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Sorrows, and labours, opposition, hate
Attends thee, scorns, reproaches, injuries,
Violence and stripes, and lastly cruel death;
A kingdom they portend thee, but what kingdom,
Real or allegoric I discern not,

Nor when, eternal sure, as without end,
Without beginning; for no date prefix'd
Directs me in the starry rubric set.

So say’ing he took (for still he knew his power Not yet expir’d) and to the wilderness

395 Brought back the Son of God, and left him there, Feigning to disappear. Darkness now rose, As day-light sunk, and brought in low'ring night Her shadowy offspring, unsubstantial both, Privation mere of light and absent day. Our Saviour meek and with untroubled mind After his aery jaunt, though hurried sore, Hungry and cold betook him to his rest, Wherever, under some concourse of shades, Whose branching arms thick intertwin'd might shield From dews and damps of night his shelter'd head, 406 But shelter'd slept in vain, for at his head The Tempter watch’d, and soon with ugly dreams


386. Sorrows, and labours, op- tortured, bound, - at length, position, hale

having suffered every species of Attends thee, &c.]

barbarous treatment, he shall be Compare the very remarkable crucified.” Dunster. description of the fate which

399. — unsubstantial both,] His Plato says it is easy to foresee philosophy is here ill placed. It will attend the Just Man. De dashes out the image he had just Repub. lib. ii. p. 361. ed. Serran. been painting. Warburton, ο δικαιος μαςιγωσεται, στρεβλώσεται, 408. -and soon with ugly dednostai

dreams &c.] It is remarkable, raw ararxondasutnostus. “ The that the poet made the Devil beJust Man shall be scourged, gin his temptation of Eve by

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Disturb’d his sleep; and either tropic now
'Gan thunder, and both ends of heav'n, the clouds 410


working on her imagination in de agos votov, agiotiga. Id. de Isid. dreams, and to end his tempt. p. 363. If by either tropic be ation of Jesus in that manner. meant the right side and the left, I leave it to the critics to find by both ends of heaven may be out the reason; for I will ven- understood, before and behind. ture to say he had a very good I know it may be objected, that Warburton.

the tropics cannot be the one It may be observed, that the the right side, and the other the Tempter here tries only " to left, to those who are placed withdisturb our Lord with ugly out the tropics: but I do not dreams," and not to excite in think that objection to be very him, as in Eve,

material. I have another expo

sition to offer, which is thus: It Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate desires,

thundered all along the heaven, Dunster. from the north pole to the tropic

of Cancer, from thence to the 409. -—and either tropic nous tropic of Capricorn, from thence 'Gan thunder, and both ends of to the south pole. From pole to

heav'n, the clouds &c.] Place the stops thus:

pole. The ends of heaven are the

poles. This is a poetical tem-and either tropic now 'Gan thunder, and both ends of heav'n. pest, like that in Virgil

, Æn. i. The clouds &c.

Intonuere poli It thundered from both tropics, Id est extremæ partes cæli that is, perhaps, from the right a quibus totum cælum contonuand from the left. The ancients isse significat. Servius. Jortin. had very different opinions con- Mr. Sympson proposes to read cerning the right and the left and point the passage thus; side of the world. Plutarch


-and either tropic now that Aristotle, Plato, and Pytha- 'Gan thunder ; at both ends of heav'n goras were of opinion, that the the clouds &c.

, west the left; but that Empedo- Mr. Meadowcourt points it thus; cles held that the right side is -and either tropic now towards the summer tropic, and

'Gan thunder, and both ends of the left towards the winter tro

heav'n : the clouds &c. pic. Πυθαγορας, Πλατων, Αριστο- But after all I am still for preτελης, δεξια του κοσμου τα ανατολικα serving Milton's own punctuHeign, cem' ay agxa tas ximosas agsa ation, unless there be very good στερα δε, τα δυτικα. Εμπεδοκλης reason for departing from it, and δεξια μεν τα κατα τον θερινον τροπικών: I understand the passage thus: αριστερά de tu rata for tripesqrvor. and either tropic now 'gan thunder, De Placit. Philos. ii. 10. Ayutti it thundered from the north and OLOVTE1 TH HEY ime, TOV zoofOU Form from the south, for this I con16V svoll, Tel


προς βορραν, δεξια, τα ceive to be Milton's meaning,

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From many a horrid rift abortive pour'd
Fierce rain with lightning mix'd, water with fire
In ruin reconcild: nor slept the winds
though the expression is inaccu- style. Neither are such storms
rate, the situation of our Saviour confined, as Mr. Thyer supposes,
and Satan being not within the to tropical regions. I was a wit-
tropics: and both ends of heaven, ness of one in the northern part
that is, and from or at both ends of Germany, lat. 52. which was
of heaven, the preposition being every thing the poet has here
omitted, as is frequent in Milton, described: the wind was to the
and several instances were given full as tremendous as the thun-
in the notes on the Paradise Lost. der and lightning, and, like them,
See particularly Dr. Pearce's note seemed to come from every point
on i. 282. and from both ends of of the heavens at once. Dunster.
heaven, the clouds &c. This storm 412. -water with fire
is described very much like one In ruin reconcild:]
in Tasso, which was raised in That is, joining together to do
the same manner by evil spirits. hurt. Warburton.
See Canto vii. st. 114, 115.

This bold figure our poet has
409. Most probably, as Mr. borrowed from Æschylus, where
Dunster says, by either tropic he is describing the storm, which
Milton meant the north and scattered the Grecian fleet. Aga-
south, and by both ends of heaven memnon. ver. 659.
the east and west;


Ξυνωμοσαν γαρ, οντις εχθιστοι τοπριν, pose is to describe a general Πυρ και θαλασσα, και τα σισσ' εδειξα. storm coming from every point of the horizon at once." But I Φθειροντι του δυστηνον Aργειων στρατον. see no reason for supposing the

Thyer. preposition from or at omitted; Or perhaps it means only water the syntax is exact without it. and fire falling down both togeE.

ther, according to Milton's usage 410.

the clouds of the word ruin in Paradise From many a horrid rift, abor- Lost, i. 46. vi. 868. tive pour'd

413. -nor slept the winds Fierce rain with lightning mix'd, Within their stony caves,] &c.]

So Virgil describes the winds in Virgil, Æn. iii. 196.

the prisons of Æolus, Æn. i. 52. Involvere diem nimbi, et nox hu.

And Lucan, v. 608. mida cælum

non imbribus atrum Abstulit; ingeminant abruptis nubi.

Æolii jacuisse Notum sub carcere bus ignes.

This storm of Milton will lose Crediderim.
nothing by a comparison with And Lucretius, lib. vi.
the celebrated ones of Homer in
his fifth Odyssey, and of Virgil

Speluncasque velut saxis pendentibus

as his

structas in his first Åneid. It is painted

Cernere, quas venti quem, tempestate from nature, and in the boldest



Within their stony caves, but rush'd abroad
From the four hinges of the world, and fell
On the vex'd wilderness, whose tallest pines,
Though rooted deep as high, and sturdiest oaks
Bow'd their stiff necks, loaden with stormy blasts,
Or torn up sheer: ill wast thou shrouded then,
O patient Son of God, yet only stood'st
Unshaken; nor yet stay'd the terror there,


Complèrunt, magno indignantur learned father observes, that murmure clausi

Christ was tempted forty days Nubibus.


and the same number of nights

Και επειδηπες ημεραις τεσσαρα415. From the four hinges of κοντα, και ταις τοσαύταις νυξιν επειραthe world,] That is, from the four (oto. And to these night temptcardinal points, the word cardines ations he applies what is said in signifying both the one and the the ninety-first Psalm, v. 5 and other. This, as was observed be- 6. Ou pornonon ato pobov yurtiçivou, fore, is a poetical tempest like Thou shalt not be afraid for any that in Virgil, Æn. i. 85.

terror by night, –απο πραγματος Unà Eurusque Notusque ruunt, cre- εν σκοτει διαπορευομενου, nor for the berque procellis

danger that walketh in darkness. Africus.

The first is thus paraphrased in And as Mr. Thyer adds, though the Targum, (though with a such storms are unknown to us meaning very different from Euin these parts of the world, yet sebius's,) Non timebis à timore the accounts we have of burri. Dæmonum qui ambulant in nocanes in the Indies agree pretty cte,

The fiends surround our much with them.

Redeemer with their threats and 417. Though rooted deep as terrors; but they have no effect. high,] Virgil, Georg. ii. 291.


Infernal ghosts, and hellish furies, iv. 445.


Environ'd thee. quantum vertice ad auras Æthereas, tantum radice in Tartara This too is from Eusebius, (ibid. tendit.

Richardson. p. 435.] Erum ev Ta mipatu due

ναμεις ποιησαι εκυκλουν αυτον. . 419. shrouded] See note on quoniam dum tentabatur, maPar. Lost, x. 1068. E.

lignæ potestates illum circumsta420. yet only stood'st

bant. And their repulse, it seems, Unshaken ; &c.]

is predicted in the seventh verse Milton seems to have raised this of this Psalm: A thousand shall scene out of what he found in fall beside thee, and ten thousand Eusebius de Dem. Evan. lib. ix. at thy right hand, but it shall not (vol. ii. p. 434. ed. Col.] The come nigh thee. Calton.

Infernal ghosts, and hellish furies, round
Environ’d thee, some howld, some yell’d, some shriek’d,
Some bent at thee their fiery darts, while thou
Sat'st unappall'd in calm and sinless peace.
Thus pass'd the night so foul, till morning fair


422. Infernal ghosts, &c.] This As there is a storm raised by is taken from the legend or the evil spirits in Tasso as well as pictures of St. Anthony's tempt- in Milton, so a fine morning ation. Warburton.

succeeds after the one as well as From a print which I have after the other. See Tasso, cant. seen of the temptation of St. viii. st. 1. But there the mornAnthony. Jortin.

ing comes with a forehead of rose, In these lines our author copies and with a foot of gold; con la Fairfax's Tasso, C. xv. 67. fronte di rose, e co' piè d'oro; here You might have heard, how through with pilgrim steps in amice gray, the palace wide,

as Milton describes her progress Some spirits howld, some bark'a, more leisurely, first the gray some hist, some cride.

morning, and afterwards the sun It is where Armida, returning rising: with pilgrim steps, with to destroy her palace, assembles the slow solemn pace of a pilher attendant spirits in a storm. grim on a journey of devotion; Indeed, the circumstances and in amice gray, in gray clothing; behaviour of Christ in this haunt- amice, a proper and significant ed wilderness, are exactly like word, derived from the Latin those of the Christian champions amicio to clothe, and used by in Tasso's inchanted forest, who Spenser, Faery Queen, b. i. cant. calmly view, and without resist- iv. st. 18. ance, the threats and attacks of

Array'd in habit black, and amice a surrounding group of the thin, most horrid demons. See c. xiii. Like to an holy monk, the service to 28, 35. Milton adds,

begin. Some bent at thee their fiery darts, 426. Amice gray is the graius while thou

amictus in the Roman ritual. MilSat'st unappall'd in calm and sinless

ton, notwithstanding his abhorpeace.

T. Warton.

rence of every thing that related

to superstition, often dresses his 424. —their fiery darts,] Eph. imaginary beings in the habits vi. 16. the fiery darts of the wicked. of popery. But poetry is of all The contrast which the next line,

religions; and

popery Sat'st unappall'd &c. gives to the poetical one. So Comus, 188. preceding description of the horrors of the storm, has a singularly

-When the gray-hooded even fine effect. Dunster.

Like a sad votarist in palmer's weed. 426. —till morning fair

His Melancholy also is a pensive Came forth &c.]

is a very

T. Warton.


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