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from 7 to 10 per cent of the entire number, are annually required in that State to till vacancies. Probably this would be too low an estimate for the majority of the States, but for the purpose of an approximate statement, 10 per cent. of the whole number of teachers reported has been taken to represent the number of new teachers annually required in the States considered, excepting where the precise number was reported. The comparison serves at least to emphasize the discrepancy between supply and demand in the matter of trained teachers.

Comparisons are hardly allowable in respect to appropriations, as in some of the States the whole or nearly the whole amount is expended upon normal pupils only, while in other of the States the larger proportion of tho pupils benefited are not in the normal courses. In short, this, as every other similar study of the educational statistics of the United States, is embarrassed by the want of uniformity in the particulars.

It is a fact worthy of special note that the two highest per capita estimates in the table are for States in which all, or nearly all, the students in the schools considered are classed as normal students.

By reference to Table 18 it will be seen that the appropriations for normal schools in Virginia, as reported, amount to $55,240; but $10,000 of this sum being the interest on the Agricultural College land-scrip fund granted by the State to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, hardly seems to come within the definition of a State appropriation, and hence is omitted in the foregoing comparative table.

The sum total of appropriations for all the States, including $10,000 to Hampton, is $1,228,549.

The view of what the States are doing to secure trained teachers for the common schools would be incomplete without some potice of teachers' iustitutes.

The most important particulars relating to these agencies as reported for the current year are here tabulated :

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1, 898

03, 7612, 474 559

1,500 13,060 27, 550 13, 734

9, 005 8, 992 26, 419 a814

225 4,500

24 1, 429

480 1, 601


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Texas ..
West Virginia


3, 841

1, 898

1 500
110 13, 660
92 -13, 734

8, 992
11 683
66 4, 258

66 5, 359

3 225 10

1, 047
77 17, 500
113 1, 180

13, 332
69 18, 156
22 802
41 1, 855

3 771
58 6, 088
75 6, 246



3 69

625 4, 258 4,044

C1, 203 5, 339 11, 948

225 300 1,047 1, 663 17,500

1, 994 3, 598 13, 332 20, 480


2, 840




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817 1, 200


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18, 156 34, 609

1, 148 2, 317 1, 500
e4, 809
2, 333

1, 023

1,575 6,088 1,000

500 6, 246

6, 606 6,698

7 96







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* Number of counties having institutos. a From report of superintendent to the agent of the Peabody fand for 33 normal institutes. b For the 28 county institutes held duriog 1885 and 1886. c Cost of instruction only. d Stute institutes only. ē In addition to these many “educational meetings" were held.

The above statistics have been drawn from the State reports; the intention having been to include only State and county institutes. In one instance when the counties having had institutes are enumerated but the number of institutes is not given, each county has been credited with one institute. This is indicated by a star in the table.

Table 19 presents the statistics of 36 private normal schools having 279 instructors and 8,524 students, of whom 6,197 are classed as normal students.

In the best of these schools the pedagogical training is modelled very closely upon that of the public normals, and while for obvious reasons the latter are more likely to fulfil the conditions required for a high order of training, the private normals bear a worthy part in the work. The South has been especially indebted to schools of this class for the supply of teachers qualified by virtue of their character and attainments to shape and direct the education of the freedmen. Eleven of the 36 schools included in the table are engaged at the present time in the preparation of teachers for this particular branch of educational work.

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING. Thus far our attention has been confined to the amount of provision made by the States for the training of elementary teachers.

The kind of training which is fostered is, if possible, a matter of greater consequence. In a measure this is indicated by the requirements for admission to the normal schools, the subjects embraced in the courses of training, and the duration of those courses.

These conditions necessarily vary with varying economic and social conditions of the States, there being, however, sufficient uniformity to indicate substantially the same purpose throughout the country.

Differences, which upon a cursory view of the facts appear to be great, are generally found to arise, not from difference of opinion as to tho essentials of the training, but from a difference in the organization of the schools.

These fall naturally into two classes: one including the schools that combine academic and professional training, and the other those that confine themselves to professional work.

The former very generally admit pupils at 14 years of age, but this, however, implies admission to the general course of study. In no case apparently is it thought advisable to begin the distinctive training for the teacher's work at an earlier age than 16 years, which is the age generally adopted for the admission of women to normal schools for the second class; 17 years being the usual age required for men.

As a rule, schools of the second class also require that candidates for admission shall offer a high-school diploma, or equivalent.

In schools of the first class the course of training and study is from 2 to 4-years duration; in those of the second the course of training is 1 or 2 years.

The conception of special training for elementary teachers, exemplified in the normal schools, may perhaps be best shown by the programmes of normal schools.

For the purpose of such illustration selections must necessarily be made of schools adapted to communities differing in social and industrial conditions.


Troo-years course.--Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, book-keeping, physics, astronomy, chemistry, physiology, botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology, geography, language, reading, orthography, etymology, grammar, rhetoric, literature and composition, penmanship, drawing, vocal music, gymnastics, psychology, science of education and art of teaching, school organization, history of education; civil polity of Massachusetts and of United States, history, school laws of Massachusetts.

Four-years course.--In addition to the studies named above, the four-years course includes advanced algebra and geometry, trigonometry and surveying, advanced chemistry, physics and botany, drawing, English literature, general history, Latin and French required; German and Greek as the principal and visitors of the school shall decide.

The visitors, at the request of the principal of the Worcester school, may have authority to substitute German for French, as they think the interests of the school from time to time demands.

The above is an enumeration of the studies. The order of the studies in the course is determined by the principal of each school, with the approval of the visitors of that school.

Course of instruction.-Connecticut Normal and Training School.

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model schools. schools.

Course of instruction.--State Normal School, Albany, New York.

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Mental philosophy. science. Religion

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Singing ..... Singing.

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There are three classes of st udents for whom instruction should be provided.

The first and largest class includes those who wish to prepare for teaching in the common schools in country, town, or city, and wlio enter the normal school having the minimum amount of scholarship and but little of that mental discipline which results from a full and efficient course of school instruction. These must learn both the matter they are to teach and the method of teaching it, in the normal school. The school must afford them both academic and professional instruction.

Another class of students for whom provision is made is composed of those who have completed the course of study in higli schools and academies, and of those who may not possess the scholarship of the high-school graduate, but who are teachers of age

* From report of the State superintendent, Hon. J. W. Holcombe, for 1885-'86.

and experience, and because of their greater maturity are able to keep pace with these graduates.

The third class includes those who have graduated from colleges and universities and who seek such professional training as will fit them to assume the duties of superintendents and principals of high schools.

To adapt the work of the school as fully as possible to the wants of all classes desiring to prepare for teaching, courses of stuly are provided as follows:

1. Regular English course, 3 years.
2. English and Latin course, 3+ years.
3. Course for graduates of high schools, 2 years.
4. Course for college graduates, 1 year.
5. Post-graduate course, 1 year.
6. Course for graduates of high schools, 1 year.


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Second term
Third term...

Latin or German... Literature

Latin or German... General history. Geometry
Latin or German... Philosophy of edn. Trigonometry....


Chemistry or as.

Zoology or geology.


Applicants for admission to the State schools considered must be at least 16 years of age, must present certificates of good character, must signify their intention to teach in the pablic schools of the State, and must pass a satisfactory examination in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, and English grammar.

History is also reqnired for admission to the Connecticut school.

The Michigan State Normal School may be taken as an example of the small number of normal schools which offer more extended courses of study than the preceding, and which do not limit admission to candidates who pledge themselves to teach.

Students are allowed a choice from five regular courses of study, as follows: Scientific, 4 years; literary, 4 years; ancient languages, 4 years; modern languages,

4 4 years; English, 4 years. Several special courses are also offered.

All of these courses includo pedagogics and practice-teachings, and all pupils who graduate and receive diplomas from any course are entitled to legal certificates of qualification to teach in any of the public schools of the State.

Graduates of the English course receive certificates for 5 years; of the other courses, for life.

TWO CLASSES OF NORMAL SCHOOLS. The question of the comparative advantages of the two classes in which the normal schools of the United States may be grouped is exciting much attention at the present time.

In view of this fact, it may be well to notice the tendencies with reference to the choice between the two w bere circumstances are favorable to freedom of choice.

The Boston Normal School was organized in 1852 as a special school for the preparation of teachers, the plan of study and instruction being expressly arranged with that end in view.

As a result of nrgent appeals for the establishment of a high school for girls varions high-school studies were introduced into the Normal School, and in a few years the normal element had become entirely secondary.

After an experience of about 15 years it was evident that additional means must be taken to secure a sufficient number of properly qualified teachers for service in the city schools, and in 1870 the committee on the normal schools, being satisfied “that the course of instruction and plan of work are such in a normal school that it cannot be most successful in conneciion with regular high-school work," recommended a division of the school and the restoration of the normal school to its original standing."

This recommendation was adopted in 1872, since which time the school has been strictly professional.

In 1873, the conduct of the Normal School being still under discussion, inquiries were sent to various officials with a view of bringing a large and varied experienco to bear upon the points at issue.3

The correspondence published in the annual report for 1873 shows that the follow. ing superintendents of schools in cities in which normal or training schools had been established expressed the opinion that the same should be kept distinct from the high school:

Hon. H. F. Harrington, Now Bedford, Mass.
Hon. A. P. Marble, Worcester, Mass.
Hon. E. B. Hale, Cambridge, Mass.
Hon. W. T. Harris, St. Lonis, Mo.
Hon. Henry Kiddle, New York, N. Y."

In their conclusions, einbraced in their report to the school committee, the committee on normal schools include the following:

“The experience of 21 years has made it manifest that the normal school should be a distinct institution, devoted wholly to the preparation of teachers."

While the policy of separating the normal work from the high school was so strongly advocated by the Boston committee, the union of the normal school with some regularly organized public school of elementary grade to serve the normal pupils as a school for observation and practice was urged no less strongly. It was not, however, until 1876 that the arrangement was perfected, in which year Superintendent Phil. brick said in his annual report:

“It is hardly an exaggeration to say that during almost the whole period that has elapsed since the establishment of the school the arrangements and provisions for giving the requisite normal training to female teachers for our public schools have been insufficient and unsatisfactory. But at length, after experiments and delays extending over a period of nearly a quarter of a century, we are able to say that we have a well organized and efficient normal school, established on a broad and firm

'Boston Report, 1873, p. 249.
* Ibid., p. 256.

3 Ibid., pp. 266, 270.

* Ibid., p. 272.

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