Climate Dynamics of the Tropics
Springer Science & Business Media, 2012 M12 6 - 488 páginas
The first edition of my book "Climate and Circulation of the Tropics" was reasonably up to date to the middle of 1985. In a second printing in 1988 it was possible to complete a few literature references and to correct some misprints. However, vigorous research has taken place over the past five years in various areas of tropical climate dynamics, especially in the atmosphere-ocean mechanisms of climate anomalies, climate prediction, ocean circulation, and paleoclimates. Promising progress has also been made in the application of general circulation modelling to tropical climate problems. In the present second edition, named "Climate Dynamics of the Tropics", I have attempted to incorporate much of the recent work to late 1990. Chapters 8 and 9 have been essentially re-written, and major additions have been made to Chapters 4 and 12 in particular. I would like to acknowledge the continued support by the U.S. National Science Foundation over the past five years. B. Parthasarathy, Poona, and H. Lessmann, San Salvador, sent me updates of data series not easily accessible. I have benefitted from discussions with numerous colleagues in the United States and overseas. In the preparation of this second edition, Marilyn Wolff patiently transferred my illegible hand-written drafts onto word processor. Dierk Polzin and Dan Skemp assisted me with the creation of the page masters and the subject index and Christopher Collimore with the author index.
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PLANETARY SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
HEAT AND WATER BUDGETS
REGIONAL CIRCULATION SYSTEMS
CLIMATOLOGY OF WEATHER SYSTEMS
INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY OF THE ATMOSPHEREOCEAN
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Africa anticyclonic Arabian Sea areas Atmos atmosphere boreal summer boreal winter Central circulation cloudiness coast convection convergence correlation cross-equatorial cyclonic departures diurnal divergence drought easterlies Eastern Pacific El Niño Equator Equatorial Current equatorial Pacific equatorward flow forecasting Geophys glacial global Hadley cell Hastenrath and Lamb heat budget heat transport Indian Ocean interannual variability Intertropical Convergence Zone Krishnamurti large-scale latitude layer lower-tropospheric maps maximum Meteor Meteorological monsoon rainfall Niño Nordeste North Atlantic Northeast Brazil Northern oceanic heat Oceanogr pattern Phys poleward precipitation pressure gradient radiation rainfall anomalies Ramage regions Sahel sea surface temperature seasonal Section Somali Current South Equatorial South Equatorial Current Southern hemisphere Southern Oscillation Southwest monsoon Squall Lines Subsaharan subtropical Subtropical Cyclones summer monsoon surface wind tropical Atlantic troposphere trough upper-tropospheric variations vertical wave weather West westerly Western wind stress Wyrtki zonal wind zone