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The above are given as remarkable products in the county named, many of which were certified under oath to the Massachusetts and Essex Agricultural Societies, and others came under the Rev. Mr. Colman's own observation, or rest upon testimony so well authenticated that it is difficult to reject it.
In looking at the respective products quoted, we were very sen.' sibly struck with the great superiority of the husbandry of the bay state to that of the middle and southern states; for nothing but superiority of culture can account for the great difference in yield, as the soil of Massachusetts is not, naturally as good as that of most of the states within the described limits, nor is her climate as well adapted to the production of many of the enumerated articles -of, perhaps, none except oats and potatoes. .
This superiority of husbandry is, however, easily accounted for. Massachusetts, in her wisdom and paternal care of the interests of agriculture, has very properly endowed agricultural societies, hav. ing granted very liberal and annual donations to each society in the state, and thus infused a spirit of emulation into the minds of her husbandmen. Not content with this, she grants special bounties upon particular products, and thus secures to herself the advantages of all the enterprise, skill and industry of her citizens, which they are capable of exerting. She does, indeed, realize that proud principle of republics—IFthat governments were instituted for the benefit of the people. How lamentable is the truth, that while many of her sisters are content to profess their belief in the beauty of this theory, and are satisfied to be mouth worshippers at the shrine of their idolatry, Massachusetts, with a nobleness of purpose that entitles her to the just and enviable meed of veneration and respect, carries out her principles, and illustrates her belief, by putting in practice what she professes that intent upon advancing the permanent welfare of her citizens, she looks beyond that contracted policy, which, in its miserly estimate of dollars and cents, restricts enterprise, retards the development of genius, and manacles the nobler efforts of the mind-and that, by adopting a course as liberal as wise, she stimulates industry, awakens a spirit of generous rivalry, and by marshalling her citizens in the onward road of prosperity, secures to the state distinction and wealth.
BREAD MAKING.—The French process of making bread differs essentially from that common among us; for instead of working it by pushing downwards, rolled and kneading with closed hands, they draw it upwards in strings, by which the mass of dough becomes exposed to the action of the air, which tends greatly to improve the bread, and render it more light and digestible. Those who have never seen French bread, can have no idea of its general superiority to that in common use in this country.
ANCIENT AGRICULTURE. VARRO, the intimate friend of Cicero, wrote a treatise upon Agriculture which is still extant, and is the oldest book upon the subject, if we except the mutilated fragments left by Cato the Censor. From Varro we may learn that the ancient Italians carried agricultural improvements to a very high state of perfection. A great deal of his treatise relates to the culture of the olive and the vine, but still it contains a great deal of information upon the subject of raising grain and stock. In his plan for a villa or farm buildings, he has the following observations, as translated by Owen.
“Two courts are convenient, where there is a large farm; one, which may have a pond for rain water, of considerable magnitude; for the oxen brought from ploughing drink and refreshed here, as well as geese and pigs, when they return from feeding. There must be a pond in the exterior court, where lupines may be soaked, and other things, which are more fit for use, when macerated. The exterior court is often covered with straw and chaff; trodden by the feet of the cattle, it becomes useful, when carried out on the farm. You must have two dunghills near the villa, or one divided into two parts; for one must be carried fresh from the villa, the other must be carried on the ground when it is old. That which is brought in fresh is not so good; when it has stood some time it becomes better. That dunghill is most valuable, the sides and top of which are defended from the sun with underwood and leaves: for the sun must not draw out the nutritious juices which the ground stands in need of; wherefore men of skill cause water to flow in for that reason, for the juices are then retained. Some persons place necessary conveniences for the family on them.”
This last passage is valuable as containing the opinions of the ancient Italians, in regard to the relatives values of long and short manure.
From the American Silk Grower. THE MORUS MULTICAULIS Every one in the least acquainted with the means of producing silk, well knows that the first matter requiring attention, is to provide a plentiful supply of food for the silk-worm. The leaves of the mulberry tree are not the only leaves which the worm will eat, but for aught that is known, they are the only food on which the worm will feed and afterwards spin silk. There are many varieties of mulberry trees. Those most cultivated by the silk-growers of all countries are the Morus Alba or White Mulberry, the Brussa, and the Morus Multicaulis, commonly called the Chinese Mulberry. We have cultivated all these varieties, and have fully satis
but for will feed and afterwards most cultivated by herry, the
fied ourselves which of them is most valuable. No doubt a very handsome profit may be obtained by converting the leaves of the White Mulberry into silk. Experience has abundantly proven that this is the case. The leaf of the Brussa is larger than that of the White Mulberry. For this reason we prefer the former to the latter. We, however, give the Morus Multicaulis the decided and unequivocal preference over all the other known species of mulberry trees. Among practical silk-growers, we believe there is very little if any difference of opinion on this subject. This tree has now been in our country several years, and the more it becomes known the more it is valued and sought after. We will give a few of the most obvious reasons why we prefer the Morus Multicaulis to the White Mulberry. It takes the latter five years at least, to grow large enough to afford foliage sufficient to feed many worms. But from the Morus Multicaulis of the first year's growth, we have fed worms in such numbers as to obtain from fifty to one hundred pounds of silk, from the leaves growing on an acre of land worth from $250 to $500. It has another advantage of still greater mag. nitude. The leaf of the Morus Multicaulis is eight times larger than that of the White Mulberry, therefore the labor of gathering it is reduced in the same ratio. This is a very weighty consideration, inasmuch as the picking of the leaves is the great item of expense in making raw silk. The weight of leaves which the Multicaulis will produce, is a hundred per cent. more than the White Mulberry affords, where the trees are of equal age and on the same extent of ground. This is not all. The Multicaulis can be propagated more abundantly and cheaper than the Morus Alba, or any other tree with which we are acquainted. Many persons have expressed fears that the Morus Multicaulis would not endure a northcrn winter. When the tree was first imported and planted in New England, it suffered from the unprecedented cold of some of the late winters; but it has now become acclimated, and will live after being protected the first winter of its life. In the middle and southern states, we have not heard that it has been injured by the cold weather. We have now growing on our silk plantation in this town many of these trees, which have remained in the open field without the least protection since last summer, and they are now as thrifty and hardy as any of our native forest trees. That the Morus Multicaulis, with proper management, will endure the climate of New York and New England, we have abundant evidence. That it will flourish in Pennsylvania and the southern portion of the union, is nat here deemed questionable.--Experience has proven it. At the north the tree must be protected the first winter. At the south even this is not necessary.
We do not think it advisable to attempt to propagate the Morus: Multicaulis from the seed, as it is extremely difficult to procure it, and hardly possible to distinguish the seed of the genuine Chinese mulberry from that of the less valuable varieties. Nor, should these objections be obviated, is it by any means certain that a tree can
be grown from the seed of the Morus Multicaulis, which will resemble the tree from which that seed was taken. This has been demonstrated by many experiments. Nothing can be gained by attempting to grow the Multicaulis from seed, but much may be lost by it. The tree can be produced from layers or cuttings more quickly, cheaper, and certain, than any other method.
Any land that is suitable for raising a crop of corn, will do for cultivating the Chinese mulberry. A dry warm sandy loam is quite congenial to its nature. A cold, damp, or heavy soil will not answer. It will thrive tolerably well on poor land, but much better on that which is fertile. Prepare the ground as for a crop of corn, and at the same season furrow it into 3 feet asunder. Then scatter well-rotted manure in the furrows two inches deep. Trim the trees of every limb, and lay them in the furrows, so that they will just reach each other; cover them up about as deep as corn is usually planted, except the roots, which should be buried deeper. Carefully preserve all the limbs, and plant them in the same way, Ten trees are often thus procured from one. In about three weeks, should the weather prove favorable, sprouts from the buried tree will break through the ground. After which, the earth about them must be stirred occasionally, and the weeds be kept down till August. Then let them entirely alone that they may ripen, and the wood attain solidity before the coming of the autumn frosts. When the trees have done growing in the fall, pull or plough them up, and cut them apart with a knife or pair of pruning shears. To preserve them through the winter, lay them down in the open field on dry ground-cover them with sand and they will be found fresh and in good order the next spring. Or they may be placed in a cellar with the roots resting on the ground, with some dry carth placed about them.
If your object is to grow more trees, you will, the ensuing spring, again plant according to the directions already given. Bui if you purpose to make a permanent plantation, you will, after ploughing the ground, set out the trees in rows eight feet apart, and standing two feet from each other in the rows. When winter again draws near, cut off the trees near the ground, and preserve the trunk and limbs for further increase. When spring returns, the roots and stumps which were left in the ground, will send up a great number of shoots, which will put forth a quantity of foliage that will be truly astonishing. By severing the tree near the earth, several advantages are derived. The body and branches are thereby saved to be again planted. The tree is so valuable, that this is an important consideration. The quantity of leaves which will grow on the sprouts, is greater than could have been obtained from the whole tree had it been left standing. Leaves cannot be gathered from trees of much height, without reaching or climbing up to them. But they may be plucked from shoots of one year's growth without any such extra exertion, and by children. This practice also comforts the croaker about “too cold a climate for the Morus
Multicaulis,” and places the silk business beyond the possibility of harm from the severity of northern winters.
There are other methods of cultivating the Chinese mulberry, approved by gentlemen of intelligence, which we have tried, but we have been so much more successful when we have adhered to the course we now recommend, that we shall speak of no other.
Large sums of money have been made by the cultivation and sale of our favorite tree. It has proved an exceedingly lucrative employment to those who have engaged in it. But we would advise that more than this should be aimed at by those who intend to embark in this new, and, as we think, important enterprise, viz. To make money by growing silk. This can be done, and our country become one of the greatest silk-producing regions on the globe, should our people but will to have it so. No competition in the business need be feared for a number of years to come, if ever. The bounty offered on silk by the State of New Jersey, will pay all the expense of making it, and leave the whole of the crop a clear profit. The bounty granted by Pennsylvania will do even more. Then why not advance in this great enterprise. Why remain idle when such weighty considerations invite to action. It is one of the most pleasant employments that ever were conducted under the sun. The lame, the halt, the widow and the orphan can perform the labor. Then why not permit them to do so, and pay ihem a part of twenty millions, which is annually sent abroad in exchange for silks, and to feed foreign mouths, and enrich foreign aristocrats. This would afford thousands of the poor and feeble among us the means of comfort and independence, and make their hearts beat with pleasant emotion, and their eyes sparkle with gladness and joy, and at the same time add to the wealth, the honor, and the prosperity of our great country,
The publishers of this paper, in connection with Jedediah Strong, Esq., are now feeding more than half a million silk worms, on the plantation of Mr. Repka, two miles above Dyott's glass-works, on the Point road, near Philadelphia. Mr. Strong is a gentleman whose experience in the management of the silk-worm is great, and the raw silk produced under his direction, has never been surpassed in this country. The plantation is managed by Mr. Ter Hoeven, and visiters to the establishment may depend upon being received courteously, and every information relative to the business will be cheerfully given. Those persons who feel an interest in the cause, or who wish to have their curiosity gratified, are respectfully solicited to visit the establishment. Those wishing a few worms, can be supplied at one dollar a thousand, by applying to Jedediah Strong, or J. Ter Hoeven, on the premises.--ib.
Why should nearly all our produce be carried out of the State to be re-shipped, when we have such capital ports as New Castle and Wilmington within our own limits?