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left England with very little money; and being of a philofophical turn, and at that time poffeffing a body capable of sustaining every fatigue, and a heart not easily terrified by danger, he became an enthusiast to the design he had formed of seeing the manners of different countries. He had some knowledge of the French language, and of music ; he played tolerably well on the German Aute; which from an amusement, became at some times the means of subsistence. His learning produced him an hospitable reception at nost of the religious houses that he visied; and his music made him welcome to the peasants of Flanders and Germany." Whenever I approached a peasant's house towards night fall,” he used to say, “ I played one of my most merry tunes, and that generally procured me not only a lodging, but subsistence for the next day: but in truth(his constant expression) " I must own, when. ever I attempted to entertain persons of a higher rank, they always thought my performance odious, and never made me any return for my

endeavours to please them.”

On his arrival at Geneva, he was recommended as a proper person for a tutor to a young man, who had been unexpectedly left a considerable fum of money by his uncle, Mr. S******. This


tour on foot, will form very different conclusions. Haud inexpertus loquor.”

Goldsmith's " Present State of Learning in Europe," 1759,

youth, who was articled to an attorney, on receipt of his fortune determined to see the world; and, on his engaging with his preceptor, made a proviso, that he should be permitted to govern himself; and our traveller foon found his pupil understood the art of directing in money concerns extremely well, as avarice was his prevailing passion.

During Goldsmith's continuance in Switzerland, he assiduously cultivated his poetical talent, of which he had given fome striking proofs at the college of Edinburgh. It was from hence he sent the first sketch of his delightful epiftle, called the Traveller, to his brother Henry, a clergyman in Ireland.

From Geneva Mr. Goldsmith and his pupil pro, ceeded to the south of France, where the young man, upon some disagreement with his preceptor, paid him the small part of his salary which was due, and embarked at Marseilles for England. Our wanderer was left once more upon the world at large, and passed through a number of difficulties in traverfing the greatest part of France. At length, his curiosity being gratified, he bent his course towards England, and arrived at Dover, the beginning of the winter, in the year 1758.

His finances were so low on h's return to England, that he with dislicuity got to the metropolis, his whole stock of cash amounting to no more than a few


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half-pence! An entire stranger in London, his mind was filled with the most gloomy refleétions in consequence of his embarrassed situation ! He applied to several Apothecaries in hopes of being received in the capacity of a journeyman, but his broad Irish accent, and the uncouthness of his appearance, occafioned him to meet with insult from most of the medicinal tribe. The next day, however, a chymist near Fithstreet, struck with his forlorn condition, and the simplicity of his manner, took him into his labora. tory, where he continued 'till he discovered that his old friend Dr. Sleigh was in London. That gentle. man received him with the warniest affection, and liberally invited bim to sliare his purse 'till fome establishment could be procured for him. Goldsmith, unwilling to be a burden to his friend, a fhort time after eagerly embraced an offer which was made him to assist the late Reverend Dr. Milner, in instructing the young gentlemen at the Academy at Peckham; and acquitted himfelf greatly to the Doctor's satisfaction for a short time; but, having obtained some reputation by the criticisins he had written in the Monthly Review, Mr. Griffith, the principal proprietor, engaged him in the compilation of it; and, resolving to pursue the profesłon of writing, he returned to London, as the mart where abilities of

every kind were sure of meeting distinction and reward. Here he determined to adopt a plan of the strictest economy, and at the close of the year 1759,


took lodgings in Green-Arbour-court in the Old Bailey, where he wrote several ingenious pieces. The late Mr. Newbery, who, at that time gave great encouragement to men of literary abilities, became a kind of patron to our young author, and introduced him as one of the writers in the Public Ledger, in which his Citizen of the World originally appeared, under the title of 6 Chinese Letters." *


Fortune now seemed to take some notice of a man Me had long neglected. The fimplicity of his cha. racter, the integrity of his heart, and the merit of his productions, made his company very acceptable to a number of respectable persons, and, about the middle of the year 1762, he emerged from his mean apartments near the Old Bailey to the politer air of the Temple, where he took handsome chambers, and lived in a genteel style. The publication of his Traveller, his Vicar of Wakefield, and his Hiftory of England, was followed by the performance of his


* During this time (according to another account) lie wrote for the British Magazine, of which Dr. Smollet was then Editor, most of those Effiys and Tales, which he afterwards collected and published in a separate volume. He also wrote occasionally for the Critical Review; and it was the meric which he discovered in criticising a despicable tranNation of Ovid's “ Fafti" by a pedantic school-master, and bis “ En. quiry into the present State of Learning in Europe," which first introduced him to the acquaintance of Dr. Smollet, who recommended him to several literati, and to most of the booksellers by whoin he was afterwards patronized.

comedy of The Good-natured Man at Covent Garden theatre, and placed him in the first rank of the poets of the present age.

Our Doctor, as he was now universally called, had a constant levee of his distrest countrymen, whose wants, as far as he was able, he always relieved ; and he had been often known to leave himself even without a guinea, in order to supply the necessities of others.

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Another feature in his character we cannot help laying before the reader : Previous to the publication Mall of his Deserted Village, the bookseller liad given ut him a note for one hundred guineas for the copy; 11which the Doctor mentioned, a few hours after, to ait one of his friends, who observed it was a very great 5, fum for fo short a performance.“ In truth,” replied fi Goldsmith, “ I think so too, it is much more than lift the honest man can afford, or the piece is worth; I fh have not been easy since I received it ; I will there. med fore go back and return him his note :" which he

actually did, and left it entirely to the bookseller to they pay him according to the profits produced by the sale

of the poem, which turned out very considerable.

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During the last rehearsal of his comedy, intitled, She Stoops to Conquer, which Mr. Coleman thought Eni would not fucceed, on the Doctor's objecting to the repetition of one of Tony Lumpkin's speeches, b


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