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From Table 1, it appears that the population of the United States 6-14 years of age is 10,928,943, which may be regarded as fairly representing the elementary school demand. As this is the first year for which the population between these ages has been computed the increase as compared with any previous year cannot be indicated.

The popnlation of legal school age is given for all the States and for ten Territories, either for the current year 1883–'86 or some previous one. This shows an increaso, as compared with the preceding year, in 24 States and 3 Territories, and decrease in 2 States and 1 Territory. Data is wanting for determining the nature of the change in the remaining States and Territories.

The periods of legal school age remain the same as for the previous year, excepting in South Carolina, where there has been an extension of two years, and in Washington Territory, where there has been a diminution of two years.

The statistics of population 6 to 14 years of age, and of total population, afford the means of estimating the extent of the school demand in each State, and its comparative relation to the adult portion of the population, upon whom the obligation of meeting the demand rests. The computations have not been carried into this particular, but a few contrasts which excite attention upon a very cursory examination of the columns are suggestive. For instance, it can hardly escape notice that the ratio of the population 6-14 years to the total population in the States of the Southern Central Division is much greater than the corresponding ratio in the States of the North Atlantic Division, the ratio of the former group ranging in fact from 21 to 23 per cent., and that of the latter from 15 to 17 per cent. Moreover, the rate of increase in the legal school population is higher in the Southern Central than in the North Atlantic Division. In other words, the former States have a greater and a more rapidly increasing school burden than the latter.

TABLE 2.--Enrolment, attendance, duration of schools, and sittings.

Stato or Territory. a

Enrolment Increase Average Increase


duration excluding or daily at- or


of schools! duplicates. decrease. tendance. decroaso.

in days.


Whole at. tendance in days.

Total number of sittings.

Per cent.

Per cent. Alabama

252, 892 I... 8. 15 152, 776I...5. 67 89. 25 I...6.85 Arkansas.

175, 935 I...6.78 092, 000 California. 189, 2201...2. 83 125, 718

Colorado.... 40, 690 I...4. 61

26, 428


42, 864 Connecticut 125, 539 D..0.14 79, 384

179. 74 I...0.56 Delaware.

128, 350 31, 263

621, 447 I... 2.02 c157.4 Florida 60, 767 39, 024

141 I...46.
319, 724 1...3.27 226, 407

I...8. 23
743, 345 I...0.61 503, 798
I...2. 70 153 I...1.

77,081, 056 Indiana.

506, 126
I...0.31 346, 575

129 I...3.
472, 966
284, 498

I...2. Kansas

305, 239

I...8.83 219, 908 I..13. 21 Kentucky 282, 514 178, 672

102 Louisiana.

103, 416
I...3. 48

73, 091

I...3.90 126 Maine

145, 317

I...0.13 102, 513 I...3. 29 101 D..2. Maryland.. 174, 980 I...0.80

91, 502

I...1.72 101 D..7. Massachusetts 349, 617 I...2.91 260, 088 I...2.41


D.12. Michigan.. 416, 751 I...1.16 1250,000

144 I...2. 17 Minnesota 233, 721 I...0.42 118, 697

116 Mississippi. 304, 380


D.28. 185, 385

78 D..0.5 Missouri..

568, 052 I... 4.55 374, 309 | I...0.64 102 D..5. 43, 074, 012 C19,209 Nebraska.

180, 059 I... 1. 12 g107, 945 Nevada..

7, 897

5, 369
New llampshire
64,219 I...0.88 44, 769

D....87 101.85 1...2.10 New Jersey

222, 317 I...2. 55 132, 017 I...7. 39 192 New York 1, 027, 767 I...0.28 625, 813 I...2. 42 178.5

D..0.5 113, 928, 630 North Carolina 305, 598 I...2. 40 185, 706

I...0.06 60

775, 149
I...0.06 517, 844 I...0.05 161

I.. 4.

49, 176
I...6. 65 35, 245 I... 1.36 101

Pennsylvania. 989, 429 I...0.74 665, 312 I...1. 24 143 D.12.98
Rhode Island..

h47, 882

D..0.22 33, 023 I...4.03 190 I...4. South Carolina 183, 966 I...3.33 126, 696I...3.77 70

D.10. Tennessee 383, 507 I...2.58 1278, 276

80 I...2. 261, 021

129, 429 Vermont.

71, 667 I...0.01 46, 625 D..5. 16 136 I..10. 6,351, 120 Virginia

308, 296I... 1.63 172, 351 | D..2.38 118 D..0.4 West Virginia 172,257 | I...0.42 103,899 D..5. 06 a See Tablo 1, p. 5, for year of report.

9 In 1884-'85. 1 Estimated.

% In addition to dlay pupils, 3,424 attended evening c For graded schools.

schools. d For ingrated schoois.

i Several large counties failed to gire this item. e In city schools.

| Returns imperfect. ✓ In country schools.



TABLE 2.--Enrolment, attendance, duration of schools, and sittings-Contiņned.


Per cent.

Per cent. Wisconsin... 332, 327 1...3.29 177, 004 I... 1.23 Alaska

322 Arizona

6,076 I...0.59 64,232 Dakota c82, 866 I.. 19. 96

54, 962 District of Co. lumbia...

32, 336 1..12.83 24, 021 I...3.11 Idaho...

11, 000 I... 9.59 d8,000 Montana 11,388 I..16. 90

€4, 465 New Mexico.. f 4, 755

3, 150
31,583 I...0.53 19, 437

Washington 28,000 1...6.07 117, 504
§ 2, 907

1, 920
Total ... 11, 435, 297

7, 279, 616

a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report. C Actual total.

e In 1883–'84. In 1884-'85.

d Estimated.

s U. S. Census, 1880. Table 1, presents the statistics of school enrolment, average attendance, and school provisions, so far as these are attainable.

The total enrolment, 11,435,297, shows increase as compared with 1884-'85 of 265,374, or 2.37 per cent. In two 'States, Alabama and Kansas, the increase in enrolment is above 8 per cent.; in two, Georgia and Oregon, it is between 6 and 8 per cent. Connecticut and Rhode Island show slight decrease. The increased enrolment in the Territories is especially noticeable, excepting in Arizona and Utah, where it is less than 1 per cent.

For a full understanding of the extent to which elementary instruction is diffused among the people the enrolment in private schools ought to be included in this survey. Returns under this head, more or less complete, have been made from 12 States. These statistics would increase the enrolment in 6 of the States by 10 per cent. or more, and by less than 10 per cent. in the remaining 6.

The average daily attendance, as reported for the entire country, is 7,279,616, an increase of 378,991, or 5.49 per cent. The fact of greater increase in this total than in that of enrolment undoubtedly points to greater regularity of attendance on the part of the actual pupils, which is an evidence of greater efficiency in the school systems.

The following are the States whose statistics afford this favorable indication: California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and South Carolina. To this list Utah can be added. The only other Territory in which entries are made under the head of increase or decrease is the District of Columbia, where the increase in average attendance was little more than one-fourth the increase in enrolment. Several States are omitted in the comparison between school enrolment and average attendance for the want of the necessary data. Among them are Arkansas and Michigan, which appear to keep no record of average daily attendance.

The item of whole attendance in days is presented in tho table for the first time. As it has not yet been included in the inquiries of the office, the statistician could only insert the number where it was found in the State reports. The importance of tho number as a means of estimating the precise relation of school attendance to school demand, in individual States, and tho amount of instruction enjoyed by the pupils in regular attendance, may be clearly seen by using it as the basis of computation in a single State. The wholo attendanco in days reported from Illinois is 77,081,056. This number divided by population 6 to 14 years gives a quotient of 119.5; 'divided by the enrolment, a quotient of 103.7, and divided by the average, attendance, a quotient of 153. The first quotient (119.5) indicates the average number of days' instruction, upon the total reported, for every child 6 to 14 years of age; the second (103.7) the average number of days' instruction for every child enrolled; the last (153) expresses the precise average duration of the schools in days, giving to each school a weight proportionate to its average attendance.

The value of these several particulars as measures of the amount of elementary instruction afforded under the State system depends upon the standpoint assumed. It is hoped that their importance will be so fully recognized that State superintendents, or other chief officers of education, will hereafter use their utmost endeavors to make the statistics upon which these several estimates shall be based full and accurate.

Of the 28 States and Territories which furnish data to determine any change in the duration of schools in days, 17 show an increase, many of them quite large, and only 11 a decrease. On the whole the tendency is obviously in the direction of longer terms.

The statistics showing number of school sittings are necessary for arriving at an exact knowledge of the school accommodations of the country. This item bas been obtained from the reports of three States and one Territory; hereafter it is proposed to include this also among the inquiries made by the Bureau.

TABLE 3.– Teachers.

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New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Rhode Island
South Carolina
West Virginia
Dist. of Columbia.
New Mexico.


a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report.
b In winter.
cIn summer.
d Returns imperfect.

e Estimated. s Tor white schools only. gU. S. Census 1880.

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