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gar, dried fruit, spices, &c. &c. would government ought to establish schools not this employ a mighty number of in Ireland, to teach what-the leading manufacturers, trailesinen, mechanics, principles of religion and morals ? &c. who cannot now exist in Ireland ? No! To teach children between seven Why cannot this peasantry do this and thirteen " the elementary princiin an equal tlegree with the peasantry ples which show how wages are deof Britain ? Look for an answer to termined, or on what the condition of the per centage agents and middlemen the poor must depend !" Now, let -or in other words to absenteeism. Parliament look at the Combinations

It is said that the depravity and tur- , in Britain and Ireland, and it will disbulence of the Irish peasantry prevent cover that in both countries the laBritish capital from establishing ma bouring classes are perfectly familiar mufactures, &c. in some of the most with these principles already. The distressed parts of Ireland. This de weavers of England, the colliers of pravity and turbulence must be as Scotland, and the gas-men of Ireland, eribed in a great degree to the per the most uncultivated “operatives," centage agents and middlemen. The know perfectly, that if there be too latter divest the cultivators of capital, many of them in their calling, it the land must then of necessity be makes wages bad and work scarce. divided into the smallest portions, Several of the Combinations have made and the cultivators must be poor, ig- and enforced laws expressly to keep norant, idle, and without control. apprentices and others out of their Look at an English estate. The con callings—or, in other words, to preduet of the farmers is constantly under vent labour from becoming superthe eye and control of the landlord, abundant in these callings. The teachor the agent who acts under his di- ing of such principles to the labouring rections; the farmers are men of pro- population can have no other practical perty and respectability, and the con- effect than Combination. What effect duet of the remainder of the inhabi- have the doctrines touching capital tants is under their eye and control and labour had among the labouring What is the consequence ? Our vil- classes ? They have caused labour to lage population is kept in the very make war upon capital. Every labest order without a single salaried bouring man, we believe, always knows peace-officer-without a single indi- that, if his wages be bad, or if he vidual's being regularly employed in cannot procure employment, there are preserving the peace. Look at the Irish too many labourers in his vocation'; estate of the Duke of Devonshire, but whether he knows this or not, it which appears to be managed to a is a matter of no consequence to him great extent after the English fashion. unless the knowledge lead him to Upon it turbulence and outrage are Combination. If he do not resort to said to be unknown. On this point, this, he can apply no remedy to the and with regard to the employment of evil so far as it affects his own occupaso great a number of troops, absen tion. We really think there is no teeism is still the great cause. We necessity whatever for Parliament to grant the tremendous authority of the establish schools to teach the working Catholic Priests, but nevertheless, a classes to form themselves into Comlandlord can let his land to whom he binations. pleases ; he can let it wholly to Fro With regard to teaching children testants, or to such Catholics only as at school, that if they marry too soon, will be peaceable and orderly. they will do themselves great injury

We will here offer no comment on --this we think is equally unnecesMr M‘Culloch's opinions touching the sary. Almost all our young people Poor Laws. We promised a Paper on throughout our labouring population these Laws some time since, and our have this continually rung in their promise is yet unperformed, solely be- ears, from their infancy to the time of cause we think such topics possess the their marriage, by parents and every greatest interest when Parliament is one else—and they profit from it very assembled; it will not long remain little. People are impelled to marry unperformed.

at too early an age, by a passion which We have only space to touch very Political Economy can neither extinhriefly on two other parts of the Phi- guish nor regulate by a passion losopher's evidence. He states that which laughs to scorn reason, instruc

tion, and even Mr M'Culloch himself. credit is due to Mr M‘Culloch ? If The perfect heartlessness, and the towns were not filled during the night gross ignorafice of the influence of with watchmen and police officers, and the more powerful and ennobling feel- if property were not male as secure as ings of the human heart, which Mr bolts and bars can make it, what would M‘Culloch manifests throughout his then be town honesty ? As matters evidence, are alike surprising and re are, weigh the knavery of towns pulsive. He places the Noble on a against that of the country, and the level with the Agent; he ascribes the latter will kick the beam. effects of nature to the want, of in So much for honesty ; and now for struction; and he speaks as though bu, the intercourse between the sexes. Do man conduct could never be influenced our villages contain common prosti. by any other principle than that of tutes ? Do the uvmarried men, and pecuniary profit and loss. If philoso: part of the married ones, of these vilphy consist in stoicism he is no doubt lages, constantly cohabit with such a philosopher ; and yet his stoicism prostitutes, like those of towns ? Cerhas nothing stern, daring, and mag- tainly not. In our villages there is nificent about it, to save it from being very little intercourse between the despicable.

sexes, save that which is lawful ; in If schools be established at all, let each, there are perhaps a couple of them be established to implant in the married women of light character; breasts of the children, not avaricious these are constrained to be very cirselfishness, but the kindness and be- cumspect in their conduct, and as to nevolence of the New Testament their acting like common women, it is the distinctions between moral right out of the question. What the conduct and wrong—the fear of the vengeance of is in towns of the greater part of the Heaven for misconduct—the convic. single men, of no small part of the tion that they must at last be account married ones, of a large portion of the able for the deeds of their whole lives, wives of the lower orders, and of far not to a human priest, but to an om too large a portion of the female serniscient and unerring Deity.

vants, touching this point, we need Mr M'Culloch asserts that the mo not say. It must be already known to rality of towns is to the full as good as those who need information on the the morality of the country, meaning matter-to wit, our legislators. by the term moralshonesty, and the We are aware that what has been intercourse between the sexes. What said by parishes, with regard to illethe case may be in Scotland, we know gitimate children, has caused certain not, but so far as this regards England, ignorant people to maintain that our it is totally at variance with truth, and village females are generally unchaste. a gross libel upon the village popula- The fact is, that in almost every case tion.

in which an illegitimate child is born In our villages, the doors of the sta- in a village, the mother is the victim ble, cow-house, and hog-sty, are rarely of seduction. In some cases, perhaps, locked during the night, the poultry the seducer has no great difficulty in is left at large, the barn is very slen- triumphing, but we believe that in all derly secured, quantities of valuable he is compelled to give a solemn proproperty are scattered about the farm mise of marriage. He prevails by prostead, wholly unprotected, the dwelle fessing honourable love. Virtue is ings of the cottagers are protected in never sold for money. The girl has the slightest manner, there is no 'intercourse with none but the seducer, watchman, or police officer of any de- and after the child is born she goes scription, the whole of the villagers go again to service, and is generally very to bed about the same hour, and are virtuous in her conduct afterwards. buried in the deepest sleep during the We defend not such women, but they night, and yet a serious theft is sel are not to be confounded with those dom heard of. If horse-stealing have of towns, who, for the sake of money, now reached a great height, be it re or from sheer depravity, are common membered that it is chiefly carried on strumpets. by the inhabitants of towns, or those In speaking of morals, drunken. who have been taught their villainy in ness must not be forgotten. Do our towns. When this is contrasted with husbandry labourers spend nearly the state of things in towns, what every evening, and the chief part of

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gar, dried fruit, spices, &c. &c. would government ought to est not this employ a mighty number of in Ireland, to teach wha

ka manufacturers, travlesinen, mechanics, principles of religion &c. who cannot now exist in Ireland ? No! To teach children Why cannot this peasantry do this and thirteen " the elem in an equal degree with the peasantry ples which show how of Britain ? Look for an answer to termined, or on what th the per centage agents and middlemen the poor must depend -or in other words to absenteeism, Parliament look at the

It is said that the depravity and tur- , in Britain and Ireland, bulence of the Irish peasantry prevent cover that in both cou British capital from eștablishing ma bouring classes are per nufactures, &c. in some of the most with these principles distressed parts of Ireland. This de- weavers of England, pravity and turbulence must be as Scotland, and the gas-rs cribed in a great degree to the per the most uncultivated centage agents and middlemen. The know perfectly, that i latter divest the cultivators of capital, many of them in th the land must then of necessity be makes wages bad and divided into the smallest portions, Several of the Combinat and the cultivators must be poor, ig- and enforced laws exi norant, idle, and without control. apprentices and others Look at an English estate. The con- callings--or, in other duet of the farmers is constantly under vent labour from bec the eye and control of the landlord, abundant in these callin or the agent who acts under his di- ing of such principles t rections, the farmers are men of pro- population can have no perty and respectability, and the con effect than Combinatio duet of the remainder of the inhabi- have the doctrines to tants is under their eye and control. and labour had amon What is the consequence ? Our vil. classes? They have lage population is kept in the very make war upon cap best order without a single salaried bouring man, we belie peace-officer-without a single indi- that, if his wages b vidual's being regularly employed in cannot procure emplo preserving the peace. Look at the Irish too many labourers i estate of the Duke of Devonshire, but whether he know which appears to be managed to a is a matter of no conse great extent after the English fashion. unless the knowledge Upon it turbulence and outrage are Combination. If he de said to be unknown. On this point, this, he can apply no and with regard to the employment of evil so far as it affects his so great a number of troops, absen- tion. We really think teeism is still the great cause. We necessity whatever for Par grant the tremendous authority of the establish schools to teach th Catholic Priests, but nevertheless, a elasses to form themselves i landlord can let his land to whom he binations. pleases ; he can let it wholly to Fro With regard to teaching testants, or to such Catholics only as at school, that if they marry to will be peaceable and orderly.

they will do themselves great We will here offer no comment on --this we think is equally um Mr M‘Culloch's opinions touching the sary. Almost all our young pe Poor Laws. We promised a Paper on throughout our labouring popular these Laws some time since, and our have this continually rung in th promise is yet unperformed, solely be- ears, from their infancy to the time cause we think such topics possess the their marriage, by parents and ever greatest interest when Parliament is

one else

and they profit from it very assembled; it will not long remain little. People are impelled to marry unperformed.

at too early an age, by a passion which We have only space to touch very Political Economy can neither extinbriefly on two other parts of the Phi- guish nor regulate by a passion losopher's evidence. He states that which laughs to scorn reason, instruc

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two whole days in the week in addi. per centage agent, or middleman, to be tion, at the public-house, like the stripped of their little property, fed on chief part of the labouring classes of potatoes, clothed with rags, and pluntowns? No, they do not expend in ged into the lowest abyss of penury, public-houses, one-tenth of the time and barbarism,—that landlord is mon. and money which are expended in such rally guilty of a crime against his speplaces by the town working classes. cies and his country, which cannot be

The Philosopher asserts, that the surpassed in enormity. Compared inhabitants of towns are far more in- with him, what evils does the common telligent than those of the country. robber, who dies on the gallows, inWhat has been the conduct of such flict on individuals and society? He of the inhabitants of towns as are of who defends this landlord, and prethe same rank with the inhabitants of vents him from changing his conduct, villages for many of the past years? is his accomplice in the crime. The What was this conduct in the days of feeling which now pervades the counRadicalism—in the days of Luddism- try, touching the conduct of the absenwhile the Queen's frenzy raged--and tee landlords, will not, we trust, be what has it been during the days of stifled by the nonsense of Mr M'CulCombination? The answer will suf- loch. We hope it will increase, until fice for the refutation of Mr M‘Cul- it force every one of them to take his loch. He is a perfect stranger to our

estate under his own management. towns, or a perfect stranger to our vil. Many of them are now anxious to do lages, or he made assertions to the their duty; if the remainder shelter committee which he knew to be themselves under the Philosopher, groundless.

and persevere in their present course, Want of space here compels us, we trust that at any rate they will not against our wishes, to close our re go unpunished. If the laws cannot marks on his evidence. We, perhaps, reach men who consign their fellowshould not have noticed it at all, had creatures, by hundreds and thousands, it not been for its tendency to prevent to extortion, oppression, want, and mi. the absentee landlords of Ireland from sery, the press and public opinion can doing their duty. That landlord who reach them, and we hope that these gives up the cultivators of his estate will not be sparing in imprinting the who perhaps cannot leave it without brand, and inflicting the torture. actual starvation into the hands of a

THE BLOODY BUSINESS.

From Mansie Wauch's Autobiography.

Nay, never shake thy gory locks at me;

Thou can'st not say I did it !-Macbeth. It was on a fine summer morning, for some time ill, with an income in somewhere about four o'clock, when I her leg, which threatened to make a waukened from my night's rest, and lamiter of her in her old age; the twa was about thinking to bestir mysell, doctors there, no speaking of the blackthat I heard the sound of voices in the smith, and sundry skeely old women, kail-yard, stretching south frae our being able to mak naething of the back windows. I listened-and I lis business; so nane happened to be wi'. tened--and I better listened-and still me in the room, eaving wee Benjie, the sound of the argle-bargleing be- who was lying asleep at the back of came more distinct, now in a fleech. the bed, with his little Kilmarnock on ing way, and now in harsh angry his head, as sound as a top. Nevertones, as if some quarrelsome disagree theless, I lookit for my claes; and, ment had ta'en place. I had na the opening one half of the window shutcomfort of my wife's company in this ter, I saw four young

ies, well dilemmy; she being away, three days dressed, indeed three of them eusbefore, on the top of Tammy Trundle tomers of my ain, all belanging to the the carrier's cart, to Lauder, on a vi- toun ; twa of them young doctors ; ane sit to her folks there; her mother, of them a writer's clerk, and the ither (my gudemother like,) having been a grocer; the haill looking very fierce

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