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be of great value at all times, and of inestimable cisco and Honolulu, (Hawaiian Islands,) making value in case of a foreign war. Nature has pro- the total amount of mail steamship subsidies at vided the greater part of this route, and the ob- present $725,000 per annum. stacles to overcome are easily within the skill of
*** * ** * the engineer.
Your favorable consideration is respectfully I have not alluded to this subject with the invited to the recommendations made by the view of having any further expenditure of public Postmaster General for an increase of service money at this time than may be necessary to from monthly to semi-monthly trips on the mail procure and place all the necessary information steamship route to Brazil; for a subsidy in aid before Congress in an authentic form, to enable of the establishment of an American line of mail it hereafter, if deemed practicable and worthy, steamers between San Francisco, New Zealand, to legislate on the subject without delay. and Australia; for the establishment of post
office savings banks; and for the increase of the It is evident that, unless early steps are taken salaries of the heads of bureaus. I have hereto preserve our navy, that in a very few years the tofore recommended the abolition of the franking United States will be the weakest nation upon privilege, and see no reason now for changing the ocean of all great powers. With an energetic, my views on that subject. It not having been progressive business people like ours, penetrating favorably regarded by Congress, however, I now and forming business relations with every part suggest a modification of that privilege to correct of the known world, a navy strong enough to its glaring and costly abuses. I would recomcommand the respect of our flag abroad is neces- mend also the appointment. of a committee or sary for the full protection of their rights. commission to take into consideration the best
method (equitable to private corporations who The accompanying report of the Postmaster have invested their time and capital in the estabGeneral furnishes a full and satisfactory exhibit lishment of telegraph lines) of acquiring the title of the operations of the Post Office Department to all telegraph lines now in operation, and of during the year. The ordinary revenues of the connecting this service with the postal service of department for the fiscal year ending June 30, the nation. It is not probable that this subject 1872, amounted to $21,915,426 37, and the expend could receive the proper consideration during the tures to $26,658,192 31. Compared with the limits of a short session of Congress, but it may previous fiscal year, the increase of revenue was be initiated, so that future action may be fair to $1,878,330 05, or 9.37 per cent, and the increase the Government and to private parties concerneed. of expenditures $2,268,088 23, or 9 29 per cent. There are but three lines of ocean steamers, Adding to the ordinary revenues the annual ap- namely, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, propriation of $700,000 for free matter, and the between San Francisco, China, and Japan, with amounts paid to the subsidized mail steamship provision made for semi-monthly service after lines from special appropriations, the deficiency October 1, 1873; the United States and Brazil paid out of the general Treasury was $3,317,- line, monthly; and the California, New Zealand, 765 94, an excess of $389,707 28 over the de- and Australian line, monthly, plying between ficiency for the year 1871. * * * the United States and foreign ports, and owned
The total length of railroad mail routes on the and operated under our flag. I earnestly recom30th of June, 1872, was 57,911 miles, 8,077 ad- mend that such liberal contracts for carrying the ditional miles of such service having been put mails be authorized with these lines as will insure into operation during the year. * * * The their continuance. number of letters exchanged in the mails with If the expediency of extending the aid of foreign countries was 24,362,500, an increase of Government to lines of steamers which hitherto 4,066,502, or 20 per cent. over the number in have not received it should be deemed worthy 1871; and the postage thereon amounted to of the consideration of Congress, political and $1,871,257 25. The total weight of the mails commercial objects make it advisable to bestow exchanged with European countries exceeded such aid on a line under our flag between Pan820 tons. The cost of the United States trans- ama and the Western South American ports. By atlantic mail steamship service was $220,301 70. this means much trade now diverted to other The total cost of the United States ocean steam- countries might be brought to us, to the mutual ship service, including the amounts paid to the advantage of this country and those lying in that subsidized lines of mail steamers, was $1,027,- quarter of the continent of America. 020 97.
The report of the Secretary of the Treasury The following are the only steamship lines will show an alarming falling off in our carrying now receiving subsidies for mail service under trade for the last ten or twelve years; and even special acts of Congress : The Pacific Mail Steam for the past year. I do not believe that public ship Company receive $500,000 per annum for treasure can be better expended in the interest conveying a monthly mail between San Fran- of the whole people than in trying to recover cisco, Japan, and China, which will be increased this trade. An expenditure of $5,000,000 per to $1,000,000 per annum for a semi monthly mail annum for the next five years, if it would restore on and after October 1, 1873; the United States to us our proportion of the carrying trade of the and Brazil Mail Steamship Company receive world, would be profitably expended. $150,000 per annum for conveying a monthly. The price of labor in Europe has so much enmail between New York and Rio de Janeiro, hanced within the last few years that the cost of Brazil; and the California, Oregon, and Mexico building and operating ocean steamers in the Steamship Company receive $75,000 per annum United States is not so much greater than in for conveying a monthly mail between San Fran- | Europe, and I believe the time has arrived for
Congress to take this subject into serious consid- | Indian, and erecting therein a territorial form of eration.
government, is one of great importance as a comDetailed statements of the disbursements plement of the existing Indian policy. The through the Department of Justice will be fur- question of removal to that territory has within nished by the report of the Attorney General, the past year been presented to many of the and though these have been somewhat increased tribes resident upon other and less desirable porby the recent acts of Congress "to enforce the tions of the public domain, and has generally rights of citizens of the United States to vote in been received by them with favor. As a prelimthe several States of the Union,” and “to enforce inary step to the organization of such a territory, the provisions of the fourteenth amendment to it will be necessary to confine the Indians now the Constitution of the United States," and the resident therein to farms of proper size, which amendments thereto, I cannot question the ne. should be secured to them in fee; the residue to cessity and salutary effect of those enactments. | be used for the settlement of other friendly InReckless and lawless men, I regret to say, have dians. Efforts will be made in the immediate associated themselves together, in some localities, future to induce the removal of as many peaceto deprive other citizens of those rights guaran- ably disposed Indians to the Indian Territory as teed to them by the Constitution of the United can be settled properly, without disturbing the States, and to that end have committed deeds of harmony of those already there. There is no blood and violence ; but the prosecution and pun- other location now available, where a people ishment of many of these persons have tended who are endeavoring to acquire a knowledge of greatly to the repression of such disorders. I do pastoral and agricultural pursuits can be as well · not doubt that a great majority of the people in accommodated as upon the unoccupied lands in all parts of the country favor the full enjoyment the Indian Territory. A territorial government by all classes of persons of those rights to which should, however, protect the Indians from the they are entitled under the Constitution and inroads of whites for a term of years, until they laws; and I invoke the aid and influence of all become sufficiently advanced in the arts and good citizens to prevent organizations whose ob- civilization to guard their own rights, and from jects are by unlawful means to interfere with the disposal of the lands held by them for the those rights. I look with confidence to the time, same period. not far distant, when the obvious advantages of During the last fiscal year there were disposed good order and peace will induce an abandon- of, out of the public lands 11,864,975 acres, a ment of all combinations prohibited by the acts quantity greater by 1,099,270 acres than was referred to, and when it will be unnecessary to disposed of the previous year. Of this amount carry on prosecutions or inflict punishment to 1,370,320 acres were sold for cash; 389,460 acres protect citizens from the lawless doings of such located with military warrants; 4,671,332 acres combinations.
taken for homesteads; 693,613 acres located with Applications have been made to me to pardon college scrip; 3,554,887 acres granted to railpersons convicted of a violation of said acts, upon roads; 465,347 acres granted to wagon-roads; the ground that clemency in such cases would 714,255 acres given to States as swamp land; tend to tranquilize the public mind, and to test 5,760 acres located by Indian scrip. The cash the virtue of that policy I am disposed, as far as receipts from all sources in the Land Office my sense of justice will permit, to give to these amounted to $3,218,100. During the same per applications à favorable consideration; but any riod 22,016,608 acres of the public lands were action thereon is not to be construed as indicat- surveyed, which, added to the quantity before ing any change in my determination to enforce surveyed, amounts to 583,364,780 acres, leaving with rigor such acts so long as the conspiracies 1,257,633,628 acres of the public lands still unand combinations therein named disturb the surveyed. peace of the ccuntry.
The reports from the subordinates of the Land It is much to be regretted, and is regretted by Office contain interesting information in regard no one more than myself, that a necessity has to their respective districts. They uniformly ever existed to execute the "enforcement act." mention the fruitfulness of the soil during the No one can desire more than I that the necessity past season, and the increased yields of all kinds of applying it may never again be demanded. of produce. Even in those States and Territo
The policy which was adopted at the beginning ries where mining is the principal business, agriof this administration with regard to the man cultural products have exceeded the local demand, agement of the Indians has been as successful as and liberal shipments have been made to distant its most ardent friends anticipated within so short points. a time. It has reduced the expenses of their During the year ending September 30, 1872, management; decreased their forays upon the there were issued from the Patent Office 13,626 white settlements; tended to give the largest patents; 233 extensions; and 556 certificates and opportunity for the extension of the great rail. registries of trade-marks. During the same time ways through the public domain, and the push- 19,587 applications for patents, including reissues ing of settlements into more remote districts of and designs, have been received, and 3,100 caveats the country; and at the same time improved the filed. The fees received during the same period condition of the Indians. The policy will be amounted to $700,954 86, and the total expendimaintained without any change excepting such tures to $623,553 90, making the net receipts over as further experience may show to be necessary the expenditures $77,400 96. to render it more efficient.
Since 1836, 200,000 applications for patents The subject of converting the so-called Indian have been filed, and about 133,000 patents issued. Territory south of Kansas into a home for the
The amount paid for pensions in the last fiscal limously approved by the leading friends of ed. year was $30,169,340, an amount larger by $3,- ucation, that I commend it to the favorable 708,434 than was paid during the preceding year. attention of Congress. Of this amount $2,313,409 were paid under the act of Congress of February 17, 1871, to surviv- It has seemed to be the policy of the Legislaors of the war of 1812. The annual increase of ture of Utah to evade all responsibility to the pensions by the legislation of Congress has more Government of the United States, and even to than kept pace with the natural yearly losses hold a position in hostility to it. I recommend from the rolls. The act of Congress of June 8, a careful revision of the present laws of the 1872, has added an estimated amount of $750,000 Territory by Congress, and the enactment of per annum to the rolls, without increasing the such a law (the one proposed in Congress at its number of pensioners. We cannot, therefore, last session, for instance, or something similar look for any substantial decrease in the expendi- to it) as will secure peace, the equality of all tures of this department for some time to come, citizens before the law, and the ultimate extinor so long as Congress continues to so change the guishment of polygamy. rates of pension.
Since the establishment of a Territorial gov. The whole number of soldiers enlisted in the ernment for the District of Columbia, the imwar of the rebellion was 2,688,523. The total provement of the condition of the city of Washnumber of claims for invalid pensions is 176,000, ington and surroundings, and the increased being but six per cent. of the whole number of prosperity of the citizens, is observable to the enlisted men. The total number of claims on most casual visitor. The nation, being a large hand at the beginning of the year was 91,689; owner of property in the city, should bear, with the number received during the year was 26,574; the citizens of the District, its just share of the the number disposed of was 39,178; making a expense of these improvements. net gain of 12,604. The number of claims now I recommend, therefore, an appropriation to on file is 79,085.
reimburse the citizens for the work done by them On the 30th of June, 1872, there were on the along and in front of public grounds during the rolls the names of 95,405 invalid military pen- past year; and liberal appropriations in order sioners, 113,518 widows, orphans, and dependent that the improvement and embellishment of the relatives, making an aggregate of 298,923 army public buildings and grounds may keep pace pensioners. At the same time there were on the with the improvements made by the Territorial rolls the names of 1,449 navy pensioners, and authorities. 1,730 widows, orphans, and dependent relatives, making the whole number of naval pensioners The Commissioner makes one recommendation 3,179. There have been received, since the pas--that measures be taken by Congress to protect sage of the act to provide pensions for the sur- and induce the planting of forests, and suggests vivors of the war of 1812, 36,551 applications, that no part of the public lands should be disprior to June 30, 1872. Of these there were al- posed of without the condition that one-tenth lowed, during the last fiscal year, 20,126 claims; of it should be reserved in timber where it exists, 4,845 were rejected during the year, leaving and, where it does not exist, inducements should 11,580 claims pending at that date. The num- be offered for planting it. ber of pensions of all classes granted during the In accordance with the terms of the act of last fiscal year was 33,838. During that period Congress, approved March 3, 1871, providing there were dropped from the rolls, for various for the celebration of the one hundredth anni. causes, 9,104 names, leaving a grand total of versary of American independence, a commission 232,229 pensioners on the rolls on the 30th of has been organized, consisting of two members June, 1872.
from each of the States and Territories. This It is thought that the claims for pensions on commission has held two sessions, and has made account of the war of 1812 will all be disposed satisfactory progress in the organization and in of by the 1st of May, 1873. It is estimated that the initiatory steps necessary for carrying out $30,480,000 will be required for the pension ser- the provisions of the act, and for executing also vice during the next fiscal year.
the provisions of the act of June 1, 1872, creat
ing a centennial board of finance. A prelimiThe rapidly increasing interest in education nary report of progress has been received from is a most encouraging feature in the current his- the president of the commission, and is herewith tory of the country, and it is, no doubt, true transmitted. It will be the duty of the commisthat this is due in a great measure to the efforts sion at your coming session to transmit a full of the Bureau of Education. That office is con- report of the progress made, and to lay before tinually receiving evidences, which abundantly you the details relating to the exhibition of prove its efficiency, from the variocs institutions American and foreign arts, products, and manof learning, and educators of all kinds through- ufactures, which, by the terms of the act, is to out the country.
be held under the auspices of the Government of The report of the Commissioner contains a vast the United States, in the city of Philadelphia, amount of educational details of great interest. in the year 1876. The bill now pending before Congress, providing. This celebration will be looked forward to by for the appropriation of the net proceeds of the American citizens with great interest, as marksales of public lands for educational purposes, to ing a century of greater progress and prosperity aid the States in the general education of their than is recorded in the history of any other rising generation, is a measure of such great nation, and as serving a further good purpose in importance to our real progress, and is so unan- : bringing together, on our soil, peoples of all the
commercial nations of the earth, in a manner the public debt of the United States; and the calculated to insure international good feeling. amount so redeemed was invested in a five per
An earnest desire has been felt to correct cent. registered bond of the United States for abuses which have grown up in the civil service fifteen million five hundred thousand dollars, of the country, through the defective method of which is now held by the Secretary of State, making appointments to office. Heretofore Fed subject to the future disposition of Congress. eral offices have been regarded too much as the reward of political services. Under authority By an act approved on the 14th day of Febof Congress, rules bave beeu established to regu- ruary last, Congress made provision for comlate the tenure of office and the mode of appoint-pleting, jointly with an officer or commissioner ments. It cannot be expected that any system to be named by Her Britannic Majesty, the of rules can be entirely effective, and prove a determination of so much of the boundary-line perfect remedy for the existing evils, until they between the territory of the United States and have been thoroughly tested by actual practice, the possessions of Great Britain as was left unand amended according to the requirements of completed by the commissioners appointed under the service. During my term of office, it shall the act of Congress of August 11, 1856. Under be my earnest endeavor to so apply the rules as the provisions of this act the northwest waterto secure the greatest possible reform in the boundary of the United States has been detercivil service of the Government; but it will re- mined and marked in accordance with the award quire the direct action of Congress to render the of the Emperor of Germany. enforcement of the system binding upon my successors, and I hope that the experience of the I transmit herewith for the consideration and past year, together with appropriate legislation determination of Congress an application of the by Congress, may reach a satisfactory solution republic of Santo Domingo to this Government of this question, and secure to the public service, to exercise a protectorate over that republic. for all time, a practical method of obtaining faithful and efficient officers and employees. I I invite the earnest attention of Congress to
U.S. GRANT. the existing laws of the United States respecting
expatriation and the election of nationality by President Grant's Fifth Annual Mes individuals. Many citizens of the United States sage, December 1, 1873.
reside permanently abroad with their families.
Under the provisions of the act approved FebTo the Senate and House of Representatives : ruary 10, 1855, the children of such persons are
The year that has passed since the submission to be deemed and taken to be citizens of the of my last message to Congress has especially United States, but the rights of citizenship are during the latter part of it-been an event- not to descend to persons whose fathers never ful one to the country. In the midst of great resided in the United States. national prosperity a financial crisis has occurred It thus happens that persons who have never that has brought low fortunes of gigantic pro resided within the United States have been enportions; political partisanship has almost ceased abled to put forward a pretension to the protecto exist, especially in the agricultural regions; tion of the United States against the claim to and finally, the capture upon the high seas of a military service of the Government under whose vessel bearing our flag has for a time threatened protection they were born and have been the most serious consequences, and has agitated reared. In some cases even naturalized citthe public mind from one end of the country to izens of the United States have returned to the other. But this, happily, now is in the the land of their birth, with intent to remain course of satisfactory adjustment, honorable to there, and their children, the issue of a marriage both nations concerned.
contracted there after their return, and who The relations of the United States, however, have never been in the United States, have laid with most of the other powers continue to be claim to our protection, when the lapse of many friendly and cordial. With France, Germany, years had imposed upon them the duty of milRussia, Italy, and the minor European powers ; itary service to the only government which had with Brazil and most of the South American ever known them personally. republics, and with Japan, nothing has occurred Until the year 1868 it was left embarrassed by during the year to demand special notice. conflicting opinions of courts and of jurists to
determine how far the doctrine of perpetual alThe accompanying papers show that some legiance derived from our former colonial relaadvance, although slight, has been made during tions with Great Britain was applicable to the past year toward the suppression of the in American citizens. Congress then wisely swept famous Chinese cooly-trade. I recommend Con- these doubts away by enacting that “any declagress to inquire whether additional legislation ration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of be not needed on this subject.
any officer of this Government which denies, re. The rooney awarded to the United States by stricts, impairs, or questions the right of expathe tribunal of arbitration at Geneva was paid triation, is inconsistent with the fundamental by Her Majesty's government a few days in ad-principles of this Government." But Congress vance of the time when it would have become did not indicate in that statute, nor has it since payable according to the terms of the treaty. done so, what acts are to be deemed to work exIn compliance with the provisions of the act of patriation. For my own guidance in determin March 3, 1873, it was at once paid into the ing such questions, I required (under the proTreasury, and used to redeem, so far as it might, / visions of the Constitution) the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive! The pro-slavery and aristocratic party in Cuba departments upon certain questions relating to is gradually arraigning itself in more and more this subject. The result satisfies me that fur- open hostility and defiance of the home governther legislation has become necessary. I there- ment, while it still maintains a political connesfore commend the subject to the careful consider-tion with the republic in the peninsula; and ation of Congress, and I transmit herewith although usurping and defying the authority of copies of the several opinions of the principal the home government, whenever such usurpation officers of the executive department, together or defiance tends in the direction of oppression with other correspondence and pertinent inform-or of the maintenance of abuses, it is still a ation on the same subject.
power in Madrid, and is recognized by the gov. The United States, who led the way in the ernment. Thus an element more dangerous to overthrow of the feudal doctrine of perpetual continued colonial relations between Cuba and allegiance, are among the last to indicate how Spain than that which inspired the insurrection their own citizens may elect another nationality. at Yara-an element opposed to granting any The papers submitted herewith indicate what is relief from misrule and abuse, with no aspirations necessary to place us on a par with other lead after freedom, commanding no sympathies in ing nations in liberality of legislation on this generous breasts, aiming to rivet still stronger international question. We have already in the shackles of slavery and oppression-has our treaties assented to the principles which seized many of the emblems of power in Cuba, would need to be embodied in laws intended to and, under professions of loyalty to the mother accomplish such results. We have agreed that country, is exhausting the resources of the citizens of the United States may cease to be island, and is doing acts which are at variance citizens, and may voluntarily render allegiance with those principles of justice, of liberality, to other powers. We have agreed that residence and of right, which give nobility of character in a foreign land, without intent to return, to a republic. In the interests of humanity, of shall of itself work expatriation. We have civilization, and of progress, it is to be hoped agreed in some instances upon the length of that this evil influence may be soon averted. time necessary for such continued residence to The steamer Virginius was on the 26th day of work a presumption of such intent. I invite September, 1870, duly registered at the port of Congress now to mark out and define when New York as a part of the commercial marine and how expatriation can be accomplished; to of the United States. On the 4th of October, regulate by law the condition of American women 1870, having received the certificate of her regismarrying foreigners; to fix the status of chil-ter in the usual legal form, she sailed from the dren born in a foreign country of American par- port of New York, and has not since been withents residing more or less permanently abroad, ) in the territorial jurisdiction of the United States. and to make rules for determining such other on the 31st day of October last, while sailing kindred points as may seem best to Congress. under the flag of the United States, on the high
In compliance with the request of Congress, I seas, she was forcibly seized by the Spanish guntransmitted to the American minister at Madrid, boat Tornado, and was carried into the port of with instructions to present it to the Spanish Santiago de Cuba, where fifty-three of her pasGovernment, the joint resolution approved on sengers and crew were inhumanly, and, so far the 3d of March last, tendering to the people of at least as relates to those who were citizens of Spain, in the name and on the behalf of the the United States, without due process of law, American people, the congratulations of Congress put to death. upon the efforts to consolidate in Spain the prin- It is a well-established principle, asserted by ciples of universal liberty in a republican form the United States from the beginning of their of government.
national independence, recognized by Great The existence of this new republic was inau-Britain and other maritime powers, and stated gurated by striking the fetters from the slaves in by the Senate in a resolution passed unani. Porto Rico. This beneficent measure was fol- mously on the 16th of June, 1858, that "Amerilowed by the release of several thousand per- can vessels on the high seas in time of peace, sons illegally held as slaves in Cuba. Next the bearing the American flag, remain under the captain-general of that colony was deprived of jurisdiction of the country to which they bethe power to set aside the orders of his superi. I long; and therefore any visitation, molestation, ors at Madrid, which had pertained to the office or detention of such vessel by force, or by the since 1825. The sequestered estates of Ameri- exhibition of force, on the part of a foreign can citizens, which had been the cause of long power, is in derogation of the sovereignty of the and fruitless correspondence, were ordered to be United States." restored to their owners. All these liberal steps In accordance with this principle, the restowere taken in the face of a violent opposition ration of the Virginius, and the surrender of the directed by the reactionary slaveholders of Ha- survivors of her passengers and crew, and a due vana, who are vainly striving to stay the march reparation to the flag, and the punishment of of ideas which has terminated slavery in Chris- the authorities who had been guilty of the iltendom, Cuba only accepted. Unhappily, how legal acts of violence, were demanded. The ever, this baneful influence has thus far suc- Spanish Government has recognized the justice ceeded in defeating the efforts of all liberal- of the demand, and has arranged for the imminded men in Spain to abolish slavery in mediate delivery of the vessel, and for the surCuba, and in preventing the promised reform in render of the survivors of the passengers and that island. The struggle for political supre. crew, and for a salute to the flag, and for promacy continues there.
| ceedings looking to the punishment of those