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'Case 2. To change Sterling Money into French. RULE. As the Rate of Exchange : is to 1 Crown : : so is the Sterling Sum : to the French required. * Note.—The same Rule must be observed with most of the following Countries.


(1) What Sterling Money must be paid in London, to receive in Paris 500 Crowns; Exchange at 56d. per Crown 2 (2) How many Crowns must be paid at Paris, to receive in London I 16113s 4d. the Exchange at 56d. per Crown? (3) Change 640 Crowns, 12 Sols, 8 Deniers, at 54%d. per - Crown, into Sterling. (4) Change 1451 7: 7; d. Sterling, into French Crowns, Exchange at 54%d. per Crown.

2d. With SPAIN.

They keep their Accounts at Madrid, Cadiz, and Seville, in Dollars, Rials, and Maravedies, and exchange by the Piece of Eight, which is equal to 4s 6d. at Par. '4 Maravedies *: Y |

* 2: Maravedies Plate Quarta.


8: Quartas, or 5 .. * 34 Marvodies veilon } % Rial Vellon. 16 Quartas, or, Tr: : 34 Maravedies Plate 8 | Rial of Plate.

8 Rials of Plate UPiece of Eight or Dollar. N. B. A Rial Vellon is #3 of a Rial of Plate, and or of a - Piastre. * . .


(5) Change 8561 6s 8d. into Spanish Money, Exchange at 56d. per Piece of Eight. . . . (6) If I pay in Seville 1426 Pieces of Fight, 4. Rials, 26 Maravedies, what may I draw my Bill for on London, Exchange at 54; d. per Piece of Eight 2

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3d. With ITALY.

In Italy they keep their Accounts, at Genoa and Leghorn, in Livres, Sols, and Deniers, and exchange by the Piece of Eight or Dollar, which is equal to 4, 6d at Par.

12 Deniers Sol.

20 Sols make one Livre.
5 Livres - . . . Genoa.
6 Fo Piece of Eight at Leghorn.

At Florence the Exchange is by Ducatoons, and at Venice by
Ducats, divided as follows, viz.

6 Solidi ke Gross. 24 Grosses "*** Ducat.


(7) Genoa is indebted to London 640 Dollars. For how
much Sterling may London draw on Genoa, the Ex-
change at 52d per Dollar
(8) If a Merchant remits 138/13s 4d Sterling to Leghorn,
how many Dollars will he receive there, the Exchange
at 52d per Dollar - - -
Note.—In St. George’s Bank, at Genoa, Accounts are kept
in Piastres or Pezzoes, which are divided into Solidi
and Denari, as the Pound Sterling. .
But some Merchants keep their Accounts in Lires, or Liras,
Solidi, and Denari, divided as before. This Money
is only one fifth in Value of the Bank Money. -

* (9) Change 8644 Pez. into Sterling Money, Exchange at 47#d per Pezzo. - (10) London is indebted to Genoa 1710l 16s 4d. For how many Pezzoes may Genoa draw on London, the Exchange at 474d per Pez.

4th. with PORTUGAL.

They keep their Accounts in Lisbon, Oporto, &c. in Reas, and Exchange on the Milrea; and London gives from 5s to 5, 6d for the same. . . . . .

400 Reas 1000 Reass.

make One Crusadoe. * ... " Milrea.

- EXAMPLES. * * (11) A Merchant at Lisbon being desirous to remit to his Correspondent at London 4760 Milreas, Exchange at 64d per Milrea, how much Sterling must be paid in London 2 (12) How many Milreas will 15661 6s 8d amount to, Exchange at 64d per Milrea:

5th. With HOLLAND, FLANDERS, and

In these Places, their Accounts are kept sometimes in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, as in England, and sometimes in Guilders, Stivers, and Pennings. The Money of Holland and Flanders is distinguished by the Name of Flemish, and the Exchange is made with London, from 30 to 38 Shillings Flemish, per Pound Sterling.

8 Pennings s Groat. 2 Croats, or S+ iv., r 1. o } | | o or Two-pence. tlverS cniiling. 20 Stivers ! make one 3 Florin, or Guilder. 2: Florins Rix Dollar. 6 Florins Pound Flemish. 5 Guilders U Ducat.

To change Flemish Money into Sterling; and, on the contrary, Sterling into Flemish, is the same with that of France; only what was French there will be Flemish here.

To reduce Flemish Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, into Guilders.

RULE. Reduce them into Pence Flemish, then divide by 40 (be

*ause 40d is equal to one Guilder) and the Quotient will be Guilders ; and the Remainder (if any) divide by 2 (because 2d is equal to one Stiver) and the Quotient will be Stivers.

EXAMPLES. * (13) A Merchant in Rotterdam remits 564! 10; 6d Flemish, to be paid in London. How much Sterling Money must he draw for, Exchange at 34, 4d per A. Sterling 2 (14) Suppose a Merchant delivered in London 328l 16, 11.3d. to receive the Value at Amsterdam in Flemish Money; how many Pounds must he receive there, the Exchange at 34s 4d Flemish per A Sterling 2 (15) What may I draw my Bill for on London, if I pay in Antwerp 4200 Guilders, 12 Stivers, 8 Pennings, Exchange at 33s 3d Flemish per A. Sterling 2 (16) If I pay in London 4211 2; 3d. how many Guilders may I draw my Bill for at Antwerp, Exchange at 38s 3d Flem. per A. Sterling 2 (17) Exchange 2421 13s 6d Flemish into Guilders, Stivers, &c.

6th. To change CURRENT MONEY into BANCO.

RULE. As 100 with the Agio added to it : is to 100 Banco : :

so is any given Sum Current : to the Banco required. EXAMPLES. o (18) Change 495 Guilders, 18 Stivers Current, into Bance Florins, Agio 5 per Cent. 2. To change Banco into Current Money.


As 100 Guineas Banco is to 100 with the Agio added to it :: so is the Banco given : to the Current required.


(19) Change 470 Guilders, 8 Stivers Banco, into Current Agio at 5; per Cent. - Note.—The Bank Money is worth more tha;, the Current: their Difference is called Agio, and is from three to six per Cent. in favour of the Bank.

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7th. with VENICE.

Money of Exchange here is always understood to be that of Ducats in Bank, which is imaginary, 100 whereof make 120 Ducats Current Money; so that the Difference betwixt Bank and Current Money is an Agio of 20 per Cent, though the Brokers have invented another Agio to be added, which is more or less, according to Bargain.

The Course of Exchange of a Ducat of the Bank of Venice. is from 45d to 50d Sterling.


(20) Venice draws on London for 420 Ducats, 10 Sols, 8 Den. Banco, Exchange at 47; per Ducat. How much Sterling will pay the Draught 2

8th. With POLAND and PRUSSIA.

Dantzic and Königsberg exchange with London by Way of Amsterdam and Hamburg; 270 Polish Grosh being= Il Gross Banco in Holland; 110 Polish Grosh being= 1 RixDollar, Banco of Hamburg.

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4 Arch de Halbers Florin or Guilder.
3 Florins or Guilders Current l is, it
4 Guilders J U Specie }pola.


(21) Change 4684 Florins into Sterling Money, 270 Groshi Poli, per Pound Flemish, and 34s 4d Flemish per A" Sterling.

(22) Change 3901 Sterling into Florins, the Exchange being 33; 4d Flemish per A. Sterling, and 270 Groshi Poli per £ Flemish.

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