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duced in Russia and Poland, and also, though not to the same extent, in Germany, Italy, India, and our own country. It would be hard to say what we should do without this very useful plant; for, from the fibres of its stem, after they have been separated and cleaned by processes similar to those described in the case of flax, we make cloth for the sails of our ships, and ropes for their rigging; and though many substitutes have been proposed for it, none have been found to answer

80 well.

8. In addition to sail-cloth and cordage, finer cloths and strings of all kinds are made from it. Even when hempen ropes are worn out they do not cease to be useful; for if they have been used for the rigging of ships, and are soaked through with tar, they may be untwisted, and the tarry hemp then forms what is called oakum, a most useful material to the ship carpenter, who stuffs it tightly in between the planks of ships to prevent leakage. If the ropes have not been soaked with tar, they may be used for making brown paper. Coarse white paper

is made from the bleached or whitened sail. cloth. The finest kinds of paper, however, are made of linen rags; and this is another important and highly interesting use of the flax plant.

9. It is impossible to feel too grateful to the “ giver of all good things” for enabling man to discover that from two such humble plants he can obtain the means of making fine linen for his clothing, thread for sewing his garments, lace for decorating rich dresses, sails to give wings to his ships, and carry them to and fro across the widest seas, ropes for rigging his ships, and last, but not least, paper upon which he can write or print his

thoughts, and spread them abroad for the benefit and instruction of his fellow-men.

10. The cotton plant, as a means of obtaining clothing for the human race, is even more important than either flax or hemp. It is exceedingly handsome, somewhat larger than a gooseberry bush, bearing fine large flowers, generally yellow, and not unlike those of our garden hollyhock. The plants are placed in the ground in rows, and carefully tended until they flower— the seeds being produced in pods about as large as a pigeon's egg. Each of these seeds is about the size of a small pea, of a dark brown color, and covered all over with fine white hairs, sometimes not more than an inch in length.

11. They are packed so closely in the pod that they are not visible when it first opens at the season of its maturity. Gradually, however, the hairs begin to unfold, and push their way out, until, like the down of the thistle, they are caught up by the wind and scattered abroad. The cultivator, however, interposes before their dispersion, and, gathering them, sends them to mills, where, by means of a machine called a cotton-gin, the hairs, or cotton wool, are separated from the seed, which is kept for sowing again, or for the manufacture of oil, and of oil-cake for cattle.

12. The cotton plant is cultivated with the greatest success and most extensively in the southern part of our own country and in India. It is also produced in South America, the West Indies, Egypt, and Turkey. It is manufactured into white cloth, calicoes,' sewing-thread, and various other articles, either singly or in combination with woollen and silk. From first to last it gives employment to a great number of persons. Not only

does it occupy those who sow the seed, tend the crop, gather the wool and prepare it for the market, but millions of persons are employed in spinning, weaving, and dyeing it, in making it up into garments and other useful articles, and in selling it in various ways.

13. To these must be added the sailors employed in bringing it from various countries, those employed in unloading the ships, and the merchants who receive it. Thus these fine white silky hairs with which the Creator, in His wisdom and beneficence," has clothed the brown shell of the cotton seed, are in consequence of their fitness to supply the wants of mankind, the means of giving occupation to millions of our fellow-creatures.

1 SYC-CĒĒD'ED. Followed in order

of time or place. 2 SĚP'A-RĀT-ED, Disconnected, part

ed, sundered. 3 [M-BĪBE'. Drink in, absorb.

4 DÉC'Q-RĀT-ING. Adorning.
5 CĂL'I-COEş. Printed cotton cloths,
6 DYE'ING. Coloring.
7 BĘ-NĚF'I-CĚNCE. Active goodness.
8 OC-CY-PĀ'TION. Employment.



1. TELL me not, in mournful numbers,

Life is but an empty dream !
For the soul is dead that slumbers,

And things are not what they seem.

2. Life is real! Life is earnest !

And the grave is not its goal;
Dust thou art, to dust returnest,

Was not spoken of the soul.

3. Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,

Is our destined end or way;
But to act, that each to-morrow

Find us farther than to-day.

4. Art is long, and Time is fleeting,

And our hearts, though stout and brave Still, like muffled drums, are beating

Funeral marches to the grave.

5. In the world's broad field of battle,

In the bivouac of Life,
Be not like dumb, driven cattle!

Be a hero in the strife !

6. Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant !

Let the dead Past bury its dead !
Act, — act in the living Present !

Heart within, and God o'erhead!

7. Lives of great men all remind us

We can make our lives sublime,
And, departing, leave behind us

Footprints on the sands of time; ~

8. Footprints, that perhaps another,

Sailing o'er life's solemn main,
A forlorn' and shipwrecked brother,

Seeing, shall take heart again.

[blocks in formation]

Still achieving, still pursuing,

Learn to labor and to wait.

1 BIVOUAC (bịv'ô-åk or bỉv/wăk). The

act of an army that passes the night without cncamping, in a state of watchfulness, rcady for military action,

2 MAIN. Tho open sea, the ocean.
3 FOR-LÖRN'. Forsaken, wretched,

deserted, solitary.
4 ACHIEV'ING, Accomplishing, per

forming, doing.


1. Do you know what gems or precious stones are like? They are very different from the stones that

you see lying on the roads, or paving the streets. They are clear and bright; they are rare and valuable. The white ones, which, when light strikes them, sparkle into many colors, are called diamonds, those that are of a rich flashing red are rubies, the blue are sapphires, the green are emeralds, the purple are amethysts.

2. In countries very far away, in India, Brazil, Ceylon, Persia, Siberia, they are dug out of deep nincs in the earth, or torn from the solid rocks, and cven there they are not very plentiful, and are bought and sold for immense sums of money. After they have been cut and polished, and set in gold, they are worn in the crowns of monarchs, or in the robes and tresses of rich and beautiful ladies.

3. I know of a rich gem, that resembles' those of which I have been speaking in several particulars : it is clear and bright, and rare and precious.

4. Truth is clear and bright : it has nothing to hide ; there are no mists about it.

A truthful person has no

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