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nor virtue, nor knowledge, has any vigor, or immortal hòpe, except in the principles of the Christian faith, and in the sanctions of the Christian religion.

4. The faded flowers, the discolored leaf, the dilapidated tènement, the worn-out implements of hùsbandry, whatever shows marks of decay, should awaken in us thoughts of our own mortality.

5. Lò, earth receives Him from the bending skies !

Sink down, ye mountains, and ye válleys, rìse !
With heads declined, ye cedars. homage pày;

Be smooth, ye rocks, ye rapid flúods, give way! 6. For I am persuaded, that neither déath, nor life; nor ángels, nor principalities nor powers ; nor things présent nor things to come; nor hight nor depth ; nor any other creature, shall be able sèparate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lòrd.

7. Charity suffereth lóng, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vàunteth not itself; is not puffed up; doth not behave itself unsèemly; seeketh not her own; is not easily provoked; thinketh no èvil.

QUESTIONS.-1. What are inflections ? 2. How should they be made in reading? 3. Under what four heads are these modifications of the voice classed ? 4. By what mark is each denoted ? 5. What is the monotone ? 6. Repeat the example. 7. What is said of a monotonous mode of reading ? ' 8. Is the monotone a perfect sameness of sound ? 9. In whal instances is it mainly employed ? 10. What is the rising inflection ? U. What is the falling? 12. Should the voice in the rising or falling inflections, sink below the general pitch? 13. Illustrate the two inflections and the cadence by a diagram.' 14. What is said of degrees of inflection ? 15. By what terms are they distinguished ? 16. What is the circumflex? 17. What is said of the difficulty of discerning the difference between the rising and falling inflections? 18. What direction is given to determine which is used in any instance ?



RULE I. Direct questions, or those which may be answered by yes or no, usually take the rising inflection, but their answers, generally, the falling

EXAMPLES. 1. Is he at home? He is. (or yès.) 2. Did he do ríght? He did not. (or no.) 3. Are you going to New York ? I am going to Albány. 4. Will you go with má ? I will. 5. King Agrippa, believest thou the próphets ? I know that thou


Note I.—The direct question, when made as an appeal, and the reply anticipated, takes the falling inflection.


1. Is he not a hèro ?
2. Did I do it?
3. Is not that a beautiful flower ?
4. Looks it not like the king ?

5. Those are beautiful paintings. Are they not?
In this last example, an appeal is made to others for an
assent to the assertion previously made, and the affirmative
reply anticipated. Generally, in cases of this kind, some pre-
vious assertion is either expressed, or implied.

NOTE II.--Exclamations becoming questions, require the rising inflection.

1. Banished from Róme! what's banished, but set free

From daily contact of the things I lothe?
• Tried and convicted tráitor !"-Who says this?
Who'll prove it, at his peril on my head ?

Indirect questions, or those which can not
be answered by yes or no, usually take the fall-
ing inflection, and their answers the same.

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1. Where are you going? To Bòston.
2. How do you do? I am wèll.
3. When will he arrive? To-mòrrow.

4. Which do you prefer? The latter.
Note I.-Indirect questions sometimes take the rising in-
flection, as when one asks a repetition of what, at first, was
not understood.


1. Where do you reside ? In Uticà.

Where did you say? In Uticà.
2. This book is worth five dollars. How much ? Five dollars.

NOTE II.--Answers to questions, whether direct or indi. rect, when expressive of indifference, instead of the falling, take the rising inflection, or the circumflex,

EXAMPLES. 1. Do you love stúdy? I dó. 2. Did you regret his departure ? Not múch. 3. Have you read my key to the Romans? I have turned it over.

Remark 1.-Inflections often have the influence of varying the sense of passages. For example, note the following:

Will you go to-day or to-morrow. Yès.

Will you go to-dáy or to-mòrrow? I shall go to-mòrrow. The former question asks whether he will


within the two days, and may be answered by yes or no; but the latter, on which day he will go, and can not be thus answered.


Antithetic* terms or clauses - usually take opposite inflections; generally, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling inflection.

EXAMPLES. J. By hónor, and dishonor; by évil report, and good report; as de

céivers, and yet trùe. 2. Homer was the greater génius ; Virgil, the better artist: in the

óne, we admire the mán; in the other, the work. 3. They have mouths —but they speak not:

Eyés have they,---but they sèe not:
They have éars.--but they hèar not:
Nóses have they,-- but they smėll not:
They have hands,- but they hàndle not:

Féet have they,--but they walk not:
4. To bé, or not to bè, that is the question.

Note I.- When one of the antithetic clauses is a negative, and the other an affirmative, generally the negative has the rising, aæd the affirmative the falling inflection.


1. He was esteemed, not for wéalth, but for wisdom.
2. You should show your courage by deeds, not by words.
3. I said an elder soldier, not a bétter.
4. He is not going to Paris, but to Lòndon.

* Antithetic terms are those which are opposed to each other in sense, as in a comparison or contrast. Thus, This one is great, but the other is small

Remark 1.-In this particular, the negative clause may be in position, either before or after the affirmutive. The same also may be said in regard to such comparisons as are connected by than, in which case, generally, the clause immediately following it, is read with the rising, and the other with the falling inflection. Thus,

1. It is easier to be wise for others, than for ourselves. 2. It is better to be poor, than ignorant. 3. We think less of the injuries we do, than of those we súffer. 4. It is wiser to prevent a quarrel beforehand, than to revenge it


Remark 2.-It may sometimes be difficult to determine the antithetic terms. When both are expressed, much less difficulty will be presented, than in instances where one is omitted, and is to be suggested by the inflection of voice on the other. In this case, the most efficient means of determining which, will be found in a knowledge of the previous connection.

Note II.—The rising inflection, in many instances of antithetic relation, as well as in many other cases, borders closely on the circumflex, and in fact by many it is used with propriety instead of the rising slide. Thus, Dr. Porter has frequently marked in his Analysis, the same example both ways, sometimes with the rising inflection, and at others with the circumflex. This variation arises principally from the tasto of different readers.

QUESTIONS.-1. Repeat Rule 1. 2. When does the direct question take the falling inflection? 3. In such cases what is previously expressed or implied? 4. When do exclamations take the rising infection ? 5. Repeat Rule II. 6. In what instances do indirect questions take the rising inflection ? 7. When do answers to questions take the rising in flection ? 8. Give an example. What influence do inflections oiten have on the sense of a passage ? 10. Give an example. Il. Repeat Rule III. !2. What is meant by antithetic terms? 13. When one of the antithetic clauses is a negatire, and the other an affirmatire, what inflections do they take? 14. What is said of their position in a sentence with regard to each other? 15 Whar, of such comparisons as are connected by than ? 16. When one of the antithetic terms are omitted, hv what means can it be ascertained ? 17. What is said in regard to the rising inflection and circumdex ?




The pause of suspension, denoting that the sense is incomplete, usually has the rising infection.

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EXAMPLES. 1. Whérefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-ilny is, and to-inorrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, ye of little faith.

2. Bright as the pillar rose at Heaven's command,

When Israel marched along the desert land,
Blazed through the night on lonely wilds afär,
And told the path, -a never-setting stár:
So heavenly Génius in thy course divine,

Hope is thy star,-her light is ever thine.
3. If I have made gold my hópe.

Or have said to the fine gold. Thou art my confidence;
If I have rejoiced because my wealth was great,
And because mine hand had gotten múch;
If I beheld the sun when it shined,
Or the inoon walking in brightness;
And my heart hath been secretly enticed,
Or my mouth hath kissed my hånd;
This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge:

For I should have denied the Göd that is above.
Note 1.—The ordinary direct address, not accompanied
with strong emphasis, takes the rising inflection, on the prin-
ciple of the pause of suspension.

EXAMPLES. 1. Simon, son of Jónas. lovest thou mé ? 2. Mén, bréthren, and fáthers, hear ye my defense which I make now

unto you.

3. Ye glittering towns, with wealth and splendor crown'd;

Ye fields when summer spreads profusion round;
Ye likes whose vessels catch the busy gále;
Ye bending swiins, that dress the flowery vále;
For me your tributary stores combine ;

Creation's heir, the world, the world is mine!
Note II.-The pause of suspension, if accompanied wita
strong emphasis, must sometimes have the intense falling
inflection, in order to secure the true meaning of the passage.

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