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among the generality of mankind, so long as the cause of it exists in the human race; so the rarity of such people, their innocence, and known great utility, in other respects, seem, according to reason, to render them rather objects of encouragement, in their own way, than of oppression, even, from the military department itself, but more especially so, where peace is preferred to war:--but, if it should be otherwise, and they should so increase, as much to prevail among mankind, then the occasion for war would consequently so much decrease, or be taken away; which would be a happy change indeed.
In the second month, 1701, Connoodaghtoh, king of the Susquehanna, Minquays or Conestoga indians; Wopaththa, (alias Opessah) king of the Shawanese; Weewhinjough, chief of the Ganawese, inhabiting of the head of Potomack; also Ahookassongh, brother to the emperor, (or great king of the Onondagoes) of the five nations, having arrived at Philadelphia, with other indians of note, &c. in number about forty, after a treaty, and several speeches between them and William Penn, in council, the following articles of agreement were solemnly made, concluded, and the instrument for the same, duly executed by both parties, viz.
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT, indented, made, concluded and agreed upon, at Philadelphia, the 23d of the second month, called April, 1701, between William Penn, proprietary and governor of the province of Pennsylvania, and territories thereunto belonging, on the one part, and Connoodaghtoh, king of the indians, inhabiting upon and about, the river Susquehanna, in the said province, and Widaagh (alias Orettyagh;) Koqueash and Andaggy, Junckquagh, chiefs of the said nations of indians; and Wopaththa, king and Lemoytung and Pemoyajoaagh, chiefs of the nations of the Shawanna indians; and Ahookassongh, brother to the emperor, for, and in behalf of the emperor; and Weewhinjough, Chequittayh, Takyewsan and Hoapraskoa, chiefs of the nations of the indians, inhabiting in and about the northern part of the river Potomack, in the said province, for, and in behalf of themselves and successors, and their several nations and people, on the other part, as followeth:
That, as hitherto there hath always been a good understanding and neighborhood between the said William Penn, and his lieutenanıs, since his first arrival in the said province, and the several nations of indians, inhabiting in and about the same, so there shall be, for ever hereafter, a firm and lasting peace continued between William Penn, his heirs and successors, and all the English, and other christian inhabitants of the said province, and the said kings and chiefs, and their successors, and all the several people of the nations of indians aforesaid; and that they shall, forever hereafter, be as one head, and one heart, and live in true friendship and amity, as one people.
Item, That the said kings and chiefs (each for himself, and his people, engaging) shall, at no time, hurt, injure or defraud, or suffer to be hurt, injured or defrauded, by any of their indians, any inha.
bitant, or inhabitants of the said province, either their persons or estates; and that the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, shall not suffer to be done, or committed, by any of the subjects of England, within the said province, any act of hostility, or violence, wrong or injury to, or against any of the said indians; but shall, on both sides, at all times, readily do justice, and perform all acts and offices of friendship and good-will to oblige each other to a lasting peace, as aforesaid,
Item, That all and every of the said kings and chiefs, and all and every particular of the nations under them, shall, at all times, behave themselves regularly and soberly, according to the laws of this government, while they live near, or among the christian inhabitants thereof, and that the said indians shall have the full and free privileges and immunities of all the said laws, as any other inhabitant; they duly owning and acknowledging the authority of the crown of England, and government of this province.
Item, That none of the said indians shall, at any time, be aiding, assisting, or abetting any other nation, whether indians, or others, that shall not at such time, be in amity with the crown of England, and with this government.
Item, That, if, at any time, any of the said indians, by means of evil minded persons, and sowers of sedition, should hear any unkind or disadvantageous reports of the English, as if they had evil designs against any of the said indians, in such case, such indians shall send notice ihereof, to the said William Penn, his heirs, or successors, or their lieutenants, and shall not give credence to the said reports, till by that means they shall be fully satisfied concerning the truth thereof; and that the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, or their lieutenants, shall, at all times, in such case, do the like by them. · Item, That the said kings and chiefs, and their successors, shall not suffer any strange nations of indians to settle, or plant, on the further side of Susquehanna, or about Potomack river, but such as are there already seated, nor bring any other indians into any part of this province, without the special approbation and permission of the said William Penn, his heirs and successors.
Item, That, for the prevention of abuses, that are too frequently put upon the said indians, in trade, the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, shall not suffer, or permit, any person to trade, or converse, with any of the said indians, but such as shall be first allowed and approved, by an instrument, under the hand and seal of him, the said William Penn, or his heirs, or successors, or their lieutenants; and that the said indians shall suffer no person whatsoever, to buy or sell, or have commerce with any of them, the said indians, but such as shall first be approved, as aforesaid.
Item, That the said indians shall not sell, or dispose of, any of their skins, peltry, or furs, or any other effects of their hunting, to any person, or persons whatsoever, out of the said province, nor to any other person, but such as shall be authorized, to trade with them, as aforesaid: and that, for their encouragement, the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, shall take care to have them, the said indians, duly furnished with all sorts of necessary goods, for their use, at reasonable rates.
Item, That the Potomack indians, aforesaid, with their colony, shall have free leave of the said William Penn, to settle upon any part of Potomack river, within the bounds of this province: they strictly observing and practising all, and singular, the articles aforesaid, to them relating.
Item, The indians of Conestoga, upon, and about, the river, Susquehanna, and more especially, the said Connodaghtoh, their king, doth fully agree to, and by these presents, absolutely ratify the bargain and sale of lands, lying near and about the said river, formerly made to the said William Penn, his heirs and successors; and since by Orettyagh and Andaggy, Junckquagh, parties to these presents, confirmed to the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, by a deed, bearing date, the 13th day of September last, under their hands and seals, duly executed. And the said Connoodaghtoh doth, for himself and his nation, covenant and agree, that he will at all times, be ready further to confirm and make good the said sale, according to the tenor of the same; and that the said indians of Susquehanna shall answer the said William Penn, his heirs and successors, for the good behavior and conduct of the said Potomack indians; and for their performing the several articles herein express
Item, The said William Penn doth hereby promise, for himself, his heirs and successors, that he and they will, at all times, shew themselves true friends and brothers to all, and every of the said indians, by assisting them with the best of their advices, directions and counsels, and will, in all things, just and reasonable, befriend them; they behaving themselves, as aforesaid, and submitting to the laws of this province, in all things, as the English, and other christians therein do;—to which they, the said indians, hereby agree and oblige themselves, and their posterity for ever.
In witness whereof, the said parties have, as a confirmation, made mutual presents to each other; the indians, in five parcels of skins, and the said William Penn, in several English goods and merchandizes, as a binding pledge of the premises, never to be broken or violated;—and, as a further testimony thereof, have also to these presents set their hands and seals, the day and year above written.'
After this, in the third month, the proprietary having represented to the council, ihe great abuses, committed in the indian trade, with the dangers and disadvantages, which might arise from thence to the province, and having proposed, that proper measures should be concerted, for the regulation thereof, and for redressing certain grievances, respecting the same, it was Resolved as obsolutely necessary, that some effectual method should be agreed on and used for carrying on the trade by a certain number, or company, of persons, with a joint stock, under certain regulations and restrictions, more particularly in regard to spirituous liquors sold them; which company should use all reasonable means and endeavors to induce the indians to a true sense of a proper value and esteem of the christian religion, by setting before them good examples of probity and candor, both in commerce and behavior; and that care should be taken to have them duly instructed in the fundamentals of christianity:-this appears afterwards to have been, in a good degrce, put in execution, so far as was judged requisite, or found practicable.”
JAMES TILTON, M. D. JAMES Tilton, was born of respectable parents in the county of Kent, State of Delaware, on the first day of June, in the year 1745. His father died when he was but three years of age, and left him, with but a very slender provision, to the care of his mother. To the precepts and example of his surviving parent he always attributed his religious impressions, and his success and rapid advancement in life. In this respect our deceased friend was by no means singular. In every age and in every christian country, the powerful influence which an early pious education exerts through life, is strongly and incontestably evinced. To a mother's province this duty peculiarly belongs; and I may affirm with confidence that there are few amongst us, who can look back upon the days of their childhood, without acknowledging their obligations to a mother, for having implanted in their minds some great moral principle.
His classical studies were pursued at Nottingham, Chester county, Pennsylvania, under the direction of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Finley, who was afterwards president of Princeton college. Dr. Tilton appears to have pursued the study of the languages with great success. He was particularly fond of the Latin poets; and to his early attachments may be attributed, in some measure, his fondness, at a much more recent period, for a rural life. Who amongst his friends can forget the satisfaction he derived from repeating the fascinating descriptions of its scenes and pleasures as portrayed by the Mantuan bard?
After leaving Nottingham, he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. Ridgely of Dover in this State, and finished his educa. tion in the Medical School at Philadelphia, which was established in the year 1765, principally by the combined exertions of Drs. William Shippen and John Morgan, two of the most eminent physicians of that day.
From the best information which I can obtain, Dr. Tilton was graduated with the first class in this school, upon which the degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred. Dr. Wistar, the late celebrated Professor of Anatomy, in the University of Pennsylvania, in his eulogium on Dr. Shippen, makes the following remarks: "Doctor Adam Kuhn and Benjamin Rush, who had been appointed professors, lectured several years very successfully on Materia Medica and Chemistry; several graduations of Bachelors of Medicine had taken place. James Tilton of Delaware,* J. Ellmer of N. J., the late J. Potts, and the late N. Way, had taken the degree of M. D.” The high standing which he acquired whilst pursuing his studies in Philadelphia, is strongly evinced by the intimacies which he formed there, and which in after life ripened into friendship. The late Dr. Rush always spoke of him with respect and esteem, and the fact is incontestable, that he was offered a professorship in this University, which is now unrivalled in our country, if not equal to any in the old world. This high and deserved honor he declined, fearing that it might interfere with his duties to his country, whose cause he had then ardently espoused, and whose liberties he had determined to assist in effecting, or perish in the struggle.
After completing his studies at Philadelphia, he returned to his native State, and commenced the practice of medicine in the town of Dover. He was enabled to do this under more auspicious circumstances, in consequence of the pecuniary help and countenance which were afforded him by Thomas Collins, his friend and relative, who was afterwards governor of Delaware, and distinguished for his talents, urbanity of manners, and great respectability of character. Of this strong proof of confidence, Dr. Tilton frequently spoke in his usual forcible terms, such as were peculiarly adapted to express his gratitude, which was one of the virtues that combined to distinguish his character from, and exalt it above that of other men. He soon obtained a high standing and deserved eminence in his profession, and pursued the practice of it with success and reputation. In this, as in every other pursuit, his soul, as towering as his stature, never stooped to unfair means to further his views. He was a generous rival; disdaining low artifice, he invariably treated his medical brethren with respect and generosity; bonor and a conscious rectitude of intention, by which he invariably regulated his conduct, forbade him to descend to those means which always mark the base and illiberal. He continued in practice until the year 1776, the year in which America was declared free and independent, a year sacred to freedom. He now combined the characters of patriot and physician. Being strongly impressed with the enthusiasm of the times, he relinquished a lucrative
* The Thesis which he defended on being graduated as Bachelor of Medicine, was on Respiration. In 1771, he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. His dissertation was in Latin, and, as required by the laws of the college, was published: the slibject was Dropsy.