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building strongly guarded with armed men. Can State, will show the following facts, an examiyou advise any method by which a conflict can nation of which must, I think, satisfy the Presibe averted, and as to my duty in the premises? dent he has made a serious mistake, I have to Thos. F. PURNELL, U. S. Marshal. call them to your and his attention.

First. The so-called "election declaration" is

not attached to the constitution in the record of Governor Davis to the President.

that instrument, and is no part of it. AUSTIN, January 16, 1874. | Second. The election was not held under that According to the constitution of our State, I declaration, which was set aside by act of Conam the Governor until the 28th of April next. gress of the 10th of April, 1869. Other State and county officers hold their terms Third. That declaration was not submitted by for the same time. But to-day the persons com- the President to a vote of the people when his posing what is called the fourteenth Legislature proclamation was issued of the 15th of July, have inaugurated Messrs. Coke and Hubbard as 1869; but the constitution only was submitted Governor and Lieutenant Governor. They will by him. attempt to seize the Governor's office and build- Fourth. There were scores more of similar ings. Have made preparations to defend the declarations passed by that reconstruction conoffices, but I call upon you for military assist- vention, some of them donating large sums of ance to aid in defending the government offices money and making land grants to private enterand keeping the peace. EDMUND J. Davis, prises. None of these, any more than the elec

Governor. tion declaration, were ever submitted to the

people of Texas, or have any binding force, Attorney General to Governor Davis.

though some schemers interested therein are try

ing thus indirectly to get them all recognized. WASHINGTON, January 17. I Fifth. The Governor and other officers chosen Hon. E.J. DAVIS, Austin, Texas: Your telegram at the election held under the orders of the miliol yesterday stating that according to the con- tary commander of this State, in pursuance of stitution of Texas you are Governor until the said act of Congress, were forbidden to qualify or twenty-eighth of April next, and that Hon. be installed under the constitution until Con. Richard Coke had been inaugurated and will gress accepted it, which was not done till March attempt to seize the Governor's office and build-30, 1870. ings, and calling upon the President for military Sixth. I was appointed Provisional Governor assistance, has been referred by him to me for by the military commander on the 11th day of answer; and I am instructed to say, that after January, 1870, and qualified as such by taking considering the fourth section of article four of what was called the test oath, on the 17th of the constitution of Texas, providing that the January, 1870, and continued as Provisional Governor shall hold his office for the term of Governor until the 28th day of April, 1870, four years from the date of his installment, un- when my inauguration as Constitutional Gov. der which you claim, and section three of the ernor was had. During that interval even my election declaration attached to said constitution official salary was different from what it became under which you were chosen, and which pro- under the constitution. vides that the State and other officers elected Seventh. All other State, district, and county thereunder shall hold their respeetive offices for officers, except members of the Legislature, were the term of years prescribed by the constitution, controlled by the same regulations, under the beginning from the day of their election, under reconstruction acts of Congress. which the Governor elect claims the office, and These facts, as I have said, should all appear more than four years having expired since your in your records at Washington. I will add that election, he is of the opinion that your right to nobody here in Texas seriously questioned my the office of Governor at this time is at least so authority to hold my office for four years from doubtful that he does not feel warranted in fur- the date of my inauguration till the combination nishing United States troops to aid you in hold. was effected of which I telegraphed the Presiing further possession of it, and he therefore I dent. declines to comply with your request.

The persons claiming to be the fourteenth Geo. H. WILLIAMS, Attorney General Legislature tried for two days after they met

together here last week, by joint and special Governor Davis to the Attorney General.

committees, appointed to interview me, to get

me to recognize their body as a lawful LegislaEXECUTIVE OFFICE, STATE OF TEXAS, ture, in defiance of the decision of the Supreme

AUSTIN, January 19, 1874. Court. They made no question about my auSIR: On the 17th inst. I received your tele- thority as Governor, but said that would be congram of that date stating, in substance, that the ceded if I would only recognize them, and that President declined to aid the present State gov- they would not attempt to inaugurate Mr. Coke ernment against domestic violence, because from until the 28th day of April next. It was only a comparison of sec. 3 of what is called the elec- after I refused this absolutely that the usurpation declaration, with the 4th sec. of art. 4 of the tion against which I called for assistance was State constitution, it is at least "so doubtful” entered upon. whether I am yet the Governor, he does not feel I will further call to your attention a feature authorized to furnish assistance

of the President's refusal to assist against this Because, I suppose, that the records at Wash- violence. He does not decide which is the legington, connected with the reconstruction of this litimate State government. Now, the two parties were in open arms at the time I telegraphed U.S. Marshal to Attorney General. you, and one or the other was certainly chargea

AUSTIN, January 19, 1874. ble with domestic violence, and one or the other Your telegram. as anticipated. Thas had the was certainly entitled to call upon the President | desired effect. The complications in our State for support against this violence.

affairs have been amicably settled. Respectfully, EDMUND J. Davis, Governor. I

Thos. F. PURNELL, U. S. Marshal.




President Grant's Second Inaugural | as executive influence can avail. Social equality Address, March 4, 1873.

is.not a subject to be legislated upon, nor shall

I ask that anything be done to advance the FELLOW-CITIZENS: Under Providence I have social status of the colored man except to give been called a second time to act as Executive him a fair chance to develop what there is good over this great nation. It has been my en- in him. Give him access to schools, and when deavor in the past to maintain all the laws, and he travels let him feel assured that his conduct 80 far as lay in my power, to act for the best will regulate the treatment and fare be will reinterests of the whole people. My best efforts ceive. The States lately at war with the Genwill be given in the same direction in the future, eral Government are now happily rehabilitated, aided, I trust, by my four years' experience in and no executive control is exercised in any one the office.

of them that would not be exercised in any other When my first term of the office of Chief Ex- State under like circumstances. ecutive began the country had not recovered. In the first year of the past Administration, from the effects of a great internal revolution, the proposition came up for the admission of and three of the former States of the Union had Santo Domingo as a Territory of the Union. It not been restored to their Federal relations. It was not a question of my seeking, but was a seemed to me wise that no new questions should proposition from the people of Santo Domingo, be raised so long as that condition of affairs ex- and which I entertained. I believe now, as I did isted. Therefore, the past four years, so far as then, that it was for the best interests of this I could control events, have been consumed in country, for the people of Santo Domingo, and the effort to restore harmony, public credit, com- all concerned, that the proposition should be merce, and all the arts of peace and progress. received favorably. It was, however, rejected It is my firm conviction that the civilized world constitutionally, and therefore the subject was is tending towards republicanism, or govern never brought up again by me. ment by the people through their chosen repre In future, while I hold my present office, the sentatives, and that our own great Republic is subject of acquisitition of territory must have destined to be the guiding star to all others. the support of the people before I will recomUnder our Republic we support an army less mend any proposition looking to such acquisithan that of any European power of any stand- tion. I say here, however, that I do not share ing, and a navy less than that of either of at in the apprehension held by many as to the least five of them.

| danger of governments becoming weakened and There could be no extension of territory on destroyed by reason of their extension of territhis continent which would call for an increase tory. of this force, but rather might such extension Commerce, education, and rapid transit of enable us to diminish it.

thought and matter by telegraph and steam The theory of government changes with the have changed all this. Rather do I believe that general progress. Now that the telegraph is our Great Maker is preparing the world in His made available for communicating thought, to- own good time to become one nation, speaking gether with rapid transit by steam, all parts of one language, and when armies and navies will à continent are made contiguous for all purposes be no longer required. of government, and communication between the My efforts in the future will be directed to the extreme limits of the country made easier than restoration of good feeling between the different it was throughout the old thirteen States at the sections of our common country, to the restora. beginning of our national existence.

tion of our currency to a fixed value as compared The effects of the late civil strife have been to with the world's standard of values-gold-and, free the slave and make him a citizen. He is if possible, to a par with it; to the construction not possessed of the civil rights wbich citizen- of cheap routes of transit throughout the land, ship should carry with it. This is wrong, and to the end that the products of all sections may should be corrected.

find a market and leave a living remuneration: To this correction I stand committed, so far to the producer; to the maintenance of friendly

relations with all our neighbors and with the tory, which to-day I feel that I can afford to distant nations; to the re-establishment of our disregard, in view of your verdict, which I commerce and share in the carrying trade upon gratefully accept as my vindication. the ocean; to the encouragement of such manu: facturing industries as can be economically pur President Grants Fourth Annual sued in this country, to the end that the exports

Message, Dec. 2, 1872. of home products and industries may pay for our imports, the only sure method of returning

[For his first, see McPherson's History of Reto and permanently maintaining a specie basis : construction, pages 533-540; for his second and to the elevation of labor. and by a humane third, see McPherson's Hand-Book of Politics course to bring the aborigines of the country for 1872, pages 16-27.] under the benign influences of education and To the Senate and House of Representatives : civilization. It is either this or a war of ex- In transmitting to you this, my fourth annual termination. Wårs of extermination, engaged message, it is with thankfulness to the Giver of in by people pursuing commerce and all indus- all good that, as a nation, we have been blessed trial pursuits, are expensive even against the for the past year with peace at home, peace weakest people, and are demoralizing and wicked. abroad, and a general prosperity vouchsafed to Our superiority of strength and advantages of but few peoples. civilization should make us lenient towards the Indian. The wrongs already inflicted upon him. When Congress adjourned in June last a quesshould be taken into account, and the balance tion had been raised by Great Britain, and was placed to his credit. The moral view of the then pending, which for a time seriously imquestion should be considered and the question periled the settlement boy friendly arbitration of asked, cannot the Indian be made a useful and the grave differences between this Government productive member of society by proper teach- and that of Her Britannic Majesty, which by the ing and treatment? If the effort is made in treaty of Washington had been referred to the good faith we will stand better before the civil tribunal of arbitration which had met at Geized nations of the earth and in our own con- neva, in Switzerland. sciences for having made it. All these things. The arbitrators, however, disposed of the are not to be accomplished by any one indi- question which had jeoparded the whole of the vidual, but they will receive my support and treaty, and threatened to involve the two nasuch recommendations to Congress as will, in tions in most unhappy relations toward each my judgment, best serve to carry them into other, in a manner entirely satisfactory to this effect. I beg your support and encouragement. Government, and in accordance with the views

It has been and is my earnest desire to correct and policy which it had maintained. abuses that have grown up in the civil service 1 The tribunal, which had convened at Geneva of the country. To secure this reformation rules in December, concluded its laborious session on regulating methods of appointment and promo- the 14th day of September last, on which day, tion were established and have been tried. My having availed itself of the discretionary power efforts for such reformation shall be continued given to it by the treaty to award a sum in gross, to the best of my judgment. The spirit of the it made its decision, whereby it awarded the rules adopted will be maintained.

sum of fifteen millions five hundred thousand I acknowledge before this assembly, repre- dollars in gold, as the indemnity to be paid by senting, as it does, every section of our country, Great Britain to the United States for the satisthe obligation I am under to my countrymen for faction of all the claims referred to its considerthe great honor they have conferred on me by ation. returning me to the highest office within their This decision happily disposes of a long standgift, and the further obligation resting on me to ing difference between the two Governments, and, render to them the best services within my power. in connection with another award made by the

This I promise, looking forward with the German Emperor, under a reference to him by greatest anxiety to the day when I shall be re- the same treaty, leaves these two Governments leased from responsibilities that at times are without a shadow upon the friendly relations almost overwhelming, and from which I have which it is my sincere hope may forever remain scarcely had a respite since the eventful firing equally unclouded. upon Fort Sumter, in April, 1861, to the present day. My services were then tendered and By the thirty-fourth article of the treaty of accepted under the first call for troops growing Washington the respective claims of the United out of that event. I did not ask for place or posi- States and of Great Britain, in their construction, and was entirely without influence, or the tion of the treaty of the 15th of June, 1846, acquaintance of persons of influence, but was defining the boundary line between their reresolved to perform my part in a struggle threat. spective territories, were submitted to the arbiening the very existence of the nation, a con- tration and award of His Majesty the Emperor scientious duty, without asking promotion or of Germany, to decide which of those claims is command, and without a revengeful feeling to- most in accordance with the true interpretation wards any section or individual.

of the treaty of 1846. Notwithstanding this, throughout the war, and from my candidacy for my present office in After a patient investigation of the case and 1868 to the close of the last Presidential cam. of the statements of each party, His Majesty paign, I have been the subject of abuse and the Emperor, on the 21st day of October last, slander scarcely ever equaled in political his. I signed his award in writing, decreeing that the

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claim of the Government of the United States, continuance of slavery is one of the most active that the boundary line between the territories of causes of the continuance of the unhappy condiHer Britannic Majesty and the United States tion in Cuba, I regret to believe that citizens of should be drawn through the Haro Channel, is the United States, or those claiming to be such, most in accordance with the true interpretation are large holders in Cuba of what is there claimed of the treaty concluded on the 15th of June, as property, but which is forbidden and denounced 1846, between the Governments of Her Britannic by the laws of the United States. They are thus, Majesty and of the United States.

in defiance of the spirit of our own laws, contrib

uting to the continuance of this distressing and This award confirms the United States in their sickening contest. In my last annual message claim to the important archipelago of islands ly. I referred to this subject, and I again recoming between the continent and Vancouver's mend such legislation as may be proper to deisland, which for more than twenty-six years nounce, and, if not prevent, at least to discour(ever since the ratification of the treaty) Great age American citizens from holding or dealing in Britain has contested, and leaves us, for the first slaves. time in the history of the United States as a nation, without a question of disputed boundary The moneys received and covered into the between our territory and the possessions of Treasury during the fiscal year ended June 30, Great Britain on this continent.

1872, were:
From customs....

$216,370,286 77 It is with regret that I have again to announce From sales of public lands.

2,575,714 19 a continuance of the disturbed condition of the

From internal revenue...

130,642,177 72

From tax on national-bank circulaisland of Cuba. No advance toward the pacifi. |

6,523,396 39 notion of the discontented part of the poonlation | From Pacific railway companies............ 749,861 87 has been made. While the insurrection bas

From customs fines, &c........

1,136,442 34

From fees, consular, patent, land, &c..... 2,284,095 92 gained no advantages, and exhibits no more of From miscellaneous sources.....

4,412,254 71 the elements of power or of the prospects of ultimate success than were exhibited a year ago,

364,694,229 92 Total ordinary receipts.................

yoa, 98.9: From premium on sales of coin...... 9,412,637 65 Spain, on the other hand, has not succeeded in its repression, and the parties stand apparently Total net receipts............................ 374,106,867 56

Balance in Treasury June 30, 1871, (inin the same relative attitude which they have

cluding $18,228 35 received from “unoccupied for a long time past.


109,935,705 59 This contest has lasted now for more than four years. Were its scene at a distance from our

Total available cash...

484,042,573 15 neigbborhood we might be indifferent to its result, although humanity could not be unmoved The net expenditures by warrants during the by many of its incidents, wherever they might same period were: occur. It is, however, at our door.

For civil e

$16,187,059 20 I cannot doubt that the continued maintenance

For foreign intercourse......

1,839,369 14 For Indians........

7,061,728 82 of slavery in Cuba is among the strongest induce. For pensions........

28,533,402 76 For military establishment, including

fortifications, river and harbor im

provements, and arsenals................... 35,372,157 20 abolition of slavery, and the introduction of other | For naval establishment, including ves

sels and machinery and improveCuba, could not fail to advance the restoration |_ments at navy yards........................ 21,249,809 99

For miscellaneous civil, including pubof peace and order. It is greatly to be hoped lic buildings, light-houses, and colthat the present liberal government of Spain will lecting the revenue........

42,958,329 08 voluntarily adopt this view.

For interest on the public debt....... .... 117,357,839 72 The law of emancipation, which was passed Total, exclusive of principal and more than two years since, has remained unexe premium on the public debt......... 270,559,695 91 cuted in the absence of regulations for its en- / For premium on bonds

purchased........ .: $6,958,266 76 forcement. It was but a feeble step toward For redemption of the emancipation, but it was the recognition of right, l public debt.................. 99,960,253 54 and was hailed as such, and exhibited Spain in

106,918,520 30 harmony with sentiments of humanity and of Total net disbursements................. 377,478,216 21 justice, and in sympathy with the other powers Balance in Treasury June 30, 1872.......... 106,564,356 94 of the christian and civilized world.


484,042,573 15 Within the past few weeks the regulations for carrying out the law of emancipation have been annonnced, giving evidence of the sincerity of

From the foregoing statement it appears that intention of the present government to carry into

to the net reduction of the principal of the debt effect the law of 1870. I have not failed to urge

during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1872, was the consideration of the wisdom, the policy, and

$99,960,253 54. the justice of a more effective system for the aboli

The source of this reduction is as follows: tion of the great evil which oppresses a race, Net ordinary receipts during the year... $364,694,229 91 and continues a bloody and destructive contest

Net ordinary expenditures, including

interest on the public debt.................. 270,559,695 91 close to our border, as well as the expediency and the justice of conceding reforms of which the pro- Leaving surplus revenue................... 94,134,534 00 priety is not questioned.

Add amount received from premium

on sales of gold, in excess of the preDeeply impressed with the conviction that the mium paid on bonds purchased......... 2,454,370 89

penses ...................














Add the amount of the reduction of the

| The river and harbor improvements have been cash balance at the close of the year,

carried on with energy and economy. Though accompanied with same at com. mencement of the year........

3,371,348 65 many are only partially completed, the re

sults have saved to commerce many times the Total.

99,960,253 54

amount expended. The increase of commerce, This statement treats solely of the principal

with greater depth of channels, greater security of the public debt.

in navigation, and the saving of time, adds milBy the monthly statement of the public debt,

lions to the wealth of the country and increases which adds together the principal, interest due

the resources of the Government.
and unpaid, and interest accrued to date, not
due, and deducts the cash in the Treasury as

The attention of Congress will be called during ascertained on the day of publication, the reduc

its present session to various enterprises for the

more certain and cheaper transportation of the tion was $100,544,491 28. The source of this reduction is as follows:

constantly increasing surplus of Western and Reduction in principal account............. $99,960,003 54

Southern products to the Atlantic sea-board. Reduction in unpaid interest account... 3,330,952 96

The subject is one that will force itself upon the

legislative branch of the Government sooner or

103,290,956 50 later, and I suggest, therefore, that immediate Reduction in cash on hand......

2,746,465 22

steps be taken to gain all available information

100,544,491 28 to insure equable and just legislation. On the basis of the last table the statements with the Atlantic, at Charleston, South Carolina,

One route to connect the Mississippi Valley show a reduction of the public debt, from the

and Savannah, Georgia, by water, by the way of 1st of March, 1869, to the present time, as fol

the Ohio and Tennessee rivers, and canals and lows:

slack-water navigation to the Savannah and
From March 1, 1869, to March 1, 1870..... $87,134,782 84 Ocmulgee rivers, has been surveyed, and report
From March 1, 1870, to March 1, 1871..... 117,619,630 25
From March 1, 1871, to March 1, 1872...... 94,895,348 94

made by an accomplished engineer officer of the From March 1, 1872, to November 1, 1872,

army. Second and third, new routes will be pro. (eight months)......

64,047,237 84 posed for the consideration of Congress, namely, Total....

363,696,999 87

by an extension of the Kanawha and James

River Canal to the Ohio, and by extension of With the great reduction of taxation by the the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal." acts of Congress at its last session, the expendi- I am not prepared to recommend Government ture of the Government in collecting the rev. aid to these or other enterprises until it is clearly enue will be much reduced for the next fiscal | shown that they are not only of national interyear. It is very doubtful, however, whether est, but that when completed they will be of a any further reduction of so vexatious a burden value commensurate with their cost. upon any people will be practicable for the That production increases more rapidly than present. At all events, as a measure of justice the means of transportation in our country has to the holders of the nation's certificates of in. been demonstrated by past experience. That debtedness, I would recommend that no more the unprecedented growth in population and legislation be had on this subject, unless it be to products of the whole country will require addicorrect errors of omission or commission in the tional facilities, and cheaper ones for the more present laws, until sufficient time has elapsed to bulky articles of commerce to reach tide-water prove that it can be done and still leave suffi- and a market will be demanded in the near fucient revenue to meet current expenses of Gov- ture, is equally demonstrable. I would there. ernment, pay interest on the public debt, and fore suggest either a committee or a commission provide for the sinking fund established by law. to be authorized to consider this whole question, The preservation of our national credit is of the and to report to Congress at some future day for highest importance; next in importance to this its better guidance in legislating on this importcomes a solemn duty to provide a national cur- ant subject. rency of fixed, unvarying value, as compared. The railroads of the country have been rapwith gold, and as soon as practicable, having idly extended during the last few years to meet due regard for the interests of the debtor class, the growing demands of producers, and reflect and the vicissitudes of trade and commerce, con- much credit upon the capitalists and managers vertible into gold at par.

engaged in their construction. The report of the Secretary of War shows the In addition to these, a project to facilitate expenditures of the War Department for the fiscal commerce by the building of a ship-canal around year ending June 30, 1871, to be $35.799,991 82, Niagara Falls, on the United States side, which and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1872, to has been agitated for many years, will, no doubt, be $35,372,157 20, showing a reduction in favor be called to your attention at this session. of the last fiscal year of $427,834 62.

Looking so the great future growth of the

country, and the increasing demands of comAbout $370,000 have been collected from South werce, it might be well, while on this subject, ern railroads during the year, leaving about $4,- | not only to have examined and reported upon 000,000 still due.

the various practicable routes for connecting the

Mississippi with tide-water on the Atlantic, but The annual average mean strength of the army the feasibility of an almost continuous land1 was 24,101 white, and 2,494 colored soldiers. locked navigation from Maine to the Gulf of

| Mexico. Such a route along our coast would

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