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appeal once more to that silent yet conclusive 10. That we condemn the practice of our tribunal, the ballot box, confident that the people public officials in receiving free passes from indorse overwhelmingly the action of this repre- railroads. sentative convention.

11. That the principle of protection as ap

plied to duties on foreign imports is contrary to INDEPENDENT REFORM-JUNE 10, 1874.. the spirit and intent of the Constitution, as it 1. That we insist upon severe retrenchment, creates privileged classes, levying taxes on a reform, and economy in all branches of our pub- large majority for the benefit of the favored few. lic affairs, and believe that, with such economy, We are therefore opposed to all duties levied the tax now collected from the people might be with this end in view as unjust, unequal, and reduced at least one-half without impairing the we insist upon a repeal of all laws laying such efficiency of any branch of the public service, duties, and that taxes shall be levied 'for reveState or National.

nue, and that only. 2. That we demand the immediate reform of 12. That this convention early recommend to abuses in the civil service, through which the the independent voters of the various congrespatronage of the Government is dispensed as a sional and legislative districts and counties of reward for partisan service rather than regard the State to put in nomination at an early day, for the public necessity.

and use their best efforts to elect, candidates who 3. That we are in favor of improving and support the principles herein enunciated. perfecting the navigation of our lakes and rivers 13. That the contract system practiced in the and water connections as soon as it can be prop-construction of our public works, national, State, erly done.

and municipal, has been a fruitful source of cor4. That we are opposed to any further grants ruption and fraud, at the expense of the laborof public lands or loans on public credit, and of ing and mechanical as well as against the public National, State, or local subscriptions in aid of interest, and such system should be revised and corporations.

reformed. 5. That we demand the repeal of our national 14. That we, the Independent Reform party banking law, and believe that Government of the State of Illinois, invite the people of the should issue legal-tender currency direct from State, regardless of past political affiliations, to the Treasury, interchangeable for Government unite with us in the support of the platform bonds, bearing the lowest possible rate of in- and ticket of this convention, and we appeal to terest.

the better judgment of all our business and pro6. That we hold our patent laws are too often fessional men to lend us their aid and sympathy, made to subserve the interests of monopolists, remembering, as they well may, that upon our and that they should be carefully revised and prosperity and happiness depends their success restricted.

in business. 7. That we are opposed to any construction of the State constitution which will justify, un

Indiana. der any pretext whatever, annual instead of biennial sessions of the State Legislature.

REPUBLICAN-JUNE 17, 1874. 8. That the existing railroad legislation of The Republicans of Indiana, assembled in this State should be sustained and enforced un-State convention, do hereby declare: til thoroughly tested before the courts; that we 1. Their unchangeable determination to ad. oppose any legislation by Congress, under the hero to all the fundamental principles of the Replea of regulating commerce between the States, publican party in so far as the future condition which shall deprive the people of their present of the country shall require their enforcement. control and influence through State legislation, As the Union remains unbroken, and the people and that the claim of the railroad companies to of all the sections are again bound together as the right to fix their freights and fares inde- brethren by a common destiny, and under a pendent of the people involves the highest at- common flag, we favor such measures as shall tribute of sovereignty-the right of a conqueror develop the material resources of every portion to levy contributions at will upon a subjugated of it, secure to all of every class and condition people or State. Aod as this power cannot co- full protection in all the just rights of person exist with a government of the people, it must and property, remove all the acerbities of the be resisted.

past, and perpetuate the nation as the model Re9. That the right of the Legislature to regu-l public of the world. late and control the said railroads of the State 2. We recognize that as the true policy of the must be vindicated, established, and maintained Government which shall harmonize all the dias an essential. attribute of State government, versified interests and pursuits necessarily exand that those holding the doctrine that rail- isting in a country of such vast extent as ours; road charters are contracts in the sense that they and as this can be done only by so directing are not subject to legislative supervision and legislation as to secure just protection and recontrol have no just appreciation of the neces- ward to every branch of industry, we are in sary powers and rights of free government, and favor of giving precedence to those measures we will agree to no truce, submit to no compro- which shall recognize agricultural and mechani. mise, short of the complete supremacy of the cal pursuits as entitled to the amplest protection State government in its right, through its Legis- and the fullest development; of putting a stop lature, to supervise and control the railroads of to large grants of the public domain to railroad the State in such manner as the public interests corporations, and reserving it for settlement and may demand.

I cultivation; of improving the navigation of our great inland rivers ; of securing cheap transporta-1 8. Inasmuch as great abuses have grown up tion and profitable markets for the products of | under our present system of fees and salaries, agricultural and manufacturing labor; of en we demand such legislation as will so reduce and couraging such manufactures as shall bring the regulate all fees and salaries as will allow no producer and the consumer in the neigbborhood more than a fair and just compensation for serof each other, and thus to establish mutual rela- vices rendered. tions between them and those engaged in com- 9. We look with pride and satisfaction upon merce and transportation; of properly adjusting our common school system, and regard its mu. the relations between capital and labor in order nificent fund as a sacred trust to be faithfully that each may receive a just and equitable share and honestly administered, so that all the of profits and of holding those in the posses- children of the State may be educated in the dusion of corporate wealth and privilege in strict ties of citizenship, and thereby become the better conformity to law, so that these combined influ- able to perpetuate our popular institutions, and ences of the people of all varied pursuits may be whosoever shall seek to strike it down or impair united together in the common purposes of pre- its usefulness will meet our ceaseless and unreserving the honor of the nation and developing lenting opposition. the immense resources of every section of the 10. We have entire confidence in the integrity Union, and of advancing the social and material and honor of the President of the United States, prosperity of all its industrial and laboring and our Senators and Republican Representaclasses.

tives in Congress are entitled to our thanks for 3. We are in favor of such legislation on the the zeal with which they have represented the question of finances as shall make national bank- principles of the Republican party during the ing free and shall furnish the country with such present session of Congress, and the Republicans an additional amount of currency as may be of Indiana view with especial pride and hearty necessary to meet the wants of the agricultural, approval the course of Senators Morton and industrial, and commercial interests of the coun- Pratt, and the fidelity and ability with which try; to be distributed between the sections ac- they have represented the sentiments of the cording to population, and such as is consistent people of this state. with the credit and honor of the nation will avoid the possibility of permitting capitalists and combinations of capital from controlling the

INDEPENDENTS_June 10, 1874. currency of the country.

1. We propose to restore the Government to 4. We are in favor of such a revision of our its original purpose, and as far as possible to patent right laws as shall destroy the oppress- remedy these evils and remove their results by ive monopoly incident to the present system, and abandoning the gold basis fallacy and establishshall regulate and control the manufacture, use, ing a monetary system based on the faith and and sale of patent right articles for the benefit resources of the Government, and the nation alike of the inventor, consumer, and manufac- in harmony with the genius of the Government, turer.

and adapted to the exigencies of legitimate com5. That the Republican party continues to ex-merce. To this end the circulating notes of the press its gratitude to the soldiers and sailors of national and State banks, as well as all local the Republic for the patriotism, courage, and currency, should be withdrawn from circulation, self-sacrifice with which they gave themselves and a paper currency issued by the Government, to the preservation of the country during the which shall be a legal tender in the payment of late civil war, and will especially recognize the all debts, public and private, duties on imports services of the enlisted by favoring the extension included, and declared equal with gold, the lawfrom time to time, as the ability of the Gov ful money of the United States; this currency ernment will permit, of the pension and bounty or money to be interchangeable, at the pleasure laws.

of the holders, for Government bonds bearing a 6. In the opinion of this convention, intem- low rate of interest, say 3:65; the Government perance is an evil against which society has the creditors to have the privilege of taking the right to protect itself; that our whole system of money or the bonds at their election, reserving legislation throughout the whole history of the to Congress the right to regulate the rate of in. State has asserted and maintained this right, and terest on the bonds and the volume of the curit can not now be surrendered witbout yielding rency, so as to effect the equitable distribution up that fundamental principle of American gov- of the products of labor between money or nonernment which places the power of passing laws producing capital and productive industry; by in the hands of a majority. Therefore, we are paying the national debt in strict accordance in favor of such legislation as will give a major- with the laws under which it was originally conity of the people the right to determine for them- tracted, in gold where specifically promised, but selves, in their respective towns, townships, or all other forms of indebtedness, including the wards, whether the sale of intoxicating liquors principal of the five-twenty bonds, should be for use as a beverage shall be permitted thern, discharged at the earliest option of the Governand such as will hold the vender responsible for ment in the legal tender currency of the United all damages resulting from such sales.

States, without funding it in long bonds, or in 7. We favor the enactment of a law limiting any way increasing the gold paying and untaxed the power of township trustees, county commis. obligations of the Government. sioners, and municipal authorities to assess taxes 2. That we are in favor of the office seeking and increase township, county, and municipal the man, and not the man the office; that we indebtedness.

I will endeavor to select men to fill the various offices who are honest and capable, without re- such obligations were issued; and we declare gard to former political opinions; that we detest that, in the absence of any express provision to bribery, corruption, and fraud in obtaining votes, the contrary, the obligations of the Government, either by the use of money or whiskey, and will when issued and placed upon the market of the not support any man for office known to be world, are payable in the world's currency, to guilty of the same, and that we are opposed to wit, specie. electing any man to fill the same office more 3. That, under the Constitution of the United than for one term in succession, from the Presi- States, Congress has the power to regulate all dent down.

commerce among the several States, whether 3. That we uncompromisingly condemn the carried on by railroads or by other means, and, practice of our public officials in receiving free in the exercise of that power may and should so passes from railroad managers.

legislate as to prohibit, under suitable penalties, 4. That we denounce the action of our Leg- all extortion, unjust discrimination, and other islature and Representatives in Congress and the wrong and unjust conduct, on the part of persons Senate for the increase of taxes, fees, and sala- or corporations engaged in such commerce, and ries, and we will use all honorable means in our by virtue of the same constitutional power, Conpower to reduce the taxes, fees, and salaries of gress may and should provide for the improve. all to a reasonable basis.

ment of our great national waterways. 5. That we demand a reduction of all public 4. That the State has the power and it is its expenditures, to the end that taxation may be duty to provide by law for the regulation and reduced to the lowest possible limit.

control of railway transportation within its own 6. That it is contrary to the policy of good limits; and we demand that the laws of this government to encourage litigation, and that the State, passed for this purpose at the last session allowing of ten per cent. on judgments and the of the General Assembly, shall be upheld and collecting of attorney's fees off defendant on- enforced until they shall be superseded by other courages litigation, favors capital, and is a legislation or held unconstitutional by a proper source of corruption, and subserves no good pur- judicial tribunal. pose, and therefore ought to be remedied by ap- 5. That we feel bound to provide all appropropriate legislation.

priate legislation for the full and equal protec7. That the present assessment law of real tion of all citizens, white or black, native or estate imposes unequal and unjust burdens on foreign born, in the enjoyment of all rights the producing classes, and favors capital and guaranteed by the Constitution of the United corporate wealth, and we demand its speedy States and the amendments thereto. amendment.

6. That the reduction of $27,000.000 in the 8. That we demand a change in our grand estimated General Government expenses for the jury system, that their jurisdiction extend to coming fiscal year meets with our hearty coinfelonies only.

mendation, and shows that the Republican 9. That no party is worthy our confidence party, on questions of retrenchment and econwho denies the right of the people to restrict the omy, is carrying out in good faith their oftabuses of the liquor traffic.

repeated pledges to the people.

7. That we are in favor of an amendment to Iowa.

the Constitution of the United States, providing

for the election of President and Vice President REPUBLICAN-JULY 1, 1874.

| by direct vote of the people. 1. That as the policy of the Republican party in 8. That, wbile inventors should be protected relation to the finances has afforded the people in their just rights of property in their invennot only a safe, sound, and popular currency of tions, we demand such modification of our patent equal and uniform worth in every portion of laws as shall render the same more fair and our commonwealth, but has likewise greatly equitable to consumers. improved the credit of the country at home and *9. That the faith of the Republican party is abroad, we point with pride to its record and pledged to promote the best good of the civil accomplishments in this regard, and while reaf- service of the country, and that we, as the Refirming the policy announced by the party in publicans of Iowa, demand that only honest the National Conventions of 1868 and 1872, and and capable men be elected or appointed to office, triumphantly indorsed by the people at the and that we commend the position of the party polls-a policy which, while contributing to the in instituting investigations into corruption in public credit, has also enhanced the individual office, sparing therein neither friends nor foes. and collective prosperity of the American people; 10. That, since the people may be entrusted we favor such legislation as shall make national with all questions of governmental reform, we banking free to all under just and equal laws, favor the final submission to the people of the based upon the policy of specie resumption, at question of amending the Constitution so as to such time as is consistent with the material and extend the rights of suffrage to women, purindustrial interests of the country, to the end suant to the action of the fifteenth General Asthat the volume of currency may be regulated sembly. by the natural laws of trade.

2. That we reaffirm the declaration of the Republican national platform of 1872 in favor of

ANTI-MONOPOLIST-JUNE 24, 1874. the payment by the Government of the United That we, the delegated representatives of the States of all its obligations, in accordance with people of Iowa, favorable to the organization of both letter and spirit of the laws under which lan independent political party, laying aside past differences of opinion, and earnestly upiting in ation should be imposed upon the basis of revecommon purposes to secure needed reform in the nue alone, and be so adjusted as to yield the administration of public affairs, cordially unite minimum amount required for the legitimate in submitting these declarations: that all politi- expenditures of the Government, faithfully and cal power is inherent in the people; That no economically administered, and that taxation to government is worthy of preservation, or should an extent necessary to the accumulation of a be respected, which does not derive its power suplus revenue in the treasury subjects the people from the consent of the governed by equal and to needless burdens, and affords à temptation to just laws; that the inestimable rights of life, extravagance and official corruption. liberty, and pursuit of happiness should be se- 1 6. That railroads and all other corporations cured to all men, without distinction of race, for pecuniary profit should be rendered subsercolor, or nativity; that the maintenance of these vient to the public good. That we demand such principles is essential to the prosperity of our reconstitutional necessary legislation upon this publican institutions, and that to this end the subject, both State and national, as will effectuFederal Constitution, with all the amendments, ally secure the industrial and producing interests the rights of States and the union of States, must of the country against all forms of corporate and shall be preserved. That the maintenance monopoly and extortion, and that the existing inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially railroad legislation of this State should faithof the right of each State to order and control its fully be enforced until experience may have own domestic institutions according to its own demonstrated the propriety and justice of its judgment exclusively, is indispensable to that modification. balance of power on which the perfection and 7. That while demanding that the railroads endurance of our political fabric depends, and be subject to legislative control, we shall disthat we denounce as a criminal excess of consti-countenance any action on this subject calculated tutional power the policy of President Grant's to retard the progress of railroad enterprise, or administration, in fostering enormities perpe- work injustice to these invaluable auxiliaries trated in certain States of the Union, in arbitra- to commerce and civilization. rily interfering with their local affairs, in sus 8. That the limitation of the Presidency to taining therein the usurpation of aliens and one term, and the election of the President, Vice irresponsible adventurers, who, by certain men, President, and United States Senators by a direct have been illegally invested with official author- popular vote, and through the reform of our ity, and others deprived of their constitutional civil service to the end that capacity and fidelity rights, oppressive enactments, burdensome taxa- be made the essential qualifications for election tion imposed, an immense and fictitious indebt- and appointment to office, are the proposed reedness created, resulting in the degradation of forms which meet our hearty indorsement. these States, and the general impoverishment of 9. That we demand such a modification of the their people; that the conduct of the present ad- patent laws as shall destroy the monoply now ministration in its bold defiance of public senti- enjoyed by manufactures of agricultural and ment and disregard of the common good; in its other implements of industry. prodigality and wasteful extravagance; in the 10. That personal liberty and social rights of innumerable frauds perpetrated under its author- citizens should not be abridged or controlled by ity; in its disgraceful partiality for and rewards legislative enactments, except in so far as may of unworthy favorites; in its reckless and un- be necessary to promote the peace and welfare stable finance policy, and in its total incapacity of society. to meet the vital questions of the day and pro- 11. That holding in grateful remembrance the vide for the general welfare, stands without a soldiers and sailors who fought our battles, parallel in our national history, and the highest and by whose heroism the nation was preconsideration of duty requires the American served, we insist that Congress shall equalize people, in the exercise of their inherent sover- bounties and grant to each one of them, or to eignty, to correct these accumulating evils, and his widow and children, a homestead of 160 acres bring the Government back to its ancient land- of land from the unappropriated domain of the marks of patriotism and economy.

country. 4. That the faith and credit of the nation must be maintained inviolate; that the public debt,

Maine. of whatever kind, should be paid in strict ac. cordance with the law under which it was con

REPUBLICAN-JUNE 18, 1874. tracted; that an over-issue of paper money 1. That the Republican party should not be being at variance with the principles of sound content with its past record, but, reiterating its financial policy, the circulating medium should former declaration of principles, should move be based upon its redemption in specie at the forward to meet new issues as they arise. earliest practicable day, and its convertibility 2. That it is a high and plain duty to return into specie equivalent at the will of the holder, to a specie basis at the earliest practicable day, and that, subject to these restrictions, it is the not only in compliance with legislative and party duty of Congress to so provide by appropriate pledges, but as a step indispensable to lasting legislation that the volume of our Government material prosperity. currency shall at all times be adequate to the 3. That we believe the time has come when general business and commerce of the country, this can be done, or at least begun, with less and be equitably distributed among the several embarrassment to every branch of industry than States.

at a future time, after resort has been made to 5. That tariffs and all other modes of taxa-l unstable and temporary expedients to stimulate unreal prosperity and speculation, on a basis I should be performed by those who are found to other than coin as the recognized medium of be best qualified therefor, and there is seen, in exchange throughout the commercial world. the recent action of the Republican Congress on

4. That the Republican party of Maine ap- this subject, a humiliating confession that the proves of the action of the President in vetoing party in power cannot dispense with the proof the bill known as the currency bill.

afforded by public plunder. 5. That our delegation in Congress are entitled 6. That the undeniable corruptions pervading to the gratitude of the people for their earnest all departments of the General Government are and effectual opposition to jobbery, extrava- themselves ample arguments against the contingance, and corruption, and for their efforts in uance of the party now in power, and proof that behalf of honest and economical government. it deserves the righteous indignation of the

6. That this Convention views with lively people. satisfaction the increasing indications that the The 7th indorses J. A. Titcomb for Governor. vast water power of the State is being more understood and appreciated as our strongest reli

Vermont. ance for the increase of wealth and population, and expresses its earnest sympathy for all judi

REPUBLICAN_JUNE 17, 1874. cious measures which tend to encourage capital! 1. That the Republicans of Vermont again and labor to engage in manufactures in Maine, affirm their adhesion to the declaration of the as the most effective means of developing its principles and policy of the National Republican agricultural, maritime, and commercial interests. party in its last National Convention." The 7th indorses Governor Dingley.

2. That the events of the national campaign of 8. That we recognize not only the correctness 1872, and the history of public affairs since then, of the principle, but its importance, and necessity bave fully justified our party in its action, and of judicious prohibitory liquor laws, believing have clearly shown that now, as heretofore, it them to be superior to any plan of license or alone can be relied upon to maintain and prelocal option, and that the enactment, mainte- serve the great results of the overthrow of the nance, and enforcement of such a law is a duty rebellion, in giving and securing liberty and which we owe to the people.

equal rights to all citizens alike; in spreading

the principles of real Republicanism and just DEMOCRATIO—JUNE 23, 1874.

government; in making labor everywhere hon

orable; in protecting the people against-reaction 1. That an inflated and irredeemable paper in aid of the principles of the "lost cause" and Currency is among the worst evils that can afflict its friends; and in guarding now and in the fua community. It enables cunning and unscrupu- tare the Treasury of the nation from being delous speculators to rob producers of the fruits of pleted by claims for losses incurred in the rebel. their labors, and afflicts every reputable business | lion. with the peril of continual panic and disaster. 3. That while we hail with joy every step toWe regard a currency based on specie redemp-ward permanent peace and obedience to the law tion as the only one upon which the business of in the States lately in rebellion, and pledge our. the country can safely be trusted, and hold that selves to aid in promoting the welfare and hapwe should, as rapidly as possible, approximate piness of the people thereof, we do not mean to to such a circulating medium.

forget that the cause of the Union and its noble 2. That a protective tariff is a most unjust, defenders is sacred, and ought to be steadily and unequal, oppressive, and wasteful mode of rais publicly kept in view as the pole star of the fuing the public revenues. It is one of the most ture progress of the Republic. frequent and fruitful sources of corruption of 4. That we express our full approval of the ad. administration. We, therefore, the Democracy ministration of the President of our choice, and of Maine, in convention assembled, declare for congratulate him and our party that it is willing free trade and in favor of unfettered and unre- and able to punish wrongs and rectify abuses stricted commerce.

wherever found, and that it does not like the 3. That the recent action of the Republican former administrations of our adversaries, pallimajority in the United States Senate, in attempt ate or cover up the shortcomings of any of the ing to revive the worst features of the sedition public servants. law of John Adams's administration, and to es- 5. That we stand by the oft-repeated and cartablish a censorship of the press of the country dinal doctrine of our party, that a currency alat the Federal capital, declares a purpose to ways redeemable in coin is the only true and safe silence all criticism of the conduct of public men, one for the honesty and welfare of the commuand as such demands the severest condemnation nity, as it is for the honor and good name of the of every freeman in the land.

nation; that we condemn all steps, direct or in4. That the framers of our Constitution erected direct, in any other direction than toward early a system of government the corner-stone of which resumption, and that we earnestly thank the was local control of local affairs, which for nearly President for his steadfast and active support of & century held the States in the Union as har- these principles by the exercise of his constitumoniously as the planets hold their places in the tional power. heavens, and it is among the gravest faults of 6. That the tax and tariff laws ought to be so the Republican party that it has wantonly over- framed as to aid in the promotion and protection awed and prostituted the government of the of American industry. several States.

17. That we favor all proper and prudent meas5. That the civil service of the Government lures for the improvement of internal communi.

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