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lands that lack only the application of human industry to make them productive of wheat, there is no occasion for any fear of a shortage of grain. The wheat industry of the world must undergo great developments before even its approximate limits can be defined.

The Northern Ilemisphere produces about 95 per cent of the wheat crop of the world. This half of the globe not only consumes its entire product, but a large part of the crop of the Southern Hemisphere as well. About 75 per cent of the total wheat crop is produced in seven countries north of the equator. Europe produces over half of the world's wheat, but her population is so great that she consumes the world's surplus in addition to her own product. It was not until after the middle of the nineteenth century that large masses of trans-oceanic wheat appeared in Europe. In the seventies of this century India wheat made its advent into the world market, and two decades later there was a sudden and enormous influx of Argentine wheat. The world's production of wheat is continually increasing, and in 1906 it approximated three and a half billion bushels.



Following the classifications of Carleton,’ of Haeckel,” and of Kornicke and Werner, and perfecting them by adding new data, by extending to smaller subdivisions, by giving world distribution, and, for the sake of unity and completeness, by giving the essential characteristics of each division, there is given below a descriptive and distributive outline of the division Hordeae given on Page 2.

1.1 Hordeae (Sub-tribe).
2 1 Lolieze (Rye Grass).
3 Lepturede.
4 : Elymee (Barley Wild Rye).
5.1 Tritice e
1.2 Agropyrum (Genus) (Quack. G
2.2 Haynaldia.
3.2 Secale (Rye).
4.2 Triticum.

1.3 Aegilops (section). Species ovata taken as type. ... Found in southern Europe to Turkestan in Asia. Twelve species in all are recognized. 2.3 Sitopyrus. 1.4 Triticum monococcum.

1.5 2.5

Name: None in English. German Einkorn preferred. French
Characteristics: Spikelets three flowered but one grained; hardy;
non-shattering: short, thin narrow-leaved plant, seldom over 3 feet
high. Very constant in fertility; does not give fertile cross with
common wheat; only species in which paleae fall in two parts at
maturity; spikelets awned; spike compact.
Distribution: Found from Achaia in Greece to Mesopotamia. Present
in Swiss Lake dwellings of stone age. Cultivated to a limited extent
in Spain, France, Germany Switzerland and Italy. Unknown in
America except to experimenters.
Varieties: Einkorn; Engra in double (two grains).
Use: Rarely for bread; usually for mush and “cracked wheat," and
for fodder.


1 5

Name: Polish wheat a misnomer; Giant or Jerusalem rye. Perhaps
native in Mediterranean region.
Characteristics: Only species in which lowest flower has palea as long
as its glume; outer glumes at least as long as flowering glumes; two
to three seeded; tall; stems pithy within; heads and kernels extremely
large; macaroni gluten; drought and rust resistant; resembles rye.
Distribution: Spain; Italy; Abyssinia; Southern Russia and Turke-
stan Brazil; Northwestern United States.
Varieties: Only one, White Polish, is widely known.
Use: Principally for macaroni.

24 Triticum Polonicum.

Triticum sativum dicoccum.

Name: None in English, often erroneously called spelt; German emmer preferred.

1 U.S. Dept. Agr., Div. Veg. Phys. and Path., Bul. 24, p. 6. 2 Minn. Bul. 62, p. 392.

2.5 Characteristics: Probably derived from Eirikorn: leaves usually velvety hairy; plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and Hat almost always bearded; threshing does not remove chaff; spikelets two-grained; non-shattering; some varieties drought and rust resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Extensively in Russia and Servia: Germany; Spair : Abyssinia; Switzerland; to some extent in France, and Italy; also perhaps in northern India. Thibet, and in portions of China; in the United States; cultivated in prehistoric times. 4.5 Varieties: Red chaff; white chaff, etc. 5.5 Use: Quite extensively for human food in portions of Russia, Germany, Switzerland and Italy as “kaska," a sort of porridge from crushed emmer, grist; "pot barley;' bread; also used for feed. 4.4 Triticum sat spelta. 1.5 Name: English, spelt; German, spels or dinkel; French epeatstre. 2.5 Characteristics: Grows fully as tall as wheat; heads loose, narrow, rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to five-grained; far apart in head; hardy; non-shattering; constancy in fertility; retains chaff in threshing. 3.5 Distribution: The oldest grain cultivated in ancient Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire. With emmer is the principal bread grain of southwest German Empire, raised widely in Russia, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain. In Canada and the United States it is known only to experimenters. 4.5 Varieties: Winter and spring varieties white-bearded; black-bearded: red; smooth; white. 5.5 Use: Flour is placed in same rank as common wheat flour; fed to stock. 5.4 Triticum sat. compactum. 1.5 Name: Club or square head wheats; also “hedgehog wheat,” “dwarf wheat." 2.5 Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times red; bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw; non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe. 4.5 Varieties: Generally known as “club" or "square head"; dwarf; hedgehog. 5.5 Fo Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast oods.

6.4 Triticum sat. turgidium. - - 15 Name: Poulari or pollard wheats: English (a misnomer), rivet :

German, bauchiger Weicen; French, ble petanielle; also known as English wheat; Egyptian wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves: stems thick and stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and drought. 3.5 Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Russia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally in the United States. 4.5 Varietics: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound heads whose grains develop unequally. 5.5 Use: Macaroni and other pastes; bread: mixed with bread wheats to produce flour desired by certain French markets. 7.4 Triticum sat durum. 1.5 Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats. 2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats: plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short: always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environment; high gluten content; drought and rust resistant; spikelets two to four-grained.



Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece,
Mexico, and Central America; extensively raised in south and east
Russia, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Egypt, Tunis, Sicily, Italy, India,
Chile, Argentina, United States, and Canada.


1.6 Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia)

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United States.

Kubanka (east of Volga river, Russia), United States.

Saragolla (southeast Italy).

Goose wheat (Canada. Dakota).

Trigo candeal and Anchuelo (Argentina).

Nicaragua (Central America, Texas).

There are perhaps several dozen other varieties.
Uses: Macaroni; semolina; noodles; all kinds of pastries; bread; it is

coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary wheat flour.

3.4 Triticum vulgare.

1.5 2.5

3.5 4.5

Name: This is the common bread wheat.
Characteristics: Well known; heads rather loosely formed; bearded
or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets gener-
ally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually
hollow; all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties).
Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits
already given (see varieties).
Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environ-
mental characteristics).

1.6 Soft winter wheats: Grain amber to white; produced by moist

mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States, western and northern, Europe, Japan, and in portions of China India, Australia, and Argentina.

2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded : rela

tively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate characterized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as “Turkey red"), in Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Roumania, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia.

3.6 Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats

also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing season is shorter, and the winter too severe for winter varieties. They are found in central and western Canada, the north central states of the United States (these are the fife and blue-stem wheats), east Russia and western and southern Siberia.

4.6 White wheats: Soft and very starchy: grains harder and much


drier than those of the soft winter wheats; fall or spring sown, even in same locality; grown chiefly in the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States, in Australia, in Chile, in Turkestan, and the Caucasus.

6 Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main charac

teristic is that they ripen earl v. Found in Australia and India,

have a slight representation in California, and include some of the

dwarf wheats of Japan.
Districts in the United States (Carleton's division).

1.6 Soft wheat.

1.7. Present average yield per acre, about 143 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 F-11tz. 5.8 Jones' Winter Fife.
2.8 Fulcaster. 6.8 Red Wonder.
3.8 Earl v. Red Clawson. 7.8 Cold Coin.
4.8 Longberry. 8.8 Blue Stem.

3.7 Needs of the grower.
1.8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.
2.8 Hardier winter varieties for the most northern portions.
3.8 Early maturity.
4.8 Rust resistance.

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