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TABLE 2.--Enrolment, attendance, duration of schools, and sittings-Continued.

State or Territory. a

Averago
Enrolment Incrcase Average Increaso

Increase Whole at

duration excluding or daily at

tendance

of schools duplicates. decrease. tendance decrease.

decrease. in days.

in days.

or

or

Total number of sit tings.

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of

d Estimated.

a See Table 1, p. 5, for year report. C Actual total.

e In 1883-'84. bIn 1884-'85.

ĶU. S. Census, 1880. Table 1, presents the statistics of school enrolment, average attendance, and school provisions, so far as these are attainable.

The total enrolment, 11,435,297, shows increase as compared with 1884–85 of 265,374, or 2.37 per cent. In two States, Alabama and Kansas, the increase in enrolment is above 8 per cent.; in two, Georgia and Oregon, it is between 6 and 8 per cent. Connecticut and Rhode Island show slight decrease. The increased enrolment in the Territories is especially noticeable, excepting in Arizona and Utah, where it is less than 1 per cent.

For a full understanding of the extent to which elementary instruction is diffused among the people the enrolment in private schools ought to be included in this survey. Returns under this head, more or less complete, have been made from 12 States. These statistics would increase the enrolment in 6 of tho States by 10 per cent. or more, and by less than 10 per cent. in the remaining 6.

The average daily attendance, as reported for the entire country, is 7,279,616, an increase of 378,991, or 5.49 per cent. The fact of greater increase in this total than in that of enrolment undoubtedly points to greater regularity of attendance on the part of the actual pupils, which is an evidence of greater efficiency in the school systems.

The following are the States whose statistics afford this favorable indication: California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and South Carolina. To this list Utah can be added. The only other Territory in which entries are made under the head of increase or decrease is the District of Columbia, where the increase in average attendance was little more than one-fourth the increase in enrolineut. Several States are omitted in the comparison between school enrolment and average attendance for the want of the necessary data. Among them are Arkansas and Michigan, which appear to keep no record of averago daily attendance.

The item of whole attendance in days is presented in the table for the first time. As it has not yet been included in the inquiries of the office, the statistician could only insert the number where it was found in the State reports. The importance of tho number as a means of estimating the precise relation of school attendanco to school demand, in individual States, and tho amount of instruction enjoyed by the pupils in regular attendance, may be clearly seen by using it as the basis of computation in a single State. The wholo attendance in days reported from Illinois is 77,081,056. This number divided by population 6 to 14 years gives a quotient of 119.5; divided by the enrolment, a quotient of 103.7, and divided by tho average, attendance, a quotient of 153. The first quotient (119.5) indicates the average number of days' instruction, upon the total reported, for every child 6 to 14 years of age; the second (103.7) the average number of days' instruction for every child enrolled ; the last (153) expresses the precise average duration of the schools in days, giving to each school a weight proportionato to its average attendance.

The value of these several particulars as measures of the amount of elementary instruction afforded under the State system depends upon the standpoint assumed. It is hoped that their importance will be so fully recognized that State superintendents, or other chief officers of education, will hereafter use their utmost endeavors to mako the statistics upon which these several estimates shall be based full and accurato.

Of the 28 States and Territories which furnish data to determine any change in the duration of schools in days, 17 show an increase, many of them quite large, and only 11 a decrease. On the whole the tendency is obviously in the direction of longer terms.

The statistics showing number of school sittings are necessary for arriving at an exact knowledge of the school accommodations of the country. This item bas been obtained from the reports of three States and one Territory; hereafter it is proposed to include this also among the inquiries made by the Bureau.

TABLE 3.-Teachers.

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I.... 98
I.. 109
I... 202
I... 107

1, 979 15, 175

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I... 185

d45, 889

91, 257 47, 543

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I... 92

6, 504 6,872 5, 760

4, 029 8,721

1,036
So1, 610

c120
1, 194
1, 060
3, 934
1, 790
4,012

13, 815

6, 471 17, 359

5, 338
13, 287

1, 176
63, 023
c5, 043)
2,332
8,610
11, 392
5, 023
3, 308

28, 114

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I... 112
I... 150
D..

90
I... 247

I... 128
I.. 149
D.. 32

231

11, 120

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I... 797

518

Alabama
Arkansag.
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia.
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Obio...
Oregon
Pennsylrania.
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee..
Texas ........
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Alaska
Arizona
Dakota
Dist. of Columbia
Idabo..
Montana
New Mexico..
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

I...

2, 605

49 404

818 5, 932 3, 118

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48,510 127, 783

5, 490 3, 691 4, 444

1, 304 63, 038 c3,016)

624 1, 838 e7, 700 20, 619 13, 343 23, 119

9, 387 $7,008

2, 212 5, 463 3, 546 9, 070 15,326 6.813 7,336 12, 967 8, 489

214 3, +00 3,816 31, 325

5, 120 24, 620

1, 861 23, 303 1,275 3, 835 7,307 d7, 911 4, 328 6, 783 4, 925 11, 018

10 149 5,055

570 e330

377 g164

011 1, 100

970

14 I... 148 D.. 5

D.. 6
I... 129
D..

D..

74

5, 894

105 3, 076 2, 998 25, 373

2, 002 13, 795

4, 0.34 14, 508 1, 103 1, 744 2, 316

15, 418

10, 825

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807

01
8,795 I... 324

172
2,091 D.. 28
4, 961

38

8
I... 160
I... 439
I...

38
I... 62

93

I... 90
I... 131

31, 355

D..

1...

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Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware..
Florida..
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana..
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire..
New Jersey
New York.
North Carolina.
Ohio..
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island..
South Carolina
Tepessee
Tesas.
Vermont
Virginia.
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Alaska.
Arizona..
Dakota.
District of Columbia.
Idaho
Montana
New Mexico
Titab
Washington
Wyoming

42 68 101 00 40 22 63 56

I...1 01
I...1 93

34 70
67 72
23 56
36 30

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0 00
D..2 31
D....18
I. 14
I.... 82

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h U. S. census 1880.

a See Tnble 1, p. 5, for year of report.

e Ontside of cities. For white teachers ouly.

Approximately. c Salary per room.

. Estimated. d In cities. Table 3.—The statistics relating to teachers cmphasize certain marked deficiencies in the data attainable for nse in this report. Continuity of service, if not the chief, is certainly one of the chief conditions of efficiency in a teaching body. The rural schools of tbe United States suffer greatly from the want of such continuity; the evil is everywhere recognized, but too often in vague or partial showings. In respect to this, as to other conditions of the school system, it would undoubtedly be fonnd that investigations resulting in exact information would have ultimate remedial effects. As the city school systems are comparatively free from the evils of frequent changes in the teaching force, the changes occurring in a State during a year would represent with a sufticient degree of approximation the status of the rural schools in respect to the permanency of their teachers.

Obviously the difference between the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools and the number absolutely employed would indicate the number of changes during the year. By reference to Table 3 it will be seen that the two items are reported from five States. The percentages of change are as follows in four of these : Kansas, 9; Missouri 16; Ohio, 33; Wisconsin, 40.

In Oregon, the remaining one of the five, 1,985 is given as the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools, and 1,861 as the number absolutely employed, from which it would appear that 7 per cent of the places remained vacant.

The total number of teachers is 2,409 larger than the previous year, being an increase of 1.1 per cent. So far as returns classified by sex have been received, the total number of male teachers is 104,249, female 191,439, the males being 35.24 per cent. of the whole. The States reporting an excess of male over femalo teachers are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Of twenty-three States in which the change during the year of the average monthly salaries of teachers is recorded, there has been for males an aggregate increase in ten States of $13.39, and an aggregate decrease in thirteen States of $23.75; for females an aggregate increase in eloven States of $8.06, and an aggregate decrease in ten States of $18, there being no change in Ohio, and Wisconsin not giving the average salary of all female teachers. On the whole, the salaries of teachers, both male and female, have decreased during the year.

TABLE 5.--Receipts.

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Alabama

$230,000 $175, 000 I..$36, 990 $105, 000 Arkansas

445, 563 I.,101, 678 California 1,884, 065 1,690, 705

3, 574, 770 Colorado

801, 818 D. 108, 307 801, 818 Connecticut.

228, 449 | 1, 206,803 D..83, 004 1, 433, 052 Delaware

e 161, 018 Florida.. Georgia

491, 185 278, 109 1...68, 616 709, 294 Illinois.

1,000,000 8, 239, 042 I..323, 905 9, 239, 012 Indiana

1, 418, 447 2, 881, 619 Iowa.

4, 330, 066 s 690, 2234, 972, 278 Kansas

2, C60, 617

2, 660, 617
Kentucky.
Lonisiana
Maine,

342, 491 703, 717 D...1,943 1,016, 208 Maryland .

481, 479 1,031, 219 I...34, 542 1,512, 728 Massachusetts Michigan

3, 376, 456 D...2, 854 3, 376, 456 Minnesota

1, 909, S62

1, 999, 862 Mississippi 300,000 500, 776

800, 776 Missouri

514, 360 2, 942, 611 I ..54, 248 3, 457, 001 Nebraska Novada

f 42, 618

88, 508 New Hampshire 470, 177 75, 721

545, 898 New Jersey

1, 396 968 892, 448 I .8,556 2,389, 416 New York 2, 730, 000 9,918,719

12, 608, 719 North Carolina 512, 061 33, 734

517, 795 Ohio 1, 633, 352 7, 440, 734

9,094, 086 Oregon

260, 262
131 580

391, 812 Pennsylvania

91,126, 000 Rhode Islanıl.. 111, 631 636, 738

748, 309 South Carolina h 402, 508

h 402, 508 Tennessee f 139, 107 799 253

938, 360 Texas Vermont

487, 258 D..32, 572 487, 258 Virginia 626, 806 605, 454

1, 232, 260 West Virginia

367, 725 785, 320 1..13, 786 1, 153, 045 Wisconsin

161, 017 2, 614, 859 I.. 106,723 | 2, 705, 876 Alaska j 15,000

15, 000 Arizona

10, 662 85, 760 D...5, 630 96, 422 Dakota.

59, 400 1, 902, 322 1 ...1,990 2, 021, 722 District of Columbia. j282, 689 28, 669

565, 377 Idaho Montana

228, 333 1..50,017

228, 333 New Mexico Utalı

100, 171 53, 086 D...9, 522 153, 257 Washington

300,000

300,000 Wyoming

54, 021 132, 324 215,000

4, 632, 992 2, 624, 155

866, 776 4, 215, 415 2, 138, 428

131, 414

617, 472 2, 421, 740 13,537, 948

670, 672 10, 42), 420

$50. 961 10, 703, 541

798, 263 h460, 313 1,077, 451

621, 229

122, 677 1,079, 997

381, 518

246, 337
74,571

16, 306

33, 197 1:58, 405 138, 791

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Total.

a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report.
b Excluding balance from previous year and the

proceeds of boud sales.
c Includina proceeds from bond sales.
d State appropriation; for white schools only.
. For white schools only.

| State apportionment.

State appropriation.
hIn 1881-85.
i For university
j United States appropriation.
kUnited Statos Consus, 1880.

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Alabama

$13, 869

$69 $727, 375 | I...$224, 616 Arkansas..

$741, 244

$741, 241 $202, 294 $91,781 $1 196

714, 118 I. 108, 9.50

$39, 798 California

806, 892

137, 724 2-3, 006 89, 460

2, 710, 622 | I....136, 998 Colorado

422, 843 3, 505, 931 I..]... 41, 707
(163, 048)

497, 968
Connecticut

144, 315 c 90.5, 623 D. 29, 104
216, 401 11, 062 30, 012 I. 965 1, 188, 055 I. .21, 177 1, 218, 098 316, 106 1, 791, 666 D.
Delaware.

.60, 555

152, 591 Florida

51, 327 d215, 101 46, 000

800 Georgia

(339, 000)

€355, 890 (4.7, 687) Illinois

666, 303

711, 330
1, 305, 5031 33, 012

6, 132, 866 235, 438
Indiana

2, 659, 617 10, 136, 0.78 D. 62, 870 (1, 247, 727)

3,494, 927

471, 544
Iowa

5, 214, 198
716, 709 15, 775

13, 696, 453

3, 696, 453 1, EOS, 033 Kinsats 785, 378

4,600,000 51, 650

2, 213,521

564,723
Kentucky

93, 819, 017 I. .40), 365
Lonisiana

700, 750

379, 927
Maine

450, 630
53, 143
31, 093 D. 996

1,099,352 I. 12, 438
Maryland.

h 489, 904

43, 402 I... 15, 402 1, 298, 997 .21, 110 1, 342, 399 Massachusetts.

1, 832, 333

.87, 125 87, 919 D..51, 095

7, 151, 075 Michigan ....

632, 050 43, 159

2, 841, 563 815, 296

D

4,332, 968 Minnesota

395, 973 673, C12 9,568 53, 728 | I....1,000 1, 413, 474

1, 467, 202 Mississippi

221, 578 2, 371, 930 D .215, 554 i 24, 000 810, 776 840, 776

810, 776 Missouri (682, 410)

3, 107,541 Nebraska.......

338, 645 4, 328, 596

I.

67, 024
(783, 480)
Nerada.

1, 323, 297

g2, 350, 809 D ..567, 288 9, 510 417 106, 874

11, 483
New llampshire.

128, 285
263, 367

17, 904

324 454, 374 I. .7, 533 472, 338

05, 098 New Jerseyd.

k 601, 403 D.....11, 796 370, 674 12, 643

39, 179

1,597, 005
New York.

1, 636, 184 402, 798 2, 43, 299
2, 276, 1.35 350, 672

9, 102, 269 North Carolina

I... 339, 319

1,533, 713 13, 284, ENG D. 296, 082
81,341
18, 132

527, 036
Olio

545, 528

41, 219 671, 116 1, 190, 8012

211, 445 .3, 562 6, 118, 609 | I. 82, 920 6,333, 031 Oregon

1., 693 9,327, 349 1, 229, 011 10, 957

10, 530 D.....211

375, 158
Pennyirania

.32, 972 383, 658

1,613, 68; I...1, 130, 534 1, 757, 437

5, 760, 296 173, 815 Rhodie Tsland

12,314, 2014 10, 031, 937 I.

231, 532
na 174, 5-6

4, 9:55
15, 128 I....1, 807 482, 117

.10, 935 497, 275 South Carolinai

8.1, 115 n782, 967

46, 145
11, 078 1,008
19,685
373, 611

393, 326
Tennessee.

20, 491

425, 903
75, 554 10, 417 20,103 I.. 1, 171 907, 661

.31, 432 927, 821

33, 428 1,047, 223 | I. ..33, 759 a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report e Returns incomplete.

jIncluding permanent repairs. 0 Exrluding local l'unils expended by cities and dis- f Includes salaries of superintendents. tricts.

k Excluding interest ou debt. g Including unclassified expenditures.

l Including debt paid. c Including $100, 261 paid on temporary loans.

K Includes Ted, rent, books, and incidentals. d In 1883 - 81.

m Including repairs. ilo 1-84-'85.

n Inclading $23,036 for evening schools, not classified.

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