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First. When meadow fescue (Festuca elation pratensis), English rye grass (Lolium perenne) or Italian rye grass (Lolium italicum) is labeled or sold under name of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) seed. Second. When Canadian blue grass (Poa compressa) seed, red top (Agrostis alba) seed, or any other se id not blue grass seed, is sold under the name of Kentucky blue grass or blue grass (Poa pratensis) seed. Third. When yellow trefoil (Medicago lupulina), bur clover (Medi. cago denticulata) or sweet clover (Melilotus alba) is sold under the name of clover, June clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense), medium red clover, small red clover, mammoth red clover, sapling clover, peavine clover (T. pratense var.), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed. Fourth. When the seeds are not true to name under which they are sold. SEC. 15. The provisions concerning agricultural seeds contained in this act shall not apply to: First. Any person or persons growing or selling seeds for food purposes only, or having such seeds in possession for sale for such purposes. Second. Any person selling seeds direct to merchants to be cleaned or graded before being offered for sale for the purpose of seeding. This shall not, however, exeimpt the seller from the restrictions of section ten (Io) of this act. Third. Seed that is held in storage for the purpose of being recleaned, and which has not been offered, exposed or held in possession of or for sale for the purpose of seeding. Fourth. Seed marked “not absolutely clean,” and held or sold for export outside the state only. Fifth. The sale of seed that is grown, sold and delivered by any farmer on his own premises for seeding by the purchaser himself, unless the purchaser of said seeds obtains from the seller at the time of the sale thereof a certificate that the said seed is supplied to the purchaser subject to the provisions of this act. Sixth. Mixtures of seeds for lawn or pasture purposes. This shall not, however, exempt the seller of such mixtures of seeds from the restrictions of sections ten (10) and eleven (11) of this act. Sec. 16. The following standards of purity (meaning freedom from weed seeds or other seeds) and viability are hereby fixed:

STANDARD OF PURITY AND WIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL SEEDS

- Per cent of Per cent of gerName of Seed purity minable seeds

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). . . . . . . . . . . . 96 8o
Barley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 90
Blue grass, Canadian (Poa compressa). . 90 45
Blue grass, Kentucky (Poa pratensis). . 8O 45
Brome, awnless (Bromus inermis)..... 90 75
Clover, alsike (Trifolium hybridum). . . 90 75
Buckwheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 90
Clover, crimson (Trifolium incarnatum) 98 85

Clover, red (Trifolium pratense). . . . . . 92 8o

Per cent of Per cent of ger

Name of Seed purity minable seeds

Clover, white (Trifolium repens)...... 90 75
Corn, field (Zea mays)........... - - - - - 99 94.
Corn, sweet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - 99 75
Fescue, meadow (Festuca pratensis).... 95 85
Flax (Linum usitatissimum).......... 96 89
Millet, common (Setaria italica)....... 90 85
Millet, hog (Panicum miliaceum). . . . . . 90 . 85
Millet, pearl (Pennisetum typhoideum). 99 65
Oats (Avena sativa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 90
Oat grass, tall (Arrhenatherum avena-

ceum). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 7o
Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). . . 7o 7o
Rape (Brassica rapa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 90
Red Top (Agrostis alba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 7o
Rye (Secale cereale)......... - - - - - - - - 98 90
Rye grass, perennial (Lolium perenne). 96 90
Rye grass, Italian (Lolium italicum). . . . 95 8O
Sorghum (Andropogon sorghum). . . . . . 96 8o
Sorghum, for fodder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6o
Timothy (Phleum pratense)........... 96 85
Wheat (Triticum) ................... 98 90

Sec. 17. It is hereby made the duty of the state food and dairy commissioner to enforce the provisions of this act. The inspectors, assistants and chemists appointed by the state food and dairy commissioner shall perform the same duties and have the same authority under this act as are prescribed by chapter one hundred and sixty-six (166), laws of the thirty-first general assembly, and the said state food and dairy commissioner may appoint, with the approval of the executive council, such analysts and chemists as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this act.

Sec. 18. Whoever sells, offers or exposes for sale any of the seeds specified in sections thirteen (13) and fourteen (14) of this act which are mixed, adulterated or misbranded, or any agricultural seeds which do not comply with sections ten (Io), eleven (11) and twelve (12) of this act, or who shall counterfeit or use a counterfeit of any of the tags prescribed by this act; or who shall prevent or attempt to prevent any inspector in the discharge of his duty from collecting samples or who shall violate any of the provisions of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars ($100) and costs of prosecution; provided, that no one shall be convicted for violation of the provisions of section ten (10) of this act if he is able to show that the weed seeds named in section ten (1o) are present in quantities not more than one in ten thousand, and that due diligence has been used to find and remove said seeds.

Sec. 19. There is hereby appropriated, for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this act, a sum not exceeding three thousand dollars ($3,000) annually. Such expense shall be paid by warrant of the state auditor upon bills filed by the state food and dairy commissioner with the executive council and approved by them. All fees collected under the provisions of this act shall be paid into the state treasury.

The above law has been enacted nearly in the above form in several states as Washington and Wisconsin. There are also laws in Kentucky, Maine, North Dakota, Michigan, New York, and Canada. The laws of Kentucky, Maine and Canada have been in operation longer than in Iowa. The Maine law is based on a guaranty. The Iowa law fixes standards of vitality and purity. It is well known that vitality varies from year to year. This cannot well be fixed by statute. At a recent meeting of the American Association of Official Seed Analysts in conference with a committee of the American Seed Trade Association, and the Wholesale Seedsmen's League and Wholesale Grass Seed Dealers' Association, agreement was reached to recommend uniform state seed legislation and require that seeds shall be sold under a guaranty rather than the Iowa law, which fixes the purity and vitality. Each state will naturally exclude certain weeds. In Iowa the Canada thistle, dodder and quack grass should be excluded.

CHAPTER VII.
WEEDS OF SPECIAL CROPS

Weeds of Meadows and Pastures.—The weeds of meadows differ in various places according as they are affected by the soil, climate or latitude. In well-kept pastures and meadows weeds are seldom troublesome, but in those not well kept weeds are certain to appear, although a pasture without a weed is not possible. It has been said that when land is well farmed weeds cannot survive. In alternate husbandry, weeds ought to succumb rapidly, but in pastures and meadows it is more difficult to remove them, for weeds will grow only where there is room, where they can obtain plenty of sunshine and light, and the more room they have the more vigorously they will grow. Bailey says: “Ground may be covered with a given plant, and yet a species of wholly different character and habits may thrive along with it. If weeds, then, are to be kept out of grounds, the land must not only be occupied with some crop, but with some crop that will not allow the weed to grow with it.” Now, the first condition of weediness of meadow or pasture is the destruction of the turf. This is done by overstocking, or is the effect of cold or drouth. The native prairie would afford valuable pasture were it not for overstocking. This sod, at one time, contained a large number of species of different grasses as rich in nutrient qualities and producing as bountiful crops as any pastures east of the Mississippi. These were naturally a great source of revenue, but during the last decade this has changed. Jared G. Smith says: “It was a magnificent legacy to the rancher and the farmer. To the one it promised food for a million cattle; to the other it proved the golden possibilities of a soil

WEEDS OF SPECIAL CROPS 5I

that would bring forth bountiful harvests.” But no time should be lost. Prof. Toumey says, in regard to conditions in Arizona: “In the early days of our great West almost the only method of travel from the Mississippi Valley to our western coast and intervening points was by caravan. Wagons drawn by horses and cattle were several months in making the journey. During this time they subsisted almost entirely upon the natural forage afforded by the country traversed. For the most part this consisted of perennial grasses, which at that time were everywhere abundant. The whole of the West was then a great open pasture, unstocked save for the herds of buffalo, deer and antelope. Many regions which were then covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses are now entirely destitute of vegetation, if we exclude a few straggling, stunted bushes and the yearly crop of annuals which follow the summer rains. As a more specific case, the rancher who drove the first herd into Tonto basin, in central Arizona, found a well-pastured valley, everywhere covered with grass reaching to his horse's flanks. In passing through this region a year ago, scarcely a stalk of grass was to be seen from one end of the valley to the other. The transformation has taken place in half a score of years.” As a result of the overstocking of pastures, weedy annuals, like southern poverty grass, foxtail, squirrel-tail, and awned brome grass, spring up and take the places of the better perennial species, or the native ragweeds and verbenas spread and occupy the soil. All of these have become so plentiful that farmers remark on their greater frequency of occurrence now than in former years. Several rank growing weeds are abundant in meadows and pastures of western Iowa. Sunflower and marsh elder find in the rich alluvial soil of the river bottoms a most congenial place for development. They are especially troublesome in land that is often flooded dur

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