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intermixture. * Other eminent philologists have advanced analogous views.

“ Iroquois,” is a generic term, bestowed by the French on that type of languages of which the Five Nations, the Tuscaroras, and originally the Wyandots, spoke dialects. The term, however, was early restricted to the two former ; and the latter, for distinction's sake, and owing to striking events in their history, were called Hurons. When, therefore, the author speaks of the St. Regis Indians, as he manifestly does, (Vol. II. p. 106.,) as Iroquois, in contradiction to the Mohawks, Oneidas, Senecas, Cayugas, &c., whose council-fire and seat of political authority was at Onondaga, he is laboring under a gross error. So, as a geographical question, when speaking (Vol. I. p. 53,) of the “ Ojibbeways,” of Red River and the Assinaboin borders, as separated by “ several hundred miles" of territory from the Chippewas of Lake Superior, and to be without knowledge of them, or traditions of the manner or the time of their severance, he is wholly under the influence of a mistake. They are the same people in language, customs, and traditions, and occupy the entire line of country from southeast to northwest without interruption.

We regret to see Ee-tow-o-kaun, a Stockbridge Indian of the ancient Mohegan stock, represented with war feathers on bis head. It is half a century, at least, since this tribe laid aside this sign of the barbaric state, while under instruction in Massachusetts, and assumed the civilized dress, and many of them embraced Christianity. As a member of the Christian church, in which he is represented in the text following the hundred and ninety-ninth plate of Vol. II. with a psalmbook, shot-pouch, bell, and plumes, the exbibition appears at least inappropriate, and we doubt whether it would not, if known to his pastor, the Rev. Cutting Marsh, afford grounds for church censure.

Mr. Catlin (Vol. I. p. 193,) offers some original remarks on the style of the Ancient Mexican Drawings, which appear to be entitled to attention. No one has surveyed the outlines of the Aztec head, as generally drawn, without something bordering on surprise at its angular character. He noticed a very similar style of depicting the human head among

* Archæologia Americana, Vol. II. pp. 142 et seq. VOL. LIV.-NO. 115.


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the Mandans (see Plate 65, Vol. II.), although they have nothing in their own tribe to have copied it from ; and he conceives this peculiarity to be a mere defect of drawing. Where the heads of horses and other animals are found so much out of drawing as they are in ancient Mexican paintings, it is a fair inference to conclude, as he does, that the human figure was equally so. And this craniological wonder would therefore end, if this theory be true, in the discovery that the Mexicans were miserable limners. There are, indeed, none of our native tribes, in which their rude drawings are not most strikingly out of proportion, violating the natural features and outlines of all the animal creation. The whole tenor of the author's remarks on this subject appear to us well founded.

He is less at home in his note on the origin of wampum, an article which he found to be but little used by the tribes of the upper Missouri, and the more remote parts of the West and Southwest. How this is, we cannot say. Wampum is not, however, as is stated (Vol. I. p. 222), made from freshwater shells, nor prepared by the Indians at all. This article has, for several centuries, constituted a regular item in the invoices of the fur trade. It is manufactured exclusively by white men, from the clam, and consists of the blue and white kinds, which are sold by the grain. Kinnikinnick (Vol. I. p. 234) is a name for the leaves of the Uva ursi, and not applied to other substitutes for tobacco. Assinaboin signifies, not stone boilers,” but “stone Sioux " ; and is derived from Broin, a Sioux, and Ossin, a stone, in the Chippewa language. But these, and other verbal inaccuracies, are taxable to the interpreters, on whom our author was dependent, - a class of men, who are too often ignorant and depraved, having really but little knowledge of either the Indian or the English language, destitute of the power of accurate discrimination, and with an utter disregard of moral responsibility. Such men are prone to fasten themselves upon every stranger who visits an Indian trading-post, a government fort, or a frontier village ; and, having the element of the marvellous largely developed themselves, think nothing so clever as the imposition of strange and wild stories, theories, traditions, translations, and downright perversions of truth, upon the hapless inquirer. Many of our difficulties with the aboriginal tribes, growing out of treaties and councils, originate in a similar cause ; namely, false interpretation ; and we advise no one, after he has reached the point of his proposed observation, to take out his note-book and pencil, before he has assured himself, that the habitual mis-pronouncer and mistranslator at his service is not also a most consummate liar. Most of these persons are either petty traders, or dependants upon the larger trading-houses, — a class, against whom Mr. Catlin, along with travellers generally, inveighs in no measured terms. Whether the Indian mind, however, after an intercourse of two or three centuries with these and other classes of no very gentle frontiersmen, is “ a beautiful blank,” – a term twice employed, (Vol. I. p. 182, and Vol. II. p. 245,) — " on which any thing can be written,” may well be questioned. We are inclined to think, if we may preserve the figure, that it is a blank leaf of an original folio, which has been badly blotted over by vices, superstitions, and crimes, of divers hues, which it would require some chemical agent of strong power to discharge, so as to restore its immaculate hue. And such a process we believe the Indian mind must undergo, before the words Christianity and civilization can be successfully written upon it. Civilization is a process of slow growth, and the Indians have fearful odds to contend against, whilst the proportion of those who plant, to those who pluck up, is as one to one thousand. And it requires, for its successful introduction among our native tribes, aids and influences of no less potency than the Gospel offers. With this it is believed the prospect, however dark its past or present appearance, promises well.

Without this the labor is the labor of Sisyphus.

How the red men of this continent came into their present degraded condition, — how, indeed, they came here at all, has been a topic of enlightened inquiry from the remotest times. And their monuments and antiquities constitute one of the best means whereby this question may be answered. Mr. Bradford, in the work whose title is prefixed to this article, has examined the evidence bearing on this branch of the subject with clearness and candor. A professional man himself, and habituated to the distinctions which are required to exhibit truth in its legal lights, he has possessed an advantage in taking up a mass of materials scattered through a wide range of books, old and new ; and, we think, he has brought to the task a spirit of research, and a degree of ability, which are highly creditable to his powers of discrimination. He does not profess to have derived any portion of his facts from personal observation. He does not offer any part of them as new, or as not before extant in printed works. But he appears to have had the best means of access to existing sources ; and has manifestly gleaned over a very wide field.

The plan of his work led him to direct his attention, in the first place, to the character of the mounds, buildings, and artificial remains, in both divisions of the continent; to which he subjoins an inquiry into the origin of the race, whom he denominates emphatically the red race. The first part is chiefly descriptive ; the second, inferential. He not only draws proofs from the character of former or still existing architectural ruins; but he examines history, ancient and modern ; he goes to the original seats of the human race, their migrations, traditions, early maritime knowledge; the thirst of gain or glory, which carried their descendants over the globe ; their languages, their astronomy, and their religion. He devotes a careful and comprehensive attention to the physiognomy and physiology of the various tribes scattered over the continent from Cape Horn to the Arctic ocean, and from Cape Cod to the mouth of the Columbia, and he comes to his conclusions fraught with the products of investigation, and guided by the lights of induction. In this respect, no two works, bearing on one subject, could possibly be brought together, differing more widely in their character, than those which have prompted these remarks. Both authors have rendered a service to the reading public, but rendered it in distinct departments ; and have excited an interest chiefly in two separate classes. Sketches, and rambles, and pictures will please the one ; facts, reasons, and conclusions will delight the other. In one, the present predominates, in the other, the past; and while in the “ Letters and Notes” we derive our enjoyment through the external organs, in the “ Antiquities and Researches,” the chief pleasure of the repast arises from intellectual stimulants.

It would afford us pleasure, did circumstances permit, to examine at some length the course of proof, on which Mr. Bradford's principal conclusions are grounded, and to submit passages from the work, which have attracted our attention. We also designed to take up the subject of the Western mounds, with the view of not only submitting our opinions on the subject of their origin, and their separate and distinct characters, - tracing them to corresponding eras, but with the ulterior intention of showing how large a number of these noted objects of theory and description, are wholly natural or geological, and never had a shovel-full of earth put upon them by man. Such we may say, in brief, is the great mound of St. Louis, the Blue mound of Wisconsin, Mount Joliet of Illinois, and very many other and lesser mounds, which still hold their places in the catalogue of artificial structures. It is admitted, that some of these were used by the natives for mound purposes, either from their commanding position, or the almost artificial symmetry of their forms, as in the instance of Mount Joliet. But this only proves the sagacity of the red race, who thereby avoided a most onerous labor. The first visitors and explorers of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, finding indubitable proofs in the mounds and circumvallations on the alluvial plains, that the country had before been inhabited and abandoned, gave a loose to their imaginations, and converted every conical hill into a mound, and every square-faced one into a fort.

Subsequent and recent examinations have however shown, that there is a class of the reputed mounds which are wholly of a diluvial character, consisting of regular layers of sand and clay and loam and gravel, interspersed with sandstone and granite boulders, like the adjacent plains.

our design, we repeat, to introduce some observations on this subject, in connexion with the descriptions of Mr. Bradford. But we are compelled to omit them at pres

The topic, we believe, is invested with a 'revived interest, on both sides of the Atlantic, and may be hereafter resumed. If that which makes the past and future predominate over the present, exalts us in the scale of thinking beings,” we cannot better, than in this way, perform a part of our duty to the public ; and it is in this higher sense, we conceive, that

“ The proper study of mankind is man. The term “Red Race,” chosen by Mr. Bradford as the subject of his researches, reveals at once the leading idea of his theory. He deems the entire race of red hunters who cover the continent, to be a homogeneous and primitive stock of the human family, not derivable, or derived, from any one

It was


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