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In order, if possible, to reconcile the ladies of the country to the loss of the foreign article, he published a paper on the injurious enervating effects of China tea upon the humun frame, and gave the names of seventeen vegetables which he proposed to substitute for it. This paper appeared first in the newspapers of Philadelphia, and afterwards in Atkin's American Magazine, No. 2, for February, 1775, of which work Thomas Paine was the editor. Dr. W. was severely mortified when he was obliged to suspend his resolve not to admit foreign tea into his house, in consequence of the visit of his wife's sister from Philadelphia, who hearing of the prohibition, and not relishing the idea of depriving herself of her usual evening's repast, brought down from the city some of the prohibited article, and insisted upon being permitted to use it. She asserted her claim to the character of a patriot, as she in fact was, but said she saw no reason for not drinking some of the old stock of tea which had paid no duty, and wea she would drink.” The good doctor tried to persuade her to use some of the numerous substitutes which he named, but all to no purpose.
Dr. Wilson published several useful papers on medical and other subjects. Among these are the history of a Malignant Fever, which prevailed in Sussex county, Delaware, in the year 1774.* Observations on the severity of the cold during the Winter of 1779, 80:Essay on the diseases arising from the air, attempting to show that most diseases are causad by miasmata in the air, with an enumeration of some of them, 1786.I Dr. W. was a profound theologian, and an excellent Hebrew and classical scholar, and many of the pupils educated by him were distinguished for their attainments. The mere circumstance of its being known that a young man had been educated by him, served as a recommendation when he offered himself as a teacher. Several young men pursued their theological studies under his direction; and whether they could or could not pay for their board was never a consideration with him. An application was never rejected, provided the pupil could be stowed away in the house.
He was "in wit a man, simplicity a child.” He knew nothing of the tricks of traffic, and therefore, often suffered when making a bargain or contract with a knowing one for a job. He believed every man to be as honest as himself, nor did the shameful impositions to which he was sometimes subjected teach him caution. The following instance of his refined, sublimated honesty, actually occurred and occasioned much amusement among his friends. At the close of the American war a vessel was cast away near Lewes, and the parts of the cargo saved, as required by law, were sold by auction for the benefit of the concerned. The good doctor attended and purchased a cask of aniseed. Upon opening it he found a large bottle marked “Oil of Rhodium.” Alarmed at the discovery he ran to the auctioneer, and announced the fact, requesting him to send for the bottle and to sell it next day. The man of business told the doctor that he would neither send for the bottle nor take it if sent to him, for, if instead of Oil of Rhodium he had found brick bats or stones, he should pay the price at which the cask was knocked off to him. The doctor was greatly concerned at this explanation of the tricks of commerce, and was obliged to content himself with it. The cask and Oil of Rhodium were sent to Philadelphia, and sold for ten times the first cost.--Dr. Miller.—Dr. Meuse.
* Atkin's American Magazine, April 1775. + Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 3. Ỉ Carey's American Museum, vol. 4.
SCIENCE It would require no very prolific mind to fill column after column, of arguments and examples illustrative of the advantage which that farmer possesses, the chambers of whose mind are richly furnished with the treasures of human knowledge. He who is best acquainted with the principles of mechanical science, can cause his work to be done with less expense of muscular power, than he who pays no attention to the improvements of the day. By such a knowledge of Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Botany, as every young man of ordinary endowments may acquire for himself, the practical farmer may know what crops, or rotation of crops, are best adapted to his particular soils; what manures or mixtures are required by each, to maintain or increase their fertility, and may know in what combinations, or modes, he may feed his roots, grains, grasses, &c. to his stock, in order to derive the greatest amount of milk, beef, pork, &c., from the same quantity of produce. He who is most deeply versed in the yet obscure science of Meterology, can most judiciously time his work to meet the changes of weather. And he who is the most learned in the sciences of Physiology, and Zoology, is not only the best qualified to follow such habits of business—to adopt such modes of living, in regard to diet, regimen, mental and physical exercise, &c. as will best promote his health, happiness, and welfare; but he is also enabled to choose, and produce such varieties of sheep, cattle, horses, &c. as are the most useful, pleasant, and profitable-to take such measures as will most successfully promote their health, worth, and activity, and most rapidly advance the fattening process of hogs, cattle, &c. when required. He is also, as a matter of course, most familiar with the nature, habits, &c., of the various worms and insects, whose ravages so often blast ihe fond hopes of the sanguine cultivator.
It is the common and natural tendency of every well conducted course of study, to ennoble, expand, and invigorate every intellectual faculty, to increase our thirst for knowledge—to augment our capacity for the attainment of it-to chasten and improve our literary taste-and as an inseparable consequence-to enlarge our sphere of usefulness, and rational enjoyment. With such a view before our minds, let us as farmers, and as citizens, be encouraged to active intellectual exertion. Let us take up one branch of science after another, and proceed with alacrity and with a firm assurance that our progress will be in a direct ratio to the force of our application, and although we cannot all stand on the towering summit of the temple of natural science, let us cherish a laudable zeal and aspire to reach a respectable elevation. If we cannot quaff to luscious repletion from the sparkling cup of erudition, let us at least sip freely and constantly from her golden goblet. Although we cannot fathom the profound wisdom of the Almighty sovereign of the universe, let us investigate with all of our powers of penetration, some of the admirable and infallible laws by which his works are governed, and by which a vast quantity of matter is doomed to a continual series of harmonious changes. A thorough knowledge of the laws of nature, displays the Founder of these laws, in all the majesty of his might—in all the profundity of his unsearchable wisdom and in all of his infinite benevolence.
BUTTER MAKING. In a few remarks upon this subject, it is not necessary for us to tell the dairy women that it is of the first importance that their milk pails, pans, pots, churn, &c. should be kept perfectly clean and sweet, for they are as fully aware as we can be, that unless this first grand essential of dairy management is strictly attended to, their whole efforts to produce either good butter or cheese are in vain. But after all their care and precaution, their expectations are sometimes disappointed—the produce of this labor does not, in quality, come up to what they anticipate, and for what earthly reason they are not able to tell. It appears to them that no neglect on their part can be the cause they have been careful that all the preliminaries and the whole operation should be performed with skill, but still they are disappointed-there is wrong management somewhere, but it is beyond their ken to discover it. There are some few facts on this subject, which we have learned from agricultural books and papers, and confirmed by experience which perhaps are not so generally known as they should be.
That there is a great difference in the milk of different cows, every one of limited experience must have noticed, and that there
is an equal difference in cream, and consequently in the butter made from it; is a fact equally apparent to an observer.
If a cow is driven a long distance or driven fast shortly before milking, it injures the quality of the milk, and it will not produce so much or so good cream.
If milk is disturbed after it cools and before the cream rises, it injures its quality and diminishes its quantity. Care should therefore be taken to strain the milk as soon as possible after it is drawn from the cow and before it cools. If milk be kept warm for any great length of time after it is strained, the cream will not rise to any degree of perfection. Therefore, the quicker milk cools after it is in the pans, the greater quantity and the better quality of cream you will obtain. Wholesome pure air, is also an essential to raising cream in any degree of perfection. • Cream is lighter than milk, and the better the cream the lighter it is. Consequently, the cream that first rises to the surface is the hest. None but the richest and lightest particles of cream can rise through thick milk; therefore such milk gives cream a superior quality, but less in quantity than thin milk. But the milk is better and it retains a portion of the cream in it. The milk in the cow's udder, is, in some degree, similar to what it is after standing some time in the pail. The richest rises to the top, hence, the first drawn is not so good, and will not produce as much or so good cream as the last, and should be set in separate pans.
In order to produce a superior quality of butter, the best cream should be obtained and in no case suffered to stand till it is mouldy, or even until it is quite sour before it is churned. It should never be diluted with water, or made any warmer than the milk was when taken from the cow. When the process of churning is commenced, it should be steadily continued until butter is produced, which should be immediately taken from the churn and all the milk worked out that can be conveniently. If it is sufficiently hard, it is better to free it from milk entirely; but this is not always the case. It should, therefore, be set in a cool place and worked thoroughly with the butter ladle the next day. Having entirely freed it from milk, prepare a mixture of ground alum salt, salt petre and refined loaf sugar, in proportions of three parts of salt to one of salt petre, and one of sugar, and work it thoroughly one and a half ounces to every pound of butter, and pack it into jars, or furkins covered tight; and at the end of twelve months you will find it sweet.--Maine Farmer.
OF FODDER THAT CAN BE RAISED ON AX ACRE OF LAND.
As a general rule in this part of the country, our farmers are saa tisfied if they obtain a ton of hay from an acre of land. This, however, is far from being the full amount which an acre is capable of producing, even of hay; and if planted with some other kind of vegetable it hardly begins to be what can be obtained from the same surface.
Many farmers have raised as much as fifty tons of Ruta Baga from an acre. This, however, may be considered an extra crop say half as much for a medium cropthat is, 25 tons, which will amount to 800 bushels. Cattle like such food in the winter exceedingly; as it is green and succulent, it supplies the want of green grass and green herbage. It is heavy, distends the stomach, and keeps them in good health, and saves a great deal of hav, and yet comparatively few farmers think of these things or enter into the business with any kind of system which is based upon calculations.
There is another plant, which although not so nutricious as the Ruta Baga, is nevertheless eaten with great avidity by cattle in the winter season, and which will afford a large amount per acre. It is the cabbage. These, are easily raised, and according to the editor of the Baltimore Farmer and Gardener, will yield, allowing 10,000 to stand upon the acre, about forty tons of fodder. Notwithstanding the chance of obtaining this amount of fodder from a single acre, a man would be called crazy, should he cultivate an acre of cabbage, however well he might do it.
The common english, or flat turnip, which is cultivated so exten
true every one sows a small patch or two. The cow-yard is oftentimes ploughed up and sowed down with them, or a corner of the garden, or some piece in the cornfield, but no man or very few men would think of putting in an acre. An acre in England often yields fifteen tons of turnips, and this amount would be equivalent, in nutritive matter, according to the analysis of Von Thær, to more than three tons of the best hay.
Many other crops of the kind might be cultivated exclusively for cattle food, which would yield more than treble the amount that could be obtained in the shape of hay, which would be much more grateful to the cattle.--ib.
From the Yankee Farmer. DRAINING AND IRRIGATION. The time is not far distant when much of our lowest lands now waste, the swamp, bogs, marshes, and miry places overflowed with water, will be reclaimed, and converted into the richest and most productive soils under cultivation. In some of the longest settled sections of the country, farmers are beginning to cultivate such lands, and find their profit in so doing. In the first settlement of the country, the elevated or high lands are first cleared. The soil being rendered fertile by the accumulation for ages of vegetable