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Describe the following capes by telling where drained by this river? Draw this river by tracing each is situated and into what body of water it through tissue paper; indicate the water-partings. projects: Prince of Wales, Point Barrow, Race, What river cuts its way to the Pacific through Sable (N.), Hatteras, Sable (S.), San Lucas, Men- the western highland? What one cuts its way to docino, Flattery.

the Gulf of California? What large river flows into Locate and describe the following islands and Bering Sea? Of all the rivers of North America, island groups,

which do you think are the most by telling near

important for commerce? Why? which coast of

Which do you think have more North Amer

waterfalls, rapids, and high rocky ica they lie

banks? Which must bave more and what wa

ice? What two lakes are drained ters surround

into Hudson Bay through the them: New

Nelson River? Trace the waterfoundland,

parting between the Hudson Bay Long, Baba

Basin and the St. Lawrence Basin; mas, West In

between the Hudson Bay and dies, Vaucou

Mackenzie basins; between the ver, Queen

Mackenzie and Yukon basins. Charlotte,

The K a d i a k. GOING TO MARKET IN JAMA! Name four is:

Primary, lands of the West Indies. What

or Pacific large island belonging to Den

Highlands mark lies northeast of North America? What island east of

of North Greenland, also belonging to

America Denmark?

extend Which coast of North America is most irregular, thus

from Ber: affording the best harbors ?

ing Strait Which part of the western

a n d the coast is most irregular? Trace the Primary Highlands

Arctic of North America. Locate and


Ocean on tell in what direction they ex- These are typical scenes in the West India Islands. Describe them.

the northtend. Trace the principal rivers to the sea. Towards which ocean does the long slope west, along the western coast to the of the continent extend? Towards which the short Isthmus of Panama on the southeast. slope? What effect have the slopes upon the length T and speed of the rivers? Trace the highlands in

They are highest in the Mexican Plathe eastern part; tell the direction in which they teau, which is nearly 8000 feet above extend. Trace the streams carefully on the inner sea-level. From this plateau the highslope of both highlands. In the channel of what river do the inner slopes of the Pacitic and the

lands gradually descend northward to Atlantic highlands meet? Trace one eastern and the Arctic Ocean and southward to the three western tributaries of this river. Which Isthmus. The highlands are widest is the largest? Place tissue paper over the Mississippi River system and trace it; indicate the

in the United States, narrowing as water-partings. (Page 81.) What large river has they extend northward and southward. a northerly course? It is of little importance to These highlands consist of two mountain mankind. Can you tell why?

What large river cuts the Atlantic Highlands? systems—the Rocky Mountain System What five lakes belong to this river basin and are and the Sierra Nevada System. The


Rocky Mountain System occupies the Irrigation is the process of storing the rain eastern and greater part of the highland which falls, or of turning the water of a river into

great reservoirs, either to be pumped out on the land Tego. 10 18 made up of many irregular or let into ditches, as needed for watering the land. ranges and peaks. The most important The Sierra Nevada Range extends along is the Rocky Mountain Range, which

the western continues through Mexico, Central America,

border of the and the Isthmus to the Andes Mountains

plateau rein South America. Trace it. Low spurs

gion into from the Rocky Mountains extend west

Mexico, ward, forming Cape Prince of Wales and

where it takes other points on the northwestern coast.

the name of These mountain spurs are continued in the

Sierra Madre. Aleutian Is.

It unites with lands and the

the Rocky mountains of

Mountain Asia. (Pages

Range at the 7, 9.)

volcano Popo. The Sierra

catepet), in Nevada Sys

the southtem lies near

central part the coast and

of Mexico. consists of

The Prima the Cascade

ry or Pacific Range, the

Highlands Coast Range,

are comparaand the Si

tively young erra Nevada

in the moun Range, from which the

of the earth. system is named. Trace each.

They were thrown up into folds more The Cascade and the Sierra Nevada recently than many other mountains of ranges have many peaks of great height. the world. We know this because of Many of them were once volcanoes. The their great height and bare, jagged peaks. Coast Range consists of low foothills They were once much higher than at bordering the coast.

the present time; but the streams and Between the ranges of the Rocky and the weather have been reducing them to the Sierra Nevada systems is a vast pla- a lower level. They have rich mineral deteau region. This region is so dry that posits which have developed many mining the people are obliged to irrigate the towns and cities. Upon what other indusland for cultivation. (See next page.) tries do these towns and cities depend ?


A Pueblo, or Indian Village, built of stone or dried brick. There are many such homes in southwestern United States and in Mexico.



The Secondary or Atlantic Highland, eral wealth. Many manufacturing and or Appalachian System, lies along the mining cities and towns are located in eastern coast, and extends from the Pen- this region. insula of Labrador southwestward to Lay tissue paper over the Appalachian Highwithin three hundred miles of the Gulf lands, and trace them. Also trace the rivers

which flow down each slope. Indicate the waterof Mexico. It consists of several parallel

partings. Tell the general direction of the rivers ranges which are broken up in the of the Atlantic slope. northeast.

On the rivers of the Atlantic slope The Appalachians are cut through, or are many manufacturing cities and

trade centers, which are connected with each other, and with numerous seaports, by railroads.

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gapped, by the St. Lawrence, and

The Mississippi three other rivers which are un

River drains one named on your maps of N. A.

of the largest riverFind them. North of New York Harbor

basins in the world. Its the highlands extend nearly to the sea- largest tributary, the Missouri, is nearly coast, but south of this harbor or bay the as large as the main stream. As the Atlantic Coastal Plain gradually widens, Missouri drains snow-clad mountains, until it merges into the wide Gulf Plain it carries a great amount of soil to the of the southern coast.

Mississippi. This soil is spread out The Appalachians are much older over the flood-plain during flood-time. than the western highlands. We know The Mississippi is navigable for steamers this because of the rounded or flattened from its mouth, for nearly its entire tops, and because rivers have had time length, to the Falls of St. Anthony in to cut deep gorges in them. In some Minnesota. Its largest tributaries are also places these mountains are worn nearly navigable. The Mississippi flows through to base-level. They have rich deposits a rich farming district, where the grains of coal, iron, petroleum, and other min of the cooler temperate sections and the

cotton and sugar-cane of the warm sec. warm current flows near the western coast? What tions, are produced in large quantities. one along the eastern coast? (Page 98.) The delta of this river is of great extent The WINDS which blow from these dif. and furnishes a fine rich soil for the ferent ocean currents warm or cool the cultivation of cotton, rice, and other farm shores on which they blow. The warm products. (Page 116.) Take an imagi. winds usually carry moisture. nary journey up or down this river; tell Tell the effect of the winds on the northeastern

part of North what you

America; on would see;

the souththrough

eastern shore;

on the westwhat cit

ern shore. ies and

Which through

winds must CUTTING WHEAT.

blow over wh a't

Canada and gre at


United produc.

States in tion sec


Which kind tions you

of wind would

must blow pass.

from the


Mexico? Lawrence

In sumScenes in the great wheat has a fine region of the Mississippi

mer all Valley and Great Lakes. w i de The flour mill is in Minne

places apolis. The elevators are

near the and is

seashore navigable for ocean steamers

are cooler to Montreal, which is nearly a thousand than places which lie inland. Places upon miles from the sea. Above Montreal it the shores of the great lakes are also has rapids and falls in its course around cooler in summer. In winter, places which canals have been made. On this upon the sea. or lake-shore are warmer river and through the lakes which it than those which lie some distance drains, a great commerce is carried inland. Inland snowstorms often beon except during the coldest winter come rainstorms as they approach the months, when these waterways are sea. Which is cooler in summer, Boston frozen over.

or Indianapolis ? Boston or Chicago ? In what belts of climate does North America It is cooler in the mountainous districts lie? In what sections are the winters longest ?

than in the lowlands. Snow remains on Where are the summers longest? What cold current flows along the northeastern coast? What the summits of some of the western

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mouth, in Chicago.

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