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The Brusa mulberry, for the introduction of which our country is indebted to Charles Rhind, Esq. who brought the seed from a city in Turkey, whose name they bear, which is situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, the summit of which is covered with perpetual snow. The seed were planted and trees cultivated by David Rug. gles, Esq. of Newberg, N. Y. In June 1836, I saw one of these trees on the silk farm of the Hon. Ambrose Spencer, near Albany, N. Y. The plants are short jointed, the leaves large and thick, and has every appearance of being sufficiently hardy 10 withstand the winters of our most northern climates, where the Morus Multicau. lis cannot flourish. Since the decease of Mr. Ruggles, a few months since, the trees have been sold to judge Buel and other nurserymen, from whom a supply may soon be expected.
The white Italian mulberry has long been used as the principal food of the silk worm, from which silk, not inferior in quality, can be produced, but from the smallness of its leaves, it must yield its place in some degree for other varieties, particularly in the more mild climates.
Soil and Situation. In selecting a situation for a mulberry orchard, it should be as near the cocoonery or where the worms are fed, as possible. For the multicaulis the soil should be high, dry, and not too rich—an old worn-out field, and if a little sandy or gravelly, is best; a too moist rich soil prolongs the growth of the tree to a late period of the season, and are apt to be injured by the frost, whereas upon a high, rather poor soil they are perfectly hardy. Some have recommended a southern exposure as best for the tree; on this point I should advise to the contrary. In this climate we frequently have weeks of warm weather in the winter and spring, sufficient to swell the buds of fruit and other trees, which is often followed by cold freezing weather sufficient to congeal the sap between the bark and the wood, and destroy the buds, and a new set of course must be formed, which brings it too late for the worms; while trees upon an elevated northern exposure, are less influenced by these changes, and consequently do not put out until the spring is fairly open when the leaves grow rapidly and a supply is soon produced. These facts are sufficiently confirmed by every owner of a peach orchard thus unfavorably situated.
Mode of propagation.Of the morus multicaulis, the most proper methods of propagation is by layers and cuttings. If the ground be foul, it should be ploughed in the fall, and as soon as the spring fairly opens, ploughed again and well harrowed; and laid off in drills eight feet apart; the plants should be laid in the drills with a space of three or four feet from the root of one to the point of the other; the roots should be let down with a hoe and spread so as to be completely covered with earth; the top, should be covered from one to two inches deep; in this way good trees will send up from eight to twelve shoots each, which will often the first season attain to the height of six or eight feet. They should be well cultivated until about the middle of July, after which it will only be necessary to skin off the weeds. This will force the growth of the tree in the early part of the season, and allow the wood to ripen before the close of it.
If a large establishment is intended, where it will be necessary to employ a hand cart for gathering the leaves, it would be well to lay off the rows ten feet instead of eight, as the branches when loaded with foliage often completely cross each other between the rows.
In propagating by cuttings, take all the branches from the main tree, cut them into pieces of one bud eacli, with a clean smooth stroke; a little slanting, beginning about half an inch above each bud; these should be set in the ground perpendicularly, nearly level with the surface, at a distance of two feet from each other in the rows.
Should the spring prove dry, the branches may be kept in a cellar, and slightly covered with earth, and occasionally watered, until a suitable season arrives for planting. I kept some the past spring as late at the first of May, which now measure three and a half feet in height.
For the commencement of a stock I would never recommend cuttings alone, as they will in the end be found the most expensive method of propagation; they start late, and unless protected, many of the branches the first year will be injured by frost.
The plan proposed by Mr. Smith, of Baltimore, is to start the cuttings in a hot bed; he says "stick them into the bed, in a slanting position, inclining to the north, with the bud on the south side, its point just even with the soil.” Those are afterward transplanted as you would cabbage plants. I tried about 500 in this way this season; I think the advantage derived in this way will hardly jus. tify the trouble and expense, as mine now are not more than eight inches higher than those planted in the open field When you have a sufficient supply of branches, and do not care to make a tree from every bud, it is better to lay the whole limb in the furrow and covered as rooted trees, there being more wood to support the young plant, and being better covered than the single bud, consequently less affected by the drought; by the end of the season they attain a much greater growth, although but two or three trees can be expected from one branch.
As a proof that the Morus Multicaulis does not require a rich soil, I will here give the result of an experiment tried last spring. On the 21st of April, at one end of a row of trees I had the soil removed to the depth of 12 inches 2 feet wide and 8 feet long; this was filled up with clay from the bottom of a cellar, into which I placed a tree six feet long, from which there is now (Aug. 21st.,) fifteen shoots from one foot four inches, to three feet three inches high; with leaves measuring 11 inches long by nine inches wide; the leaves at first looked somewhat yellow, but now of a most beautiful deep green. The trees planted in the native soil side by side, now measure five feet high, with leaves somewhat larger than the others.
H. P. BYRUM. August, 1838.
From the National Gazette. AMERICAN SILK.
THE REASONS WHY IT CAN COMPETE WITH FOREIGN.
Can the cultivation of silk be profitably carried on in the United States? Such is the question that is almost daily asked by those who see that in engaging therein the people of this country, in which wages are higher than in any other part of the world, must compete with those of India, in which wages are lower than in any other part; and as it is a matter of some importance to come to a right conclusion, we deem it not amiss to offer to our readers a few remarks for their consideration.
The reason why the money price of labor is high in the United States is, that it is aided to so great an extent by capital, skill and intelligence, and therefore produces a large quantity of the commodities for which other nations are unwilling to give gold and silver; and the reason why its price is low in India and France is that there is an absence of capital, skill and intelligence, and the laborer produces a very shall quantity of commodities to be exchanged with other nations for the precious metals. We do not pay a mechanic or laborer high wages because he chooses to demand them, but because we know that we can obtain from him in return some commodity that we can exchange with others for the price we have paid, and with a profit as compensation for our trouble.
In those countries in which the money price of labor is high, the capitalist is enabled to live well, and rapidly to increase his means, as in England and in the United States. In those in which it is low, the capitalist cannot live so well, nor is there so rapid an increase of capital. Such is the case in India and in France. To the capi. talist, therefore, the labor of the United States and England is cheap, although he pays a high price for it, because it yields largely; while that of France and India is dear, although low priced, because it yields so little.
In confirmation of this view we will now call attention to the fact, that in the manufacture of cotton and in the sailing of ships, we care nothing for the competition of India, or of the nations on the Baltic, where labor is low-priced and unproductive, but we do care for the competition of England, whose labor is almost as high priced as our own; and England looks with more anxiety to our competition in every department of industry than to that of any other nation of the world, although our labor is so much higher priced than her own.
Our competitors in the production of cotton are the people of India and Egypt, the two countries in which labor is lowest priced, yet there is in fact hardly any competition. The whaling trade is open to all the world, yet that of the United States has steadily risen while that of all other nations has as steadily declined. The lower priced labor of France, or that of the north of Europe, cannot com
pete with that of New England, in which it is highest. The capitalist who pays those high wages lives in asiluence on the profit of his ships, while the owner of the dull ships of the north of Europe finds it exceedingly difficult to improve his condition. The labor. for which the laiter pays is low-priced, but it is unproductive and deur, and allows him but a small return for bis capital.
Our readers will now, we think, be satisfied that a high rate of wages presents no obstacle to prosecuting successfully the culture of silk, in which we may reasonably suppose that capital, skill and intelligence will produce the same effects that have been exbibited in every other department of production in which the people of the United States have engaged, when not driven thereto by legislative restrictions. So far, indeed, are the low wages of other countries from presenting an obstacle to its cultivation in this, that it will be due to the fact that we compete with such nations only, that it will for a long time be highly productive. When we undertake to compete with England in any department of production, any improvement that is made is immediately adopted by our rivals, who are thus enabled to produce as cheaply as ourselves, and vice versa-whereas, years are required for its introduction in France, Germany, and I aly, because in those countries there is little capital, and a want of that intelligence which is required or the adoption of improvements. If England were the great cultivator of silk, we might be sure that she would always follow closely upon our heels, and that her product would keep pace with our own; but in competing with France, Italy and India, the case is widely different. An improvement that would pass in a year or two throughout the United States, would require twenty years for its general adopiion in France, and half a century or more for its adoption in India. The cotton gin has now been in use for nearly half a century, and yet the people of India sill use a small rude hand-mill, turned by women. 'Improvements in relation to the silk culture, similar in their effects to those of Whitney's great invention in relation to cotton, are now, we understand, going on in the United States, and we hazard little in saying that as the cost of cotton and cotton manufactures has been reduced by the nations whose labor is highest in price, so will the cost of silk and silken manufactures be reduced, now that the production of the raw material has been undertaken in a country in which labor is productive and wages are high. We see no reason to doubt that the same effect will be produced in the next half century that has been exhibited in the last fifty years in regard to cotton, by which silk will be rendered almost as accessable to all classes of the community as coiton now is, a consummation most devoutly to be wished.
THE ROH AN POTATO. We find the following notice of this newly introduced variety, in one of Thorburn's advertisements. We have seen a small lot of
these potatoes, and think highly of them, and have no doubt they will prove a valuable acquisition to our country..
This potato was introduced into this country from Switzerland, and surpasses all others in size and productiveness, and is for stock an unrivalled production; it is also said to be farinaceous and of excellent flavor. Three tubers chosen at random weighed 13 to 31 oz., 11 to 9 oz., and 9 to 13 oz., and a small tuber, having only four eyes, weighed, when planted, a few grains less than half an ounce, produced 48.1 lbs.; the earth is dug 20 inches deep, and the sets containing two or three eyes, are dibbled in, four feet apart. This statement is from an agricultural paper in Switzerland. “The Cul. tivator” for Nov. 1837, (page 142) remarks, “We obtained two tubers from France last fall, and the kindness of an esteemed friend near Catskill enabled us to increase our seed to twelve pounds. We divided the tubers into sets of two eyes each, and planted one set on a hill, four feet apart, in a piece of ground much shaded, and in rather low condition. We dug, measured and weighed the crop on the 28th September, it weighed 525 lbs., and measured 9 bushels; 35 of the largest tubers filling a bushel basket. We have hardly been able yet to decide upon the quality of this potato, having barely tasted of one; yet we deem it equal to the English white. Others, however, in whose opinion we place great confience, do not hesitate to pronounce them superior for the table; they are undoubtedly the most productive variety of the potato we have met with.”
Mr. Peck of Adams, Mass., from two of these potatoes planted the present season, had a yield of 75 lbs. 7 oz.; a bushel weighed 61 lbs., and 50 potatoes to a bushel, and this fine return in the present unfavorable season for potato crops.--Farmer and Gardener.
From the Practical Farmer. CLEANING NEAT CATTLE.
The following we translated, and we would invite the attention of farmers to the subject. Our German correspondent is the right kind of man. He gives his notions well confirmed by experience. Editor.
Xenia, Ohio, June 14, 1838. Mr. Editor.-Allow me through the “Farmer," to say a word to my fellow farmers on, what seems to me, an important subject. In this country, you will seldoni find a curry-comb and hand-brush in the cow stable; these are considered indispensable in the horse stable; but I consider them as indispensable in the cow stable, as in the horse stable. Why farmers do not curry and brush their cows, I know not, unless it be that they think cleanliness is not so necessary to the cow as to the horse.
But if we will, for a moment, consider the evils arising from this neglect, the importance of keeping cows clean must strike every