Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

CHAPTER IV.

THE FARMER'S INTEREST IN GOOD SEED, AND HOW TO TEST SEED

The farmer is especially interested in obtaining seed free from such noxious weeds as Canada thistle, quack grass and dodder. To avoid the introduction of such weeds, the seeds should be examined by the experiment station in the state in which the farmer is located or by the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. It is customary in the seed laboratory to secure an average sample, thoroughly mixed, of the seed to be examined; then to weigh out 2 or 5 grams and separate out the impurities, such as weed seeds, dirt, chaff, etc. The remaining seed is then weighed and the amount of impurities determined. When a given quantity of weed seed is large this is weighed separately and the per cent of impurity obtained. A more accurate way is to use the table given below. This method is fairly accurate. We have for a number of years checked these results with those determined by weighing. If the weighing method is used, the analyst gives the total impurities and names those found.

The following table showing the number of seeds to the gram of various species of weed seeds was compiled by D. C. Snyder and Charlotte M. King in the Botanical Laboratory of the Iowa state college. To ascertain the number of seeds per pound in any given variety multiply the number per gram by 453.584.

NUMBER OF SEEDS TO THE GRAM IN WEED SEEDS FOUND AS IMPURITIES IN
CLOWER SEED. PREPARED BY D. C. SNYDER AND C. M. KING
Abutilon Theophrasti (Velvet Leaf)
A cnida tuberculata (Water Hemp). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,800

A marantus retroflexus (Tumbleweed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,684 Arctium Lappa (Burdock).............................. - 320 Brassica arvensis (Field Mustard). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - 496 Brassica nigra (Black Mustard). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,28o Camelina sativa (False Flax) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 900 Cassia Chamaecrista (Partridge Pea). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - II9 Chenopodium album (Lamb's Quarter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I,440 Cirsium arvense (Canada Thistle). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88o Cirsium discolor (Field Thistle). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Cirsium lanceolatum (Bull Thistle). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62o Cirsium lanceolatum (dup.)..................... . . . . . . . . - 456 Cuscuta arvensis (Dodder)................... . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,688 Cuscuta Epithymum (Clover Dodder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,840 Cyperus esculentus (Nut Grass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 540 Datura Stramonium (Jimson Weed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Digitaria sanguinalis (Crab Grass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,640 Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard Grass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I,400 Euphorbia Preslii (Spurge). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,720 Hibiscus trionum (Bladder Kermia). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3O4 Ipomoea purpurea (Morning Glory). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Lepidium apetalum (Pepper Grass)............. . . . . . . . . . . . 2,515 Medicago lupulina (Trefoil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Medicago sativa (Alfalfa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Melilotus alba (Sweet Clover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Monarda fistulosa (Horsemint) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,08o Nepeta Cataria (Catnip). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,076 Oxybaphus nyctaginea (Oxybaphus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4O4 Panicum capillare (Old Witch Grass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,592 Phleum pratens (Timothy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,888 Plantago aristata (Bracted Plantain). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Plantago lanceolata (Ribgrass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,156 Plantago Rugelii (immature). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,176 Plantago Rugelii (Rugel's plantain). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I,704 Poa pratensis (Blue Grass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,050 Poa serotina (False Red Top). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Io,370 Polygonum Convolvulus (Bindweed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Polygonum Lapathifolium (Pale Smartweed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Polygonum pennsylvanicum (Smartweed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2OO Polygonum Persicaria (Lady's Thumb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712 Potentilla mons peliensis (Five-finger). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,880 Rumex Acetosella (Sheep Sorrel). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2OO Rumex crispus (Curly Dock). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 Rumex obtusifolius (Dock). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 Saponaria Vaccaria (Cowherb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Scrophularia marilandica (Simpson Weed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,690 Setaria glauca (Pigeon Grass), immature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 Setaria glauca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Setaria italica (Millet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail), immature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,140

Setaria viridis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 THE FARMER'S INTEREST IN GOOD SEED 29

Silene stellata (Catchfly) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90o Thalictrum purpurascens (Meadow-rue). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Trifolium hybridum (Alsike Clover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,604 Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 Trifolium repens (White Clover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I,904 Verbena stricta (Vervain). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,028 Perbena urticaefolia (Vervain). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,408

Mr. J. R. Campbell has kindly worked out the following formula for determining the percentage of impurities in some of the different agricultural seeds. A table is herewith appended giving the number of seeds in one per cent of one teaspoonful or 5 grams of clover seed, and one per cent of one teaspoonful or 4 grams of timothy seed.

Analysis of Seed (Approximate).-In making an analysis of red clover or any other seed, the sample should be thoroughly mixed. If we have a sack of seed, a handful should be taken from the top, another from the middle, and another from the bottom of sack. Mix them in a pasteboard box, plate or anything handy; then take a pinch here and there until we have a slightly rounding teaspoonful. (Use common tin teaspoon.) Do not have it more than slightly rounding or the figures will be inacCurate.

Pour this out on a sheet of white paper, or glass, and with the aid of a toothpick, lead pencil or anything convenient, separate the good clover into one pile and the weed seed and dirt into another. Then with the help of the manual in identification, separate the different weed seeds and count them. Next find the percentages of each, using the table for this purpose. For example, suppose there are I2O seeds of crab grass and 16 seeds of buckhorn. The table says 182 seeds of crab grass are equal to 1 per cent. Therefore I2O seeds equal 12% so of 1 per cent, or .659 per cent, and since 57 seeds of buckhorn equals 1 per cent, 16 seeds equal 1%t of I per cent, or .28 per cent. The sum of both is .939 per cent, a little less than one per cent. The weight of the dirt will have to be guessed at, as it varies greatly with different kinds.

(The above method is for the use of those who have not the apparatus for an exact analysis. The results are, of course, only approximate, but are near enough for the purpose of the law.)

NUMBER OF SEEDS REQUIRED To MAKE I PER cent BY weight of 5-GRAM SAMPLE (EQUAL To one TEASPOONFUL of seed)

Timothy CLOVERS OR MILLET Alfalfa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 18 Alsike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8o 64 Barnyard grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7o 56 Black bindweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 9 Black mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5.I Blue grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 682 Bracted plantain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3o Buckhorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 45 Bull thistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 19 Burdock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 I2 Canada thistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 36 Catchfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 36 Catnip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 43 Chicory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4O 32 Cinquefoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 475 Cirsium discolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7% Cow herb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 9 Crab grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 I45 Curled dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 28 Cuscuta arvensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 67 Cuscuta trifolii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 156 Cyperus esculentus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 25 Dog fennel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Io I68 False flax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 36 False red top. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 4I4. Foxtail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4O 32 Horsemint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 43 Jimson weed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 Lady's thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e e e e 36 28 Lamb's quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e 72 57 Mallow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e I5 I2 Meadow-rue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2O Millet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2I

Morning glory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - e. e. e. e - 2. I 3-5

THE FARMER'S INTEREST IN GOOD SEED

CLOWERS Oxybaphus ........................ - - - - - - - - - - - 2O Partridge pea ................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 Pepper grass......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 126 Pigeon grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2O Pigweed .................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I34 Polygonum pennsylvanicum ........... - - - - - - - - Io Quack grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ragweed ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Red clover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - 33 Rugel's plantain ............................. 85 Rumex obtusifolius ........................... 43 Sheep sorrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roo Simpson weed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Smartweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Smooth crab grass......................... ... 185 Spurge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - - - - - - - - - - - 86 Sweet clover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 Timothy...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . I44 Velvet leaf ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 Verbena stricta ... . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5.I Water hemp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - I4O White clover ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 95 Wild carrot ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Wild mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 Wild oats ... . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 Witch grass .............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13o

31

[ocr errors]

Yellow trefoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34.

13% 26 68 34 8o 467 25 148 68 19 115 4. 4I II2 76 5o 2O

1% IO4 27

« AnteriorContinuar »