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CIVIL SERVICE NOTES. The labor force in the navy yards (about 125 employments, such as draftsmen, ordnance men, machinists, calkers, oakum makers and spinners, dredgers, divers, drillers, &c., about 5,000 men), was put on a merit basis by Benj. F. Tracy in 1891. There are yards at Brooklyn, Boston, Portsmouth, N. H., Philadelphia (League Island); San Francisco (Mare Island); Washington, D. C., Norfolk, Va., and Pensacola, Fla., with stations at New London, Ct., Port Royal, S. C., &c.

Tracy's order was made permanent by Cleveland on Nov. 2, 1896.

In the railway mail service the number of pieces distributed correctly to each error in 1884 was 3,872; in 1894, 7,832 ; 1895, 8,894 ; 1896, 9,843. The drop to 2,834 in 1890 was caused by wholesale partisan removals in the spring of 1889, just prior to the introduction of the merit system in the railway mail service.

The number of persons examined from July 16, 1883, to June 30, 1890, was 86,678; (see page xvi); from July 1, 1890, to June 30, 1891, 19,074; to 1892, 19,460 ; 1893, 24,838; 1894, 37,379 ; '95, 31,036 ; '96, 31,179—total, 249,644; passed, 156,368; appointed, 48,421.

The number of women examined from January 16, 1886, to June 30, 1894, was 16,802 ; 1895, 3,632 ; '96, 2,767—total, 23, 201; passed, 17,038. Of the 73,000 postmasters about 7,000 are women, Virginia leading with over 500. In the Washington classified service about a serenth are women, with a much larger proportion in the unclassified.

There are nearly 2,500 colored employés in the public service in Washington-classified and unclassified. Many colored men and a few colored women, graduates of colored schools and colleges in the South, have passed examinations and been appointed to office.

INDEX TO SECOND APPENDIX, ETC. ADAMS J. attacks Mr. Lee, 237. Huxley T. H. on comparison, 177. Andrews C.C. on cousuls, 185. Jones George, testimony of, 240. Bateman N. veracity of, 244.

Lamon W. H. on Lincoln, 84, 240, Butler P. rash speeches of, 236. 243, 244, 247. Butler Wm. nobility 247.

Lincoln A. wrongdoing of, 239,248 Butler's (Benjamin F.) two offers Maclay Wm. journal of, 233-238;

of the vice-presidency, 241-2. neglects to record “sundry arCameron S. testimony of, 242. guments,” sublime sentiment of, Carroll C. power removal, 236. &c. (notes) 234, 237, 238. Chandler Ž. bluntness of, 246. Matheuy Jas. H. testimony of, 243. Chase Salmon P. ambition of, 242. McClure Alex. K. refutes Nicolay, Clerks, governmental use of, 238. 239-242 ; notes, 241, 243. Cleveland Convention (note) 246. Nicolay J. G. mistakes of, 239, 243. Cleveland G. mistake of (note) 97. Paterson W. power removal, 237. Dana Charles A. testimony of, 241. Pettis S. Newton, testimony of, 239 Dilke on Victorian civil service, 181 Polk James K. journal of, 93. Egypt, ancient, civil service of, 238 Prentiss S. S. on spoils system, 176 Ellsworth 0. venerates President, Rice A. T. obligation world to, 242.

235; figurative speech of, 236. Sickles D. E. testimony of, 241, 243 Frémont-Cochrane, nobility of, 246. Smith J. deceived by Lincoln, 244. Grayson W. unfounded fear of, 237. Socrates, political views of, 116. Grote G. historical notes, 116, 238. Stone Wm. M. testimony of, 241. Hamlin H. forbearance of, 239-40. Swett L. sent for by Lincoln, 240; Hay John, testimony of, 247. great sagacity of (note) 243. Herndon W. H. on Lincoln, 244–7. Truman B. C. testimony of, 241.

For regular Index see page 249.

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PREFACE.

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The improvements in the revised editions of this work consist in two Appendixes and Indexes, the addition of fresh matter to about fifty pages of the text, and the correction of errors.

The Appendixes possess much historical value, for they contain quotations as pertinent and interesting as any in the body of the book.

The increase in the scope of the civil service law by Presidents Harrison and Cleveland, especially the latter, has left little to be desired by reformers, except (1) the inclusion within the rules of the diplomatic and consular services; (2) the extension of metropolitan postoffices to include neighboring fourth-class postoffices; (3) the adoption by State and municipal governments of the merit sys. tem; (4) the repeal of the 4-years' term law. When this is attained the struggle for civil service reform will have ended.

In the State of New York, during the past eight or ten years, civil service reform has been greatly hampered by the interference of so-called political · bosses.' But as bad as this is, their interference (1) with nominations to office, (2) with general legislation, is

The dictation of nominations to office and the interference with legislation by irresponsible, unofficial, and corrupt politicians is a step toward anarchy. With corrupt politicians and their followers the words Democrat and Republican are meaningless, for they are actuated, as Franklin warned us (1787), solely by two passions, anıbition and avarice." (See p. 88.) In New York reform in both nominations to office and legislation are now more needed than all other reforms. Nominations to office should depend on merit. Men of merit have filled legislative offices during the time, mentioned, but they were the exception to the rule. It is time to elect men to the Legislature, not “ boss '-ruled mercenaries. If men cannot afford to serve at present salaries, increase the salaries—tenfold if necessary. The State is able to pay for integrity and talent. In the Excelsior State legislative offices should be posts of honor-not of reproach.

The usurpatory proclamation and also the bill referred to on page 245 were printed in the New York Tribune of July 11, 1864.

NEW YORK, January, 1897.

worse.

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PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

The warning of Story and Washington concerning the dangers of party spirit, should be read and heeded by every Ameri

Parties, when they strive solely for principle, are the life of a nation ; but when they strive solely for pelf, patronage, and power, they are its death. Even corrupt party leaders may destroy a republic; sometimes even ambitious leaders may do so. Did a nation ever strive harder to preserve its integrity than did our own during the slaveholders' rebellion ? Who but ambitious party leaders caused that rebellion ?

Some truthful words concerning the crime of buying and selling votes have been added to page 52. This evil cannot be too soon remedied. Voters should be educated up to a higher standard. The American who acknowledges any man as his political - boss," at the

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polls or elsewhere, disgraces the name American. Independent voting and an educational test for voters are what is wanted. The man who cannot both read and write either the English or some other language, should not be allowed to vote. A few words concerning the crime of business men neglecting to vote would be an important supplement to page 52.

The subject of civil service reform is still one of the greatest issues of the day. The Christian Register (Boston) truly says: yet on the threshold of this the most important reformation in American political history.Other newspapers have testified to the same effect, extracts from a few of which appear on page 256.

There is much work yet to be done. But the outlook is hopeful. If civil service reformers are as vigilant in the future as they have been in the past, ultimate victory is assured. A people who have the intelligence to discover their mistakes and the courage to correct them, are capable of self-government; otherwise they are not.

NEW YORK, May, 1891.

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. The chief object of this work is to defend the principles of the national Civil Service Law. It is not a criticism of the law, nor does it treat to any great extent of civil service economy as such, except in so far as the subject is expounded incidentally; but with ability and, in the aggregate, successfully, by many American statesmen, extracts from whose works embellish and enrich its pages. These extracts constitute a great part of the civil service history and literature of the country, particularly its early history and literature, and therefore constitute much of the value of this volume. This is well, and is besides opportume, for the subject of civil service reform is one of the greatest issues of the day, and too much light cannot be hed upon it. A work that even aids elucidating such an important subject ought to be acceptable; indeed it seems to be one of the needs of the times.

The fact that one chapter of the work is mostly devoted to corruption at elections and remedial election laws, only adds to its value, for the subject is collateral and of great importance, of as great importance perhaps as civil service reform itselt:

Whatever may be said of the original parts of the volume, the compiled parts are certainly both useful and instructive reading, and ought to aid in elevating and purifying American politics.

The importance of a sound civil service policy was never better illustrated perhaps than by the New York Times of May 10, 1864. Speaking of Mr. Sumner's civil service bill, it said the subject was second in importance only to the crushing of the then rebellion. The Times was then under the editorial direction of Mr. Henry J. Raymond, a statesman and one of the best known editors of his day.

I am indebted to Mr. George William Curtis, the President of the National Civil Service Reform League, for valuable suggestions and encouragement to persevere in my researches, and also to the Astor Library for the use of many books. Other obligations are acknowledged here and there throughout the volume.

NEW YORK, July, 1888.

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