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NOTE II.-An immediate succession of similar sounds, occasions much difficulty in giving a clear and distinct articulation.

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1. Still struggling, he strives tu siand.
2. Up the high hill he heaves the huge round stone.

3. Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves. 2. It is to prevent this succession of similar sounds, that n is retained after a, before words beginning with a vowel ; as, an apple, instead of a apple. To promote this euphony of sound, the Greeks made many changes of this character. But in our language none are made save this, and hence the importance of much care and practice on the part of the beginner, in this branch of Elocution.

3. It is, therefore, particularly recommended, that the class, and even the whole school, be frequently exercised in uttering the elemental sounds, in concert. It is undoubtedly the most efficient means for improving their voices, and securing a full and clear enunciation. For this exercise, in the annexed list, are presented, in their order, the elemental sounds in the English Language, being forty-one in number-sixteen vowel, and twenty-five consonant sounds.



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ELEMENTAL VOWEL SOUNDS. 1. Long a, as in late, they. 9. Short i and y, as in fin, hymn. 2. Flat a,

far, past.
10. Longo,

tone, note. 3. Short og

hat, man.
11. Slender o,

do, prove. 4. Broad a and o,

fall, for.

12. Longu, 5. Short broad a and o, wad, not.

13. Short u,

tun, her, sir. 6. Longe, as in me, pique. 14. Broad 16,

full, book. 7. Short e,

met, any.
15. Oil and ow,

out, now. 8. Long i and

fine, dry.

16. Oi and oy, y,

oil, boy.

tune, few.


15. t,

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1. b, 2. d, 3. f, 4. 8, 5. h, 6. j, 7. k, 8. 1,

17. W, 18. Y,

weep, when.

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14. s and c, as in sin, cite. did, done.

time, tone. fate, leaf.

16. v,

vile, vivify.
good, fig.
hand, head.

yet, youth.
jewel, gem.

19. z and s, king, chord.

20. ch,

chin, church. « lame, blame. 21. sh,

ship, chaise. mate, trim.

22. th, 6, thin, thirst. note, sin.

23. th,

thy, thee. pin, lip:

" sing, ring. “ right, risk.

zone, is.

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9. m, 10. n, 11. P, 12.1,

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glazier, fusion.

25. zh,


car, bard

4. For a similar exercise in articulation, a list of words, containing some of the most difficult combinations of these sounds, is here presented. facts

minds aptly troubl'st respectful threats mulcts efforts

suggests logarithms drifts realms singing

oft-times munuscripts watch help'st


clasp dst

attempts adapts abruptness twelfth rush'd objects betwixt impromptu strength depth thirteenth whelm’dst terrestrial shrunk chrism precincts persist'st authoritatively

5. In uttering the following examples, in which occur singly and successively, difficult sounds, it is hoped much practice will be given, until they can be pronounced distinctly, and without hesitation.

1. Whoso loveth wisdom rejoiceth his father. 2. Thou hast received gifts for men. 3. Why art thou cast down, O my soul ? 4. I will instruct thee, and teach thee in the way which thou shall go. 5. Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,

Shrunk to this little measure ? 6. The hosts stood still in silent wonder fixed. .

-meet it is, I set it down, That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain. 8. Thou smil'd'st and smil'st no more. 9. He saw'd six sleek slim saplings for sale. 10. Peter Prangle, the prickly prangly pear picker, picked three pecks of prickly prangly pears, from the prangly pear trees, on the pleasant prairies.

11. Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsisted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; now, if Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sister, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb, see that thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsisted thistles, thrust not three thousand thistles through the thick of thy thumb. Success to the successful thistle sifter.

6. The practice of allowing scholars to spell long words, without pronouncing the syllables, as they proceed, in a full and deliberate manner, tends very much to produce a faulty enunciation.

7. Reading in concert, to a limited extent, will promote distinctness of utterance; yet there is danger of falling into a disagreeable and affected manner. On the other hand, care should be taken to avoid a heavy, unnatural, protracting manner,


8. The object of every teacher and scholar, should be an easy, flowing, and graceful enunciation. The less prominent words and syllables should be spoken with distinctness, but not with that stress of voice, as those of more importance. Much pains and practice may be requisite to acquire a good articulation, but its value will fully compensate for the labor bestowed.

QUESTIONS.—1. From what arises the chief difficulty in giving a cor. rect articulation? 2. Which of the consonant sounds occasion the greatest difficulty ? 3. What is said of the utterance of vowel sounds? 4. How are public criers able to give so great a fullness to their voice? 5. What influence have the mutes on the voice in singing ? 6. What is the second difficulty mentioned in giving a distinct articulation ? 7. Why is an used before words beginning with

vowel sounds ? 8. What means are recommended for improving the voice, and securing a clear enunciation ? 9. How many elemental sounds are there in the English language? 10. How many are vowel ? 11. How many are consonant? 12. Utter the vowel sounds. 13. The consonant sounds. 14. What similar exercise in articulation is recommended ? 15. Pronounce the words given for practice and point out the difficulty in distinctly articulating each. 16. Read the sentences given for practice, and point out the difficulty of uttering each distinctly. 17. What bad practice in spelling leads to a faulty enunciation ? 18. In reading, how should the less prominent words be spoken ?



INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice, heard in reading and speaking; as, Will you go' or stày ?

1. In this example the voice rises on go, and falls on stay. These inflections should be made in reading, the same as in speaking or conversation.

2. These modifications of the voice will be considered under the four following heads; namely, Monotone, Rising Inflection, Falling Inflection, and Circumflex. The first is marked thus (-), the second, thus (), the third, thus (\), and the fourth, thus (), in the notation.

3. (1.) Monotone is a uniformity of sound on a succession of syllables. Thus,

Lēt the heavens rejoice, and lēt the earth be glad;
Lēt the sēa roar, and the fullness thereof,

Literally considered, the monotone is not an intlection or turn of the voice, but rather the want of it. It resembles somewhat the continued chimes of a bell.

4. A monotonous method of reading, is one of the greatest faults, against which teachers have to contend. But still, the monotone in certain cases, though it seldom amounts to perfect sameness, has a very happy effect. It is mainly employed in expressing sentiments of sublimity and awe, or in reading passages of lofty description.


1. Righteous art Thou, O Lord,

And upright åre Thy judgments.
2. He looketh on the earth.—and it trēmbleth,

He toucheth the hills, -and thēy smoke.
3. He stood, and measured the earth;

He behēlu, -ānd drove asünder the nations;
The everlasting mountains were scattered,
The përpétual hills did bow;-

His ways are*ēverlasting. 5. (2.) The rising inflection is an upward turn or slide of the voice, or the voice ends higher than it begins; as, Williám, are you going ho'me ?

(3.) The falling inflection is a downward turn or slide of the voice, or the voice ends lower that it begins; as, Where are you gòing? I am going hòme.

6. In the falling inflection, the voice should not sink below the general pitch, as in the case of a cadence, but rise before falling, and terminate on that pitch. So also in the rising inflection, the voice should not sink below the general pitch, before rising. The two inflections may be illustrated by the following diagram :

London ?



or to

Are you going to

I am going to The cadence


be illustrated thus ; I am going to


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7. It is by no means to be supposed, that the same degree of inflection is at all times used, or denoted by the notation. The due degree, employed, depends on the nature of what is expressed, and the attendant circumstances. For example, if a person, under much excitement, asks another, Dost thou


despise my

the degree of inflection would be much greater, than if he should calmly ask, Will you accept my offer? The former inflection may be called intensive, the latter, common. If a person converses with another at a distance, his inflections are intensive ; but common, if near at hand.

8. 44.) The Circumflex is a union of the two inflections, beginning with the falling and ènding with the rising.

1. One may be wise, though he be poor.
2. I shall gõ, though I can not tell when.

3. Not that I loved Cěsar less, but that I loved Rome more.
9. To discern, in all cases, whether the rising or falling in-
flection is used in the reading of a passage,

often much more difficult, and requires much closer discrimination, than at first would be supposed. If there be a doubt in the mind of the reader, which inflection he has employed, he can readily ascertain, simply by using the word, on which the inflection falls, in a question; thus, “ Did I say honor, or hònor?” In this case, both slides will be used in such immediate connection on the word, that it will be an easy matter to decide which has been employed.

10. The following sentences, with the different inflections marked, are presented for practical exercise.

1. Go to the ànt, thou slùggård, consider her ways, and be wise ; which, having no guide, overseer, or rùler, provideth' her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the hårvest.

2. Finally, bréthren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace.

3. Human happiness has no perfect security but frèedom;-fréedom, aóne but vìrtue ;-vírtue, nóne but knowledge; and neither freedom,

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