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fonddation. It is in ebarge of an able and esperienced corps of instractors. The standard of qualifications for admission is high, and it was. perhaps the first normal school in the country to require of its candidates, as a preparation for entrance, the completion of a high-school course of instruction. Its course of iraining is wat 1 year, bui is exclusive s professional. The four great pedagogical branches-psyebology, physiologs, ethics, and logic-are here judicioosis handied. The methods of teacbing the common-school bratches are taught both theoretically and practicais. A large gratumar school for bors, and a large primary school with popiis of both seres, aford ample opportunity for the training of the pupil teachers in the actual work of tbe school-room."
In the St. Louis Normal School, which completes its third decade the present year, the professional work las alwars been made paramount.
In 1:72: a district school was selected and placed in charge of the principal of the normal school to serve the normal pupils as a school of observation, and in low- all academic features were abandoned, and the school was made strictly a professional one, with a 2-şears course.
While the example of two of the leading pormal schools of the constry is thus seed to be in favor of an organization entirely distinct from the high school, it may be observed that two of the largest cities, riz, New York and Philadelphia, maintain schools of the opposite type. According to so competent authority as Mr. Phil. brick, even bere, however, there is a movement towards the separation of the two functions. In the circular previously ailuded to, Mr. Philbrick says: - In the New York and Philadelphia schools, where the general education and the special training are carried on simultaneously, we observe the gradual evolution of tbe distinctly professional department, composed of the post-gradnate pup:'s. As soon as such a department is clearls difierentiated, as is the case with the normal department of the San Francisco school. it only remains to place this department under a competent master, wholly devoted to its management and training, and we have the realization of the ideal type of the normal school."
It should be added that in New York and Philadelphia there is a special reason for continuing a general course of study in the normal schools, since neither of these cities pursesues a high school for girls apart from the normal, whereas Boston and St. Louis bare such schools. In the former only high-school graduates are admitted to the normal school : in the latter high-school gradoates or those passing eqnivalent examinations. The four cities agtre substantially as to the scholastie attainment, which is the proper basis for professional training. On the whole, a careful exami. nation of the present status and past history of the city normal schools in the United States confirms the opinion expressed or Mr. Philbrick that “the history of the modifications of the provisions for the professional training of teachers in our eities, which have been going on during the last quarter of a century, makes it clear that the tendency has been, and is now everywhere, towards the purely professional normal school, with its school of practice comprising pupils of all grades and both sexes, thoroughly equipped and provided with teachers of the highest order, thus serving the purpose of a school of observation and a practice school.
For obvious reasons it is not so easy to limit the State normal schools to the professional training of teachers as it is the city normals. The disposition in favor of such specialization is, however, manifest where it seems at all practicable. It is accomplished, as we have seen, in the Connecticat school, and it is the ideal aimed at in many States where its accomplishment is not yet possible.
Io his report for 1536, Hon. A. s. Draper, superintendent of public instruction, New York, says:
** The normal schools might spend less time with foundation work than they are doing now. If they should receive no pupils but such as are fairly educated, and should confine their labors to special training in methods and practice, they would accomplish larger results. If this position cannot be taken at once, it shonld at least be determined upon and worked up to as rapidly as circumsiances will peraiit. The standard of admission to the normal schools should be advanced, and the gradnaies of responsible institutions of learning, who may desire to fit themselves for teachers, should be encouraged to come to our normal schools for short courses of professioual training."
Hon. D. L. Kiehle, superintendent of public instruction, Minnesota, in his report for 1885–86 calls attention to the fact that the preparatory class has been dropped from two of the State normal schools, and adds:
“These schools are receiving their share of the students and graduates of high schools, and as soon as our schools shall furnish the necessary supply the normal schools will be ready to give exclusive attention to professional work in training teacbers." The conditions under which most of the state pormal schools are operate
"Repts. 1872 and 1873.
- St. Louis Normal Rept. 1882–81, p. 65.
ing, and the obstacles in the way of exclusive devotion to professional training, are fully presented by Hon. E. E. Higbee, State superintendent for Pennsylvania, in the following statement quoted from his report for 1886: "As yet our advanced high schools and colleges do not supply these schools with a sufficient number of students whose thorongh literary attainments warrant a more exclusively professional course of studies. In fact, our normal schools are necessitated to do this preparatory academic work themselves. In this way they render themselves liable to the charge of being only academies with a quasi-professional annex. We have all along very much regretted the necessity of directing so much attention to the academic training of the students in these schools, and have carefully studied how to keep the purely professional element from being too much neglected without at the same time sacrificing the thorough literary instruction required. The large supply of teachers required for the educational work of the State and the very low average of salaries given for educational labor make it impossible to lengthen very much the present term of study. Some with great earnestness have advocated the addition of another year. In due time this will
come, and be of immense account in enlarging the sphero of professional studies and giving opportunity for more definite and continuous model practice, which, when rightly conducted, is of so much value. The literary instruction may have been given in harmony with the best principles which the present philosophy of school education is able to give, and in such form as to bring into view the very best methods which either the science or art of teaching furnishes. We are not calling this in question at all, but we must keep in mind that the students, at the very outset, are backward in their literary studies, and have but little knowiedge of psychology. Hence they are forced to make every exertion in preparing for their daily class work, and must be, of necessity, far more anxious about the matter of what is taught than about the manner or method of teaching it. They fear to spend any more time in the model school than is absolutely required by law. They make the minimum here the maximum if they can. In addition to this, being subject at the close of the course to a rigid State examination, covering all the academic studies pursued, they, with their professors, are tempted to sacrifice all efforts towards enlarging the course of professional studies through fear of the issue of the tinal examination test."
With the hope of devising some plan for relieving the normal schools from the difficulties so clearly set forth, Superintendent Higbee called a meeting of all the normal. school principals at Harrisburgh. As a result of their deliberations it was proposed to confine the usual examination for promotion from the junior to the senior class to academic studies, and to devote a larger part of the graduation year to professional training, a measure in line with the specialization taking place elsewhere.
There does not, however, appear to be any inherent incompatibility between the academic instruction and the professional training attempted in so many of the normalschools of the United States. Both courses are successfully maintained in the training seminaries of Saxony, but with provisions as to time, and to the order and sequence of subjects, which secure to both courses their full effect. The more thoroughly the normal-school work of the United States is examined, the more evident seems that, where professional training is not the sole purpose, there
should be an extension of time and an increase in the teaching force and in the material equipment of the schools, if they are to reach approved standards of excellence.
GERMAN NORMAL SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS' SEMINARIES. The scheme of training.adopted in the leading normal schools of the United States. shows at least an approximation to that of the training seminaries of Germany, which have been so long the admiration of schoolmen. For the purpose of comparison a somewhat extended account of the German system is here presented.
Candidates for the teachers' semiuaries in Prussia make special preparation for admission to the same either under authorized instructors or in preparatory schools. These schools may be private or State establishments, and, although no official uniform plan of studies has been prescribed for them, the branches of instruction are determined by the official programme of the examination for admission to the seminaries. These branches are as follows: religion, German language, arithmetic, elementary geometry, geography, history, physical and natural science, writing, design, music, and gymnastics. The study of a foreign language is optional. Candidates may be admitted to the seminary at 17 years of age, and may not be above 24 years of age.
According to the present regulations there should be annexed to every seminary 2 elementary schools, 1 having a single class, the other having several classes. Here the students in training practice the art of teaching under the direction of a special master, who is included in the teaching staff of the seminary. The course of stndy in the seminary is 3 years. In the lower class the students whose preparation has been made by different means must be brought into desired uniformity; at this stage
they do not participate in the exercises in the annexed schools. In the second class they continue tlıcirown studies according to the programme and enter npon the prace tical work in the annexed schools; in the third class they complete their studies and receive such directions as will enable them to work out their own nltimate developwent. At this stage the work in the practice school is increased, and imposes greater responsibility. The amount of time spent by each scholar of the third year in the practical work must not be less than 6 hours nor more than 10 hours a week, and each one must have the opportunity of practical exercise in all the studies of the prograinme. The two lower classes spend 24 hours a week in their own lessons and the superior class 14 hours, not including the hours devoted to the technical branches (design, writing, gymnastics, and music) and to the optional branches. At the end of ihé 3-years course the student undergoes his examination for office; if he passes he receives a provisional certificate. At the end of 2 years at the earliest, or 5 years at the latest, ho presents himself for a second examination, which entitles him to a full cer. tificate.
Each seminary must be provided with a good library, a cabinet of physics, a chemical laboratory, and as far as possible with a collection of objects and material for illustration. The instruction is conducted in accordance with a plan which must be approved by the minister of public instruction. The following table shows the brauches prescribed in the official programme and their distribution through the 3 years:
a In the third year the hour assigned to arithmetic is devoted to geometry.
There are also exercises in horticulture, in arboriculture, and in silk culture, which each seminary arranges at will.
The teachers' statt of a teachers' semipary consists of a director, a head master, four ordinary masters and an anxiliary master. The director is nominated by the King, the masters are nominated by the minister of public instruction. The auxiliary master is chosen from the teachers who have passed their second examination. The director and ordinary masters may be taken from the rank of teachers, but it must be teachers of secondary schools. As a rule the directors are persons who bave passed the university examination in theology or philology. The salaries of the members of the staff are fixed as follows:
Seminaries for training women teachers are of recent establishment in Prussia. The obligatory branches of study in these are the same as for the men, omitting geometry and including needle-work. French is the optional branch.
The teachers' seminaries of Saxony differ from those of Prussia in several important particulars. Candidates aro admitted immediately from the popular schools, that is, at 14 years of age-and the course covers 6 years—the first 3 years corresponding to the preparatory course which the student follows for admission to the Prussian seminary The official plan of studies for the seminaries of Saxony is as follows:
Harmony, obligatory in the first year, is optional for the rest of the course. The piano, organ, and stenography are optional.
The law requires that the director and at least a third of the teachers should have pursued superior studies and have passed a nniversity examination. Saxony possesses two seminaries for training women teachers, but instruction in these is not gratuitous. The course of study is 5 years, and the branches are about the same as in the seminaries for men; more time, however, is devoted to language and literature and less to science and to music, the organ being omitted altogether." Needle-work is included, occupying two hours a week throughout the course. The examination and certificate granting are under the same regulations as those for men. It will be seen that with the exception of pedagogy and foreign languages the studies of the teach. ers' seminaries are those of the elementary schools. Instruction in these branches js carried farther and is of a bigher order, but the subject-matter is substantially the same. The principle constantly kept in mind is this: "that the instruction which the teachers in training receive should present a model of that which they will eventually give.”
FRENCH NORMAL SCHOOLS. It may be of interest to consider also the plan of the French normal schools, which have been modelled more or less closely upon those of Germany. As organized under the decree of 1881 the French normal schools present the same plan of a single nndivided course. In the main the studies are the same as those prescribed for the elementary schools, but as in Germany the intention is to secure a broader and more comprebensive view of these subjects. The duration of the course is 3 years; candidates for admission must be at least 15 years of age and must have tho certificate of primary studies (certificat d'études primaires).
The following programmes show the branches pursued and their distribution througb the 3 years:
Normal schools for men.
One hour a week during one semester.
c One hour dnring one semester. 'I'wo hours during one semester, one hour during the other. d One hour during the other semester.
Normal schools for women.