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A treaty of annexation concluded on the 14th day of February, 1893,

between the United States and the Provisional Government of the
Hawaiian Islands.


FEBRUARY 15, 1893.--Read; treaty read the first time, referred to the Committee on
Foreign Relations, and, together with the message and accompanying papers,

ordered to be printed in confidence for the use of the Senate.
FEBRUARY 17, 1893.-Injunction of secrecy removed and ordered to be printed.

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To the Senate :

I transmit herewith, with a view to its ratification, a treaty of annexation concluded on the 14th day of February, 1893, between Hon. John W. Foster, Secretary of State, who was duly empowered to act in that behalf on the part of the United States, and Lorrin A. Thurston, W. R. Castle, W. C. Wilder, C. L. Carter, and Joseph Marsden, the commissioners on the part of the Provisional Government of thé Hawaiian Islands.

The treaty, it will be observed, does not attempt to deal in detail with the questions that grow out of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States. The commissioners representing the Hawaiian Government have consented to leave to the future and to the just and benevolent purposes of the United States the adjustment of all such questions.

I do not deem it necessary to discuss at any length the conditions which have resulted in this decisive action.

It has been the policy of the administration not only to respect, but to encourage the continuance of an independent government in the Hawaiian Islands so long as it afforded suitable guarantees for the protection of life and property and maintained a stability and strength that gave adequate security against the domination of any other power. The moral support of this Government has continually manifested itself in the most friendly diplomatic relations, and in many acts of courtesy to the Hawaiian rulers.

The overthrow of the monarchy was not in any way promoted by this Government, but had its origiu in what seems to have been a reactionary and revolutionary policy on the part of Queen Liliuokalani, which put in serious peril not only the large and preponderating interests of

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the United States in the islands, but all foreign interests, and indeed
the decent administration of civil affairs and the peace of the islands.

It is quite evident that the monarchy had become effete and the
Queen’s government so weak and inadequate as to be the prey of de.
signing and unscrupulous persons. The restoration of Queen Liliuok-
alapi to her throne is undesirable, if not impossible, and unless actively
supported by the United States would be accompanied by serious dis-
aster and the disorganization of all business interests. The influence
and interest of the United States in the islands must be increased and
pot diminished.

Only two courses are now open; one the establishment of a protectorate by the United States, and the other, annexation full and complete. I think the latter course, which lias been adopted in the treaty, will be highly promotive of the best interests of the Hawaiian people, and is the only one that will adequately secure the interests of thé United States. These interests are not wholly selfish. It is essential that none of the other great powers shall secure these islands. Such a possession would not consist with our safety and with the peace of the world.

This view of the situation is so apparent and conclusive that no protest has been heard from any government against proceedings looking to annexation. Every foreign representative at Honolulu promptly acknowledged the provisional government, and I think there is a general concurrence in the opinion that the deposed queen ought not to be restored. Prompt action upon this treaty is very desirable.

If it ineets the approval of the Senate peace and good order will be secured in the islands under existing laws until such time as Congress can provide by legislation a perinanent form of government for the islands. This legislation should be, and I do not doubt will be, not only just to the natives and all other residents and citizens of the islands, but should be characterized by great liberality and a high regard to the rights of all the people and of all foreigners domiciled there.

The correspondence which accompanies the treaty will put the Senate
in possession of all the facts known to the Executive.


February 15, 1893.

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The undersigned, Secretary of State, has the honor to lay before the President, with a view to obtaining the advice and consent of the Senate thereto, should such a course be in the judgment of the President for the public interest, a treaty, signed at Washington on the 14th day of February, instant, by the undersigned and the accredited commis. sioners of the existing provisional governinent of the Hawaiian Islands, in representation of their respective Governments, for the full and absolute cession of the said islands and all their dependencies to the United States forever, with provision for the temporary government of those islands, under the sovereign authority of the United States, until Congress shall otherwise enact.

With this treaty the undersigned submits to the President copies of the correspondence recently exchanged, showing the course of events in the Hawaiian Islands as respects the overthrow of the late monarch

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