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To strengthen and perfect the supervision of the schools, the State has made it law. ful for any town to require its school committee to annually appointa superintendent of schools, who, acting under direction, and as an agent of the committee, shall perform all those acts that are pecnliar to school supervision.

About sixty cities and towns have availed themselves of the provisions of the law, by requiring their school committees to elect superintendents and commit to them the general care and supervision of the schools. The schools in these towns are the best in the State. The reasons for this are obvious. The conditions necessary for the existence of good schools are not likely to be secured, except through the service of those who know what the conditions are, and who have been chosen for the special work of supervision.

The sehools in towns employing efficient supervision are supplied with better teachers; the schools are directed in accordance with a plan towards some definite results. All those things that come under the head of means of teaching are promptly furuished, and the whole school population is in school. The schools of the sinall towns are suffering for the want of good management. They are falling behind the schools provided with special supervision, as may be seen by their annual returns, and by the inferior advantages they offer to the children who attend upon their instructions.

Experience and observation both prove that the conditions necessary to good sehools cannot exist, unless they are provided with etñeient superintendence. There is a common agreenient among educators on this subject, that the cause of popular edacatwa "will ever languish” in towns not provided with an intelligent and special management. This opinion prevails among the people themselves of such towns, and they are generally willing to do all in their power to secure, in common with the larver towas the advantages of special sehool supervision.

Taabuiity to support such an agney is the obstacle in the way of its general introduction. The larve to was are able to provide each its own supervisor. This they bare generalis dece. The smaller towus viar unite into districts and support union sunery Nors There is already a permissire siatate providicg for the union of towns "to ('stris for the support of si otteers. Fire districts have taken advantage et the parisees of the law, and have the district system of strerirtepdepes in setil nest suedestal operation. The sonbil towes Ceed aici in sopronid: their existente si scitutos ni co ad coclibe even that would prodice scel racal and needle. Rerus in var «200-scivoi us as that given in support of 2a edocatai supervisiva.

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Solomon Palmer Montgomery, Ala... Dec. 1886-'88 State superintendent of education.
W. E. Thompson Little Rock, Ark.... Oct. 1884-'86 State superintendent of public instruc-

tion.
Ira G. Hoitt
Sacramento, Cal Jan. 1887-'91

Do. Leonidas S. Cornell Denver, Colo... Jan. 1887-'89

Do. Chas. D. Hine

Hartford, Conn Jan. 1886-'87 Secretary of State board of education. Thomas N. Williams.. Dover, Del.. April 1886-'87 State superintendent of free schools. A.J. Russell Tallahassee, Fla Jan. 1885–89 State superintendent of public instruc

tion. Gustavus J. Orr Atlanta, Ga. Nov. 1884-'86 State school commissioner. Richard Edwards.. Springfield, Ill..... Jan. 1887-'91 State superintendent of public instruc

tion.
H. M. La Folletto Indianapolis, Ind Mar. 1887-'89 Do.
John W. Akers
Des Moines, Iowa.. Jan. 1884-'86

Do.
J. H. Lawhead
Topeka, Kans. Jan. 1887-'89

Do.
Jos. D. Pickett
Frankfort, Ky Sept. 1883–'87

Do.
Warren Easton

Baton Rouge, La.. May 1984-'88 State superintendent of education. N. A. Luce....

Augusta, Mo

Feb. 1886-'89 State superintendent of common

schools. M. A. Newell.... Baltimore, Ma Jan. 1886-'88 State superintendent of public instruc.

tion. John W. Dickinson.... Boston, Mass Jan. 1886–87 Secretary of State board of education. Jos. Estabrook. Lansing, Mich. Jan. 1887-'89 State superintendent of public instrac

tion. D. L. Kiehle..

Saint Paul, Minn.... April 1885-87 Lo. J. R. Preston.

Jackson, Miss Jan. 1886-'90 State superintendent of education, Wm. E. Coleman. Jefferson City, Mo.. Jan. 1883-'87 State superintendent of public schools. Geo. B. Lane Lincoln, Nebr Jan. 1887-'89 State superintendent of publis instruo.

tion. W.C. Dovey Carson City, Nev Jan. 1887-'91

Do. James W. Patterson Concord, N.H July 1881-'86 Do. Edwin Chapman. Trenton, NJ

1885-'88

Do. Andrew S. Draper Albany, N. Y

April 1846-'89 Sidney M. Finger Raleigh, NC Jan. 1885-'89 Do. Eli T. Tappan... Columbus, Ohio. Jan. 1886-'89 State commissioner of common schools E. B. McElroy.

Salem, Oreg

Sept. 1882, Jan. State superintendent of public instruc1, 1887.

tion. E. E. Higbee Harrisburg, Pa April 1885-'80

Do. Thos. B. Stockwell. Providence, R.I.

Elected annu. Commissioner of public schools.

ally. James H. Rice

Columbia, S.C.. Dec. 4, 1886-'88 i Superintendent of public education. Frank M. Smith

Nashville, Tenn Jan. 1837-'91 State superintendent of public schools. 0. H. Cooper

Austin, Tex..

Jan. 1887-'89 State superintendent of public instruc

tion.
Justus Dartt
Montpelier, Vt.... Deo. 1886-'88

Do.
J. L. Buchanan.
Richmond, Va Jan. 1886-'90

Do.
Benj. S. Morgan. Charleston. W. Va.. Mar. 1885-'89 State superintendent of free schools.
Jesso B. Thayer.

Madison, Wis. Jan. 1883-'87 State superintendent of public schools. Sheldon Jackson. Sitka, Alaska Indefinite. General agent of educatioo for Alaska. R. L. Long

Prescott, Ariz Jan. 1885–'87 Superintondent of public instruction. A. Sheridan Jones. Olivet, Dak..

Mar. 1885-'87

Do.
Wm. B, Powell, white
F. T. Cook, colored
Washington, D.C..

Superintendent of District schools.
J. H. Wickersham Boisé City, Idaho.. Feb. 1887-'89 Superintendent of public instruction.
Wm. W. Wylie

Helena, Mont.. Feb. 1883-'83 Do. Trinidad Alarid. Santa Fé, N. Mex. Feb. 1886-'88 Ex-officio superintendent for reports. LJ. Nuttall

Salt Lake City, Utab Aug. 1883-'85 Superintendent of public instruction. J. O, Korr.

Olympia, Wash. T.. Jan. 1884-'86 Do. John Slaughter Cheyenne, Wyo..... Mar. 1884–’86 Do.

Do.

SUMMARY OF CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO

EDUCATION IN THE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES.

ALABAMA.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. The General Assembly shall establish and maintain a system of public schools for I the benefit of children between 7 and 21 years of age, separate schools for the races being provided."

TOWNSHIP INCORPORATION.
The inhabitants of each township are incorporated by the name of "township - and
range – ” according to the number of the United States survey.

SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
Every township and every incorporated city or town of 3,000 or more inhabitants

Il is a school district, and may hold and own property.3

LEGAL SCHOOL POPULATION. Every child between 7 and 21 years of age is entitled to admission into and instruc- ) tion in any public school for its own race in its township, or in some other school in the State, as provided by law.

SCHVOL CENSUS. An enumeration of all children between 7 and 21 years old, by race and sex, in each township is made by the superintendent thereof, and reported to the county superintendent, who makes a like report for his county to the State superintendent. This census is taken in August of years having odd numbers.

LOCATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. When only one public school is established in a township, it must be so located as IV to accommodate the largest number of pupils; but the location may be changed from year to year so as to accommodate those children who were not within reach of the school in previous years. Preference should be given to localities having a schoolhouse already built or a site procured.

If more than one school for each race bo needed in a township, more may be established by the local school officer.?

Preference in locating schools should be given to communities which will supplement the district revenue with the object of sustaining free schools for as long a session as possible. White and colored children must not attend the same school.”

No more than two schools for either race can be opened in any township wherein the school revenue for said race does not exceed $50.

The school revenue of each township is apportioned as nearly as practicable per capita of the probable school attendance.

Children may be transferred to schools in other than their own school districts, but they carry their share of the school revenue with them; and, if, after deliberation, it is determined not to have one public school for each race opened in a township, and the children of the race, so left without a school, cannot be transferred readily to another school district, their share of the school revenue shall be paid to the parents or guardians of said children; Provided, Said children attend some other school the same length of time.10

SCHOOL YEAR, MONTH, DAY. The school year begins October 1 and ends September 30; the school month is 20 days; the school day is not less than 6 hours.?!

The (annual) session of a public school usually must be at least 12 weeks long, i. e., V 3 scholastic months, 13

1 Const., art. 12, sec. 1.
2 Code of 1870, sec. 963.
* Sch. Laws of Feb. 7, 1879, sec. 48.
• Ibid., sec. 40.

6 Ibid., sec. 39.
Ibid., sec. 28.
* Ibid., sec. 29.
8 Ibid., sec. 36.

• Ibid., sec. 52.
10 Ibid., sec. 31.
11 Ibid., sec. 50.
12 Ibid., sece. 31, 34.

47

PRESCRIBED BTUDIES.

Physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcohol, stimulants and narcotics upon the human system, must be taught to all pupils in all schools and colleges receiving any public money or under Stato control.!

SCHOOL OFFICERS. A superintendent of education, elected by popular vote, shall supervise the public VI schools.

The State superintendent is chosen at the general election every two years. He must give a bond of $15,000 for the faithful discharge of his duties.3

The officers of the public-school system shall be a superintendent of education for the State; a county superintendent for each county, and a township superintendent or 3 school trustees for each township or other school district.*

A vacancy in the office may be filled by the Governor for the remainder of the terin.5

His duties are to supervise the common schools, to require reports thereon from his subordinate school officers; to remove them for official delinquency; to visit and inspect schools annually; to encourage the forming of teachers' institutes; to apportion the public-school revenues, prepare and furnish all school blanks and record books, keep accounts with all school districte, and of all permanent school funds; file bonds of subordinate school officers; prosecute defaulters to the school fund; exchange reports with other school officers; collect an educational library; preparo and publish school laws, and also an annual school report. His office must be at the State capital.

STATE TAX.

The Legislature may provide for a poll-tax, which shall be applied to the support of the public school in the counties in which it is collected.?

The poll-tax is assessed by the county tax-assessors, confirmed by the county commissioners, and reported by the probaté judge to the State superintendent.8

The poll-tax assessed is debited to the county tax-collector, and amounts collected and paid dy him to the county superintendent are credited to said collector by the State superintendent. Amounts collected should be paid at the end of each month.9

Moneys arising from sale or other disposition of lands and other property granted or intrusted to the State for educational purposes, must be preserved undiminished.10

Lands and property given by individuals or by the State for educational purposes, and all estates of persons who die without will or heir, shall be applied to the maintenance of public schools."

The public-school income consists of interest upon the permanent school funds, the proceeds of other property given for school purposes, and of the poll-tax and a yearly appropriation of not less than $100,000 from the State treasury:19

Only 4 per cent. of the public-school income may be expended for purposes other than the payment of teachers' salaries, but this restriction may be suspended by a concurrent two-thirds vote of both houses of the Legislature.13

The public-school income cannot be used for the support of any sectarian or denominational school.14

PUBLIC-SCHOOL LANDS. School lands are sections numbered 16 in every township granted by the United States for the use of schools in the township; also other lands granted therefor; all of which are vested in the State in trust to execute the objects of the grant.15

The public-school revenue, except that part resulting from the poll-tax, must be placed to the credit of the public schools at the beginning of the school year, viz, October 1.16

The auditor must notify the State superintendent of the amount of public-school revenue set apart for each scholastic year, stating source and nuexpended balauces from previous school years.17

The public-school revenue shall consist of interest npon proceeds of salos of lands granted by the United States for school purposes; of interest npon the United States deposit under the act of Congress, June 23, 1836; income from proceeds of other lands given for school purposes to the State ; escheats; $230,000 annual appropriation, proceeds of poll-tax of $1.50 on each male between twenty-one and forty-five; rents collected from unsold school lands; and proceeds of license taxos, which are to be expended for public schools. 18

Sch. Laws of Feb. 7, 1879, sed 45.

(See also Public School Teach.

6 Ibid., secs., 7, 8, 9.

13 Ibid., art. 12, sec. C.
Const., art. 12, sec. 4.

14 Ibid., sec. 8.
$ Sch. Laws of Feb. 7, 1879, sec 13. 16 Code of 1876, sec. 962.
Ibid., secs. 14, 15.

ers.) ? Const., art. 12, Hec. 7. * Sch. Laws of Feb. 7, 1879, 800. 5. • Ibid., sec. 4. Ibid., sec. 6.

16 Sch. Laws of Feb. 7, 1879, seo. 10 Const., art. 12, sec. 2.

2. 11 Ibid., sec. 3.

11 Ibid., sec. 3. 12 Ibid., sec. 5.

11 Ibid., sec. I.

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