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contains the primordium or embryon of a plant, and if separated and nourished with care, would produce specifically the same tree as the present stock. Indeed, Dr. Darwin states, that plants may be easily propagated by transplanting buds immediately into the earth, provided you cover them with a glass vessel to prevent too rapid exhalation, until they strike root sufficiently deep to sustain themselves. It is well known to the culiivator of fruit, that the bud of one tree may be so inserted into the bark of another of the same species, (or in one which is of the same order,) that it will grow as well, and in some instances better than on its parent tree. From the statements above, it will readily be perceived that buds of trees bear a striking analogy to the bulbs of the roots of herbaceous plants. In each, the vital principle remains dormant, until a proper season for its evolution arrives, and until buds begin to vegetate, they very powerfully resist the influence of frost, insomuch that some trees are scarcely known to suffer from it. But it is very different if they have made even the slightest effort to develop themselves,
That buds are the protecting domes of the young and delicate embryon, appears evident from the fact that almost all trees, and shrubs, of cold climates are furnished with them, and that in tropical climates they are almost unknown.
A distinguished botanist has observed that the Rhamnus franguloides (dwarf alder,) is the only tree indigenous to Sweden, that is destitute of buds.
The following discoveries of Ledermuller, a very persevering German botanist, are well calculated to demonstrate the beauty, and delicacy of the structure, of the minute body under consideration. In the winter season he detached a bud from the horse chesnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which was at that time about the size of a common pea. He found the bud, externally, to consist of seventeen scales, anointed with a viscid fluid. Having removed these scales, the internal part of the bud, covered with lunago or down was brought into view. On removing the down, he found the embryon to consist of a spike of flowers, surmounted by four branching leaves. In this spike the observer counted very distinctly sixty-eight flowers. By the assistance of a microscope, even the pollen was visible.
True or complete buds are never produced on annual plants. Botanists enumerate three different kinds of buds.
1st. The flower bud-containing only flowers; these are distinguished by their oval figure—the apex obtuse. · 2nd. The leaf bud-containing leaves and the young twigsknown by their shape being conical, with the apex acute. This is the proper bud to use for inoculation of trees. .
31d. A bud containing both flowers and leaves-shape resembling each of the others in part.-Wisconsin Culturist.
MILWAUKEE PRICE CURRENT. Beans, white field, Peas, blue imperial marrowfat, - - 3 50 a 4 00 BEEF CATTLE, on the hoof, .
100 lbs. 8 00 Flour, best, -
bbl. 8 50 a 9 Grain, Wheat common spring,
bush. 2 00 a 3
2 75 a 3 25 Oats,
- . : 38 a 50 Corn,
- - - - 2 00 Corn, for seed, CORN MEAL,
2 00 Bacon, Hams,
lb. 16 a Shoulders,
14 a 16 LARD,
15 a 16 BUTTER, by the keg,
- 25 CHEESE, -
16 a EGGS, - . .
doz. 25 a 38
each 25 00 a 30 00 GRASS-SEEDS, Red Clover,
bush. 16 00 Timothy,
3 25 HAY,
ton 10 00 a 12 00 Pork, prime, - - - bbl. 20 00 a 25'00
Mess, - - - - - 25 00 a 30 00 LIME,
- - - - - 1 25 a 1 50 WOOD,
cord 2 00 a 3 00 SUGAR, maple, . . . . lb. 12 a 15 LABOR ERS' WAGES.
month 15 00 a 20 00 Wisconsin T., August, 1838.
From the Farmers' Cabinet. DON'T FORGET TO MARL.
It is apparent, from the numerous recent inquiries from farmers residing on the Peninsula, between the Delaware and Chesapeake bays, that they are becoming aroused from their lethargy, and are manifesting a disposition to improve the means which are within their reach, to advance the best interests of agriculture in that once fertile, and interesting district of country. The original constitution of much of the soil, the recent discovery of inexhaustible beds of green sand and marl; and the facilities afforded to the transportation of the products of agriculture to Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, the three best markets in our country, should stimulate the farmers to increased exertion in availing themselves of this
union of unparalleled opportunities of advancing their interests, and 1 of redeeming their character from the imputation hitherto cast up
on thern, of being "unkind to the soil.” The first effort should be to coat the fields with a luxuriant growth of grass, for without this there can be no permanent continuance of good crops of grain. The system by which the present depressed state of culture has been produced, has been that of constantly endeavoring to cheat the soil out of a grain crop, without making any remuneration to it in the form of manure. This nature winked at for a series of years, with an occasional display of repugnance to give something for nothing, till at last she showed symptoms of coming to a dead hali, and returned to her unworthy task-masters, who seemed inclined to try to overturn and violate her laws, scarcely enough to pay the labor and' expense of cultivation. This course of proceeding has been persevered in too long, and has been the cause of poverty, distress and degradation to numerous families; and has induced many to emigrate to sections of the country, where the natural advantages, and real sources of wealth were much more sparingly developed, than in the land of their birth-right. The first step towards doing better, not only in farming, but in every other department of life, is to discover that we have been doing wrong; acting on false principles; for wrong principles followed out, will sooner or later display bad results. We can't change the laws of nature, and any attempt to violate them will be fruitless and vain. Having travelled on in the footsteps of our fathers till we are landed in poverty; let us now take the back track and adopt a more rational system, conforming in all our works to the known laws of nature, and let us aid her in her efforts for our good, and not attempt to coax and force her, to give us something for nothing as the manner of some has been; but deal fairly, honestly and uprightly with old mother earth, and she will in her benignant spirit of kindness, bless us in basket and in store
The green sand marl should be evenly spread on upland fields, of artificial grass in the fall, winter or spring, at the rate of from one hundred and twenty, to four or five hundred bushels to the acre; when this has been done nature will do the rest; and you may be assured that a most luxuriant crop will reward the labor. When it is deemed expedient to plough up the grass sod thus marled, the marl will be found to have penetrated the soil several inches, and will be again brought to the surface at the same time that the thickly set and entangled roots of the grass will be turned under, to undergo decomposition and furnish food for the succeeding crop, say of indian corn, which will be astonishingly improved by the application of marl, lime or shells, applied in the same way on the surface of the grass. The increased production of grass as above stated, will produce a correspondent increase of stable manure, which should be applied to the winter grain crop, and when the soil is not very rich, it is better not to sow more than can be manured well, for it has been found by sad experience, to be be· stowing labor without a rational hope of reward; and is besides,
branding a farmer, and exhibiting him to a whole neighborhood, as one that is "unkind to the soil,” for no one should expect,
“To reap where he has not sowed,
WHAT WILL AN ACRE OF LAND PRODUCE ? In 1822, I enclosed an acre of land in the vicinity of Wilmington, for the purpose of trying this experiment. I erected upon the ground a small house, and leased it to a gardener to work for onehalf the produce. The ground was enclosed in such a manner, as to leave an exact acre under cultivation. It was at first ploughed deep, the stones all carefully pitched off, then highly manured, and afterwards worked the first five years with the spade. I furnished the gardener with about forty dollars worth of manure annually, and sent' a man, horse and cart, twice a week to draw the produce to market. Every means was used to raise the amount of sales to the highest point; seeds of the choicest kinds of vegetables were procured, forcing beds erected, and the produce ripened early, and sold in the market at a high price.
The average produce of my share for the first five years, was $174 20 cts. per annum, consequently, the whole amount produced by this acre of land was not less than $348 40 cts. per annum, besides the vegetables used in the gardener's family.
The gardener and his little family, consisting of three persons, had other perquisites, by which they obtained about $100 annually, in addition to their share of the garden; by which they were enabled to live in comfort, and could have indulged occasionally in some of the luxuries of life if they had chosen so to do. But like most other workers of the soil in this country, they wanted more land, and till it with a plough and a horse.
In order to gratify this disposition, I enclosed them another acre, and lent them a horse, plough, and occasionally a man to work it, and continued the same outlayings for manure as in the former case.
The consequence of this change was, that I received less per annum for the second five years than the first.
The family now became dissatisfied with their situation, nothing would do but more land; they complained of their labor being increased, and their income diminished; they had sometimes to hire and they had no money to pay the laborer; they had many other difficulties to encounter, all of which were ascribed to the smallness of their farm. I was now as much dissatisfied as they were, for we could not agree about the cause of our unsuccessful efforts; but as no other way opened at the time, I enclosed about two acres more for a third five years experiment, which terminated in my receiving less income than in the second five years, and not much over one half the amount of the first five. So much for increasing the size of farms without being “kind to the soil.”.
The result of these experiments correspond with all the known facts that have come under my observation for the last thirty years upon the subject of the profits of capital expended in agricultural pursuits.
I at first adopted the opinion that the secret of gathering money out of the soil lay in small farms, but extended observation of facts and mature deliberation has changed this conclusion. I now believe the quantity of land has nothing to do with the profits of the capital expended; that it altogether depends upon a judicious selection of soil, the facilities of obtaining manure, and the proper application of it as food for plants, and most of all upon the quantity of the best and most nourishing kinds of manure, upon this mainly depends the profits of capital expended for agricultural purposes.
I found $5000 expended upon 100 acres of poor land in the neighborhood of Wilmington, would not produce, after paying all expenses, more than 5 per cent. upon the capital, but by doubling the amount in expenses for manure, and making the sum laid out $10,000, it would more easily nett $1,200 per annum; that is, the profits of the capital laid out in land, produced an interest of 5 per cent, per annum, and the capital laid out in manure produced 20 per cent. ib.
We find the following article in a very respectable weekly newspaper, which claims to have more than 30,000 subscribers;
“Corn is ripening very fast. Indian corn has already been harvested and ground in some of the western parts of this State. Never, within the recollection of the oldest inhabitants, did vegetation come so rapidly forward as du.. ring the present season. The spring was backward and discouraging, but 'glorious summer came to bless the home and gladden the hearts of the husbandmen.
The wheat crop, we infer from all the information we possess, will be excellent. The average of the corn crop will doubtless be much larger than was at one time anticipated. In the south and west we are greatly gratified to see they have had rain in abundance. In New England the crop we learn will very far surpass that of former years. And take the country altogether, this has been a most fruitful season of 'seed time and harvest,' and we should, with grateful hearts, thank Him who 'wheels the seasons in their unerring course, that our granaries are overflowing to gladden the hearts of the honest tillers of the soil.”
Now whatever may be the opinion of the conductors of that paper, the facts set forth in the above article are far, very far from