four attend to look towards the dying man with feelings of compas ant genii of the wicked shaykh's lamp, according to sion. Below this group is the figure of an angel, with

scroll bearing the words, ' Ne intendas amicis'' (Do not the number of wicks that were lighted, has its

concern thyself for thy friends). This angel holds with I in another Asiatic story ; but this note is both hands an outspread curtain, intended to conceal already too long.

W. A. CLOUSTON. from the dying man's view (a) two full-length figures, 233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow.

one of a woman on the right and the other of a man on
the left; both possibly being disappointed expectants of
sharing in the dying man's wealth; or else the female

figure representing his wife and the male figure that of THE “ARS MORIENDI' BLOCK-BOOK (1450),

his physician. The latter appears to be exhorting his PLATE THE TENTH.

female companion to depart from the scene, At the foot While examining not long ago a reproduction

of the picture, on the right, is the figure of an ugly of Caxton's Trayttye abredged of the Arte to Lerne

demon with a scroll bearing the words Quid faciam.'' well to Dye' (1490), for comparison with it I took I beg to offer the following as a new interpretadown the Holbein Society's marvellous facsimile, tion of the plate above described by Mr. Bullen. by Mr. F. C. Price, of the 'Ars Moriendi' named On reference to the work itself it will be found at the head of this paper. I was thus led to con- that the preceding letterpress contains Satan's sider again this fine work, pausing especially attemptation to avarice, with a plate (ix.) represent

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ing various forms of self-seeking. Plate x. is a all transitory things wholly away like poison, and picture of self-redunciation, as appears from the turn his heart's affection to voluntary poverty, &c. “Bona Inspiracio” of the angel, which faces it, From this part of the angel's address the artist and of which a short account must now be given. completes his plate with a picture of the Eternal

« Turn thine ears (saith the angell away from the Son giving up (f) the ever-blessed mother that deadly suggestions of the devil...... Put wholly behind bare Him-that Son of Man who for us men thee all temporal things, the recollection of which can fathomed the greatest depths of poverty, volunnot at all help thy salvation...... Be mindful of the words of the Lord to them who cling to such things: Nisi quis

tarily renouncing upon the cross (9) all things that renunciaverit omnibus quæ poseidet non potest meus esse

were His own, not retaining even dear life. discipulus ' (St. Luke xiv. 33)."

· As illustrating the foregoing view it is interestThe artist illustrates this principle by selecting

ing to read in Caxton's Arte to Lerne well to some of the examples mentioned in the verse imme

Dye,' p. 8, that diately afterwards quoted by the angel, who saith:

“the fyftbe temptacyon that most troubleth the “And again, Si quis venit ad Mo et non odit patrem

seculors and worldly men, is the overgrote ocupacyon of

outwarde thinges and temporall, as towarde bis wyf his suum et matrem, et uxorem, et filios, et fratres, et sorores,

chyldren & his frondes carnall / towarde his rychesses or wow povest meus esse discipulus (81. Luke xiv, 26)." | towarde other thynges / which he hath moost loved in his The artist places in the forefront of his picture an lyf | And therfore whosomever wyll' well' & surely doyo angel saying, “Do not concern thyself for thy

he ought to set symply and all' from hym all'o outwarde friends," and holding up, with both hands, a cur

thynges & temporell' , and oughto all'o to commytte to tain (a) between the dying man and an elderly

god fully," couple-his father and mother-to whom the sick

Those of my readers who are not yet acquainted man, to their own sorrow, has already bidden, it

with the 'Ars Moriendi' can, I should think, seems, a glad farewell. I see no medical emblems

scarcely give themselves a greater literary treat with or near the man that would lead me to sup

than by making its acquaintance with the help of pose him to be intended for the physician. Next

the apparatus criticus provided in the edition I have used.

W. H. SEWELL. (b), above the foreground, is represented his wife, like himself young, who looks at him with piteous

Yaxley Vicarage, Suffolk, gaze, her hair being dishevelled—the usual sign of female mourning-anticipating the near approach Did CHARLES DICKENS CONTRIBUTE TO 'FIGARO of widowhood. I do not think that dishevelled IN LONDON'?-In the elaborate and exhaustive hair is a form of mourning ever exclusively used ‘Dickens Catalogue' (pp. 38), compiled and pubby "a maiden."

lished by Messrs. J. W. Jarvis & Son, 28, King Besides (as the angel continues), the Lord saith William Street, Strand, 1881, is a notice of Figaro to them who have renounced those things :

in London, with this remark :" Et omnis qui relinquiret domum vel fratres, vel “ This was the precursor of Punch, and is full of sorores, aut patrem, aut matrem, aut uxorem, aut filios, chatty, racy anecdotes and jokes, said to be written by aut agros, propter nomen meum, centuplum accipiet, et Charles Dickons and Gilbert à Beckett.”—P. 23. vitam eternam possidebit" (St. Matthew xix. 29). No mention of this is made in the list of “PublicaFrom this verse the masterly engraver enriches his tions to which Dickens contributed only a portion" plate with fresh instances of self-ronunciation, (pp. 32–3), in Mr. James Cook's very valuable namely, (c) two sisters, with braided hair, stand- Bibliography of the Writings of Charles Dickens' ing a little behind the wife ; and yet further back (London, Frank Kerslake, 22, Coventry Street, (d) the dying man's brother, the expression of Haymarket, 1879, pp. 88). I may remark, in passwhose countenance is very beautiful, of all of ing, that the excellent woodcut on Mr. Cook's whom the sufferer has to take his leave. Children title-page, giving a most spirited likeness-bust of are not supposed to be born of so young a wife; Dickens, was drawn by M. Faustin, and originnone are represented. But the dying man has to ally appeared in Figaro (Mr. James Mortimer's take leave of his lands, “aut agros." And these () London Figaro, on the staff of which I remained are represented by their occupants—sheep that for upwards of five years) on Sept. 27, 1873. The graze them and a bailiff who, staff in hand, shep- mention of this is suggested by the coincidence of herds the flock—perhaps so placed by the artist Dickens and the two London Figaros. not without a mystic allusion to the shepherd who I possess an original copy of Figaro in London. in the deserts of the East has sometimes to give Vol. I. For the Year 1832" (William Strange, his life for his sheep (St. John X. 11).

21, Paternoster Row). It consists of fifty-six Remember also (adds the angel) the poverty of weekly issues, commencing with that for Dec. 10, Christ hanging for thee upon the cross, most freely 1831. There was a second volume, which, from giving up for thy salvation His most dearly loved Aug. 16, 1834, to the close, was illustrated by mother and His best beloved disciples. The angel Isaac Robert Cruikshank in place of Robert Sey. begs the dying man to imprint on his mind these mour, whose remarkably clever political caricatures things and the examples of the saints, and to put -coargelv engraved, and often at Seymour's ogass

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