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by virtue of its large area of fertile land, land so well suited to the growing of wheat that the grain produced is of a quality not generally equaled by other countries, and by virtue of the intelligent and industrious settlers who are rapidly taking up the unoccupied lands. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual wheat area available in Canada. The best lands are located in Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is probable that there are at least 150,000,000 acres within these limits upon which wheat could be profitably grown, an area approximately three times as great as that annually sown in wheat in the United States. As yet there is not more than about 5 per cent of this land under cultivation, but over 100000,000 bushels of wheat are annually produced. The hard wheat of the Canadian Northwest ranks with the world's best wheat. and the Toronto papers quote it at a price about 15 cents above that of Ontario wheat. In some years over half of the crop grades No. 1 hard, and it is greatly desired by the millers for mixing with lower grade wheats for the purpose of maintaining a desirable and uniform strength of flour. The yield of wheat per acre is larger in Canada than in the United States. The average yield of spring wheat in Manitoba from 1891 to 1900 was 19 bushels. During the same period of time the yield in the Dakotas was about 11 bushes, while that for the whole of the United States was 13.3 bushels. The land of Canada seems to be more productive, the climate more favorable, and the methods of farming better. About one-fourth of the country is capable of tillage. The settlement of Canadian lands is progressing rapidly. A

large proportion of the immigrants and a great amount of capital come from the United States. From March to August of 1902, about 25,000 emigrants went from the United States to Canada. 12,000,000 acres of land have been settled in one year. In effect, the homestead laws of Canada are similar to those of the United States. Transportation facilities are being rapidly developed in order to meet the demands of the increased population, and some of the largest modern grain elevators are being constructed. It appears as if Canada is destined eventually to produce the bulk of North American export wheat. The cold climate is unfavorable to the production of corn and many other crops, and it is very likely that the growing of wheat will be che of the great permanent industries of Canada, especially as the population is so largely agricultural.’ Wheat in the United Kingdom.–The imports of wheat by Great Britain are far greater than those of any other country and approximate two-fifths of those of the world. It is this fact which gives the United Kingdom its position of unusual importance in the wheat industry. About the time of Christ the Normans made England so productive of “corn” (wheat) that a large amount of grain was exported, and England was known as “The Granary of the North.” At the close of the eighteenth century the average crop of Great Britain was over 60,000,000 bushels. In 1852 the wheat acreage was over 3,500,000 acres. With the development of wheat production in the United States and other countries having great natural advantages over the United Kingdom, the price of wheat declined to such a degree that it became more profitable for the latter country to grow other crops and to import the bulk of its wheat. By 1868, less than 2,500,000 acres of wheat were grown in Great Britain, and the acreage continued to decline for over a quarter of a century. Less than 2,000,000 acres of wheat are now annually grown, but the yield is over 30 bushels per acre. During the decline in wheat acreage the price fell in still greater proportion. Wheat imports to England began about 1846. Australian Wheat Production.—Wheat growing has not always been a profitable industry in Australia. It has been claimed that there is less return there for the farmer's labor than in any other civilized country. Wheat thrives best on the cooler and drier lands of the southern part of Australia. Many farmers, however, have abandoned wheat raising for the cultivation of the grape vine, which is a more profitable crop in good seasons. Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia are the chief wheat growing states. The yield per acre is never large, and short crops often result from severe droughts. For this reason Australia is not a reliable exporter. The production of wheat has been increasing, however, and now averages about 75,000,000 bushels annually. Whea: is one of the chief crops of New Zealand, and is exported.

* Saunders, Wheat Growing in Canada, 1904. * Warner, Landmarks Eng. Indus. Hist., pp. 8-11.

Miscellaneous Countries.—The two other South American countries besides Argentina which produce a surplus of wheat are Chile and Uruguay. Wheat is the leading agricultural product of Chile, which exported grain to California and Australia in the early years. Its export wheat now goes chiefly to Peru, 'cuador and the United Kingdom. The exports of Uruguay go to Brazil and Europe. Some wheat is grown in southern Brazil. The production of wheat in Mexico is steadily increasing, but it is insufficient for domestic needs. The per capita production of wheat in France is large, and about one-seventh of the agricultural territory is devoted to this industry. By reason of the liberal encouragement given by the government, and on account of the conservatism of the French peasantry, the area and production of wheat in France has been practically uniform for over a quarter of a century. Excepting Russia, France produces more wheat than any other European country. Austria-Hungary ranks next, and then come Italy and Germany. The latter country stands next to England in wheat imports. Roumania and the Netherlands each export over 25,000,000 bushels of wheat annually, and Belgium exports about half of this amount.

In the time of the Pharaohs and in the time of Rome's greatness, Egypt was the most important commercial wheat center of the world. It is estimated that Egypt annually furnished 20,000,000 bushels of wheat to Rome. Ancient Mauritania and Numidia, the present Algeria and Tunis, were also long the granaries of the Eternal City. Although wheat is still exported from Northern Africa, it does not form the principal crop. Most of the wheat produced is of the durum varieties, and its chief commercial use is for the manufacture of macaroni. Wheat thrives well in parts of southern Africa, and several million bushels are annually produced.

The World Production and Movement of Wheat.—Ever since the time of Malthus there have been periodical predictions of a scarcity of food supply for mankind. Less than a decade ago Sir William Crookes, President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, predicted that a serious shortage

wheat CROP of countries NAMED, 1901-1906'
(In round thousands of bushels.)

Country

United States............
Canada.......................
Mexico .......................
United Kingdom......
Norway......................
Sweden.......................
Denmark....................
Netherlands...............
Belgium.....................
France................
Spain....
Portugal.....................
Italy......
Switzerland...............
Germany....................
Austria-Hungary......
Roumania..................
Bulgaria.....................
Servia. ................
Turkey in Europe.....
Greece........................
Russia in Europe......
Russia in Asia...........
British India..............
Algeria....................
Egypt.............
Australia ...................
New Zealand.............
North America..........
South America..........
Europe.......................
Asia..........
Africa....................
Australasia................

Total......................

1901

748,460 91,424 12,021 55,581 300 4,193 942 4,231 14,143 310,938 136,905 10,000 164,587 4,400 91,817 180,900 72,386 24,000 8,102 22,000 6,400 401,772 61,149 264,825 32,244 12,000 49,877 6,733 851,905 87,417 1,513,797 395,574 50,672 56,610 2,955,975

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in the supply of wheat would exist by 1931 on account of the increasing population. size the numerical increase in population which is current, and fail to give due regard to the laws which control the production of the food supply and its ratio to population. city of wheat simply raises its price and increases its production. In the world markets a sudden and acute scarcity of the general food supply is impossible. eral food supply until a serious shortage exists is equally impossible, for, whatever the standard of living, population will limit itself long before acute conditions are reached. While several countries each possess many millions of acres of the finest lands—

1Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1905-6.

Such predictions generally over-empha

A scar

A gradual decrease in the gen

The VISIBLE SUPPLY OF WHEAT

(In round thousands of bushels.)

World's visible supply of Stocks Visible supply Visible wheat, first of each month Year i in farmers' of the United supply - - - - - _"March hands in States and of the Month 1896-1897 1905-1906 || 1st |United States | Canada world 1802 17 1071 68.007 181 .400 1893 135,205 1 10,693 229.300 1894 114,060 105,863 222,400 July..... 137,454 || 1 || 4,302 1895 75,000 110.546 212.400 August........ 124,292 106.838 1896 123,045 98,834 191.900 September 126,485 113,511 1897 88,149 63.521 155.50c ()ctober....... 151,271 138,759 1898 121,321 49,445 140,600 November...] 190,559 157,735 | 1899 198,056 56,189 151,100 December... . 202,329 189,323 1900 158.746 91,749 181 .500 January....... 184,616 192,690 1901 128.098 86,272 192,700 February. 173,496 | 188030 1902 173,703 88,332 191 900 March........... 155,533 193,520 1903 164,047 79,771 163,700 April.......... - 139,049 183,687 1904 132,608 58,389 152,000 May ........... 121,491 159,406 || 1905 11 1 05.5 54,580 165 400 June... 106,912 139,154 1906 158,403 75,428 193,520

THE WORLD'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN WHEAT AND FLOUR IN BUSHELS,

(In round thousands)

Exports Imports Country 1900 1905 1900 1905

Argentina....................................... 73.495 112,718 ............ I ............ Australia....... 14,517 31,730 | ............ l ............ Belgium..... 9,701 18,496 41,847 64,977 Brazil.................................] ... I “.... 10,800 14,983 Bulgaria................ 5,140 17,508 | ............ I ............ Canada..... 14,773 47,293 l ............ I ............ Chili... 422 671 ............ I ............ Denmark.....! ... I ~~~~ 3,171 5,936 Finland.....] ... I “... - 3,464 3,581 France.... ...! ... I ....... 5,810 7,347 Germany....... 12,464 10,513 49,246 85,137 Greece....] ... I “... 6,873 5,864 India (British)............................... 1,633 37,477 ------------ - -----------Italy.....] ... . ...... 26,941 38,744 Japan...] ...~ ------------ 3,057 7,874 Netherlands..... 28,488 53,951 44,416 70,380 Portugal...] ... . ...... 5,029 4,673 Roumania........ 27,665 65.247 | "............ . ............ Russia........... 74,140 181,158 ............ . ............ Servia... 3,641 3,521 | ............ ' ............ Spain.................] ... . ....... 8,502 35,503 Switzerland....................] ... . ...... 14,685 17,898 United Kingdom...............] ... . ...... 182,100 212,089 United States........................ 215,990 97,609 | ........ . ............ Other Countries............................ 15,658 26,870 33,075 26,287

Total........... 497.727 708,393 439,016 || 60s 788

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