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count announced a magnificent marine entertainment in honour of the marriage. The young personage proceeded to his ship in all imaginable naval pomp; as soon as she entered the cabin, gracious heaven, what a display of treachery was developed! Orloff upbraided her with being an impostor, and, the more barbarously to degrade her, ordered her delicate hands to be fastened by handcuffs, which had been prepared for the purpose, and quitted the ship, which immediately sailed for Cronstadt, fom whence she was brought to the fortress in a covered barge, where she was immolated, and never heard of more. It is supposed that she was drowned in her dungeon, which was rather deep, during one of the inundations of the Neva. In a part of this fortress is a little boat, which is said to be the father of the Russian marine, by having furnished Peter the Great, when a child, with the rudiments of naval architecture, which he afterwards so passionately pursued at Sardam. It was brought from Moscow, and deposited here with great pomp, in 1723, and was called by Peter « the Little Grandsire."

Upon our return from the fortress, I took a view of the celebrated street called the Grand or Nevski Perspective: it runs in a direct line from the church of the admiralty, from which the principal streets of the admiralty quarter branch like radii, to the monastery of St. Alexander Nevski: its length is about four miles, and its breadth not quite equal to that of our Oxford-street; it is lined with very noble houses, and what will afford the most delight to the liberal and reflecting observer, with elegant churches, in which the devout man, without restraint, may worship his God after the dictates of his own habits or persuasion. Here sectarian fury never disfigures the temple of the Almighty : the Greek and the Protestant, the Armenian and the Catholic, here quietly pass to their respective places of devotion, and unite in sending up to the throne of Heaven the hallowed, though varying, sounds of their grateful adoration, which, blending as they ascend, charm the Divine ear, with the most acceptable homage, the harmony of religion.

The late Emperor very materially affected the beauty of this street, by destroying the foot-paths which were formerly on each side, and forming a very broad path in the centre of it, which he planted with Linden trees, and guarded by a low railing. The idea was evidently taken from the beautiful Linden walk at Berlin, which originated in the exquisite taste and genius of Frederic, so justly called the Great. The trees look very sickly, and, for want of soil and moisture, never can flourish, and cannot atone for the violation which is offered to taste. If this great nuisance were removed, the perspective would be one of the finest in Europe. The great beehive of the city, called the Gostinnoi dvor, is in this street; it is a vast building, wholly dedicated to trade, containing two piazza stories, and presenting three unequal sides, the longest of which is upwards of nine hundred feet: under this roof is an immense number of shops and stores : the neatness of the shops, and the dexterity and activity of the shopmen, cannot but impress a stranger. The haberdashers here, as in England, are fine lusty fellows, but add to their athletic appearance a prodigious bushy beard ; this said beard is the pride and glory of Russian manhood:

“ It is the equal grace
Both of his wisdom and his face,"

which the churches of the north and of the east protected with uncommon zeal and contumacy, whilst the razor of ecclesiastical discipline committed sad ravages upon it in the southern and western regions: at one time, as if in derision, this venerable growth of the . human visage was cut into a tapering cone; it next assumed the gravity of the scollop; then it alarmed the ladies in whiskers, and afterwards tickled their cheeks with a few monkish hairs upon the upper lip; till at length the holy scythe, pursuing its victory, cleared every hair, until the chin assumed the polish and smoothness of an alabaster statue.

The Russian beard struck terror into the soul of Peter the Great; he dared not attack it. It was not surprising that Catherine wished to see its honours shorn, but amidst her mighty and resplendent conquests, the beard remained not only unassaulted but unassailable; and if a smooth chin is one of the characteristics of high civilization,


poor fellow

I believe the Russian will implore his saint to let him live and die a barbarian.

The following anecdote is an authentic one: A nobleman having laid a wager upon the subject, offered a common Russian, one of his slaves, freedom and two thousand pounds to part with his beard; the reply of the

“ I had sooner part


life.” To return to the shops: before the door of each of them parades a shop-boy, whose duty it is to importune every passenger to walk in and buy: this little fellow seems to partake of the same spirit which so indefatigably moves his brethren, who mount guard before the old clothes and slop shops of Monmouth-street.

The acuteness, frugality, and perseverance, of these people, virtues which never fail to raise for their fortunate possessor a pyramid of wealth, is surprising. Most of these tradesmen have been rasnoschiks, or ambulatory venders of little merchandizes in the streets, who, by a judicious application of the golden rule, “ take care of the 6 copecs, and the rubles will take care of themselves,” well digested with black bread and a little quas, a common antiscorbutic acidulous beverage, produced by pouring hot water on rye or barley, and fermented, have become marchands des modes, or successful followers of other trades; the fruitful principle of getting and saving has enabled them to purchase houses, and commence money brokers and lenders, in which capacity many of them die immensely rich.

These shopkeepers have also their phrases of allurement. The haberdasher says: “ Walk in, my fair one, we have straw bonnets w which will very much become that pretty face; oh! how well “ they would look upon you! how much more your lover would u admire you in one !" In an adjoining shop, the shoemaker is seen sweeping the pretty foot of some fair customer with his long beard, as he adjusts the glossy slipper. Upon tables, before the doors of the upholsterers, in which all descriptions of furniture may be purchased, plaster-of-Paris busts of Alexander and his lovely consort are presented to the eye: Sir, I am sure you like the Em

peror and the Empress; they are exactly like the originals; you 4 shall have them for twelve rubles; I cannot sell them apart, they u must not be separated, they always go together, sir; they are, you may rely upon it, exactly like the originals.”

The consummate knowledge which the Russian shopkeeper possesses of the most complicated calculation, and the entangled.caprices of that cameleon-coloured goddess who presides over the exchange, is absolutely astonishing. If he cannot write, he has recourse to a small wooden frame, containing rows of beans, or little wooden balls, strung upon stretched wires, and with this simple machine he would set the spirit of Necker, at defiance. It has been the fashion amongst travellers to assert, and they seem to have alternately received and imparted the prejudice, without the trouble and the justice of making their own observations, that the Russians are the greatest cheats in the universe. If the worthy shopkeepers of London, of Paris, and of Vienna, had never been known to consider that the

value of the thing Is just as much as it will bring,”

then, indeed, might Mercury, invested with his least favourable attri, bute, regard the shop-boards of Gostinnoi dvor as his chosen altars. Accustomed to obtain wealth in the detail, and to have their reser, voirs filled by partial drops, and not by copious showers, they dis, play that little trick, which may be seen in all other countries under similar influences. It is related of Peter the Great, that, when a deputation of Jews waited upon him, to solicit permission to settle at Petersburg, he replied: “ My good friends, I esteem you too much " to grant you that favour, for my people will outwit you."

The Russian has an apology for his craft; nature furnishes him with it: he is doubly a slave, first to his immediate master, and secondly to his Emperor. It is the policy of the poor fellow to conceal, as cautiously as he can, not from the latter, for he is the fond father of his people, although constitutionally his paramount owner, but from his immediate lord, the amount of his profits: he does, what I have heard has been done in another country, where, thank God, petty legalized tyranny has never yet had an inch of ground to rest upon! he makes an inaccurate return of income to avoid an augmented imposition upon his profits. Men, whilst they have wigs upon their heads, and robes upon their shoulders, may perhaps blame him, but when these grave and impressive habiliments of morality are quietly placed upon their respective pegs, their own ers will, I am confident, pity, smile upon, and pardon, this hard and much injured toiling son of traffic. In so severe a degree does this sort of subordinate, and ever the most grinding and pernicious of all slavery exist, that it is no unusual thing for a peasant to be exchanged for a horse, and even a favourite dog. A certain Russian countess used to make her Calmuc girls read to her till she slept, and, under the pain of severe flagellation, continue to read afterwards, to prevent her being awakened by the effect of sudden silence.

I one day saw a Russian, distinguished only from the commonest sort by the superiority of the cloth of his long coat, who had paid fifteen thousand pounds for his freedom, and had amassed by indefatigable industry, a fortune of one hundred thousand pounds : and not far from my hotel resided a Russian, who, in the short space of twelve years, with a fair character, had amassed nearly a million sterling

I am ready to admit that the petty stratagems of the counter can never be justifiable, and that a propensity to conceal may increase them. The more assailants morality has, like every other assaulted power, the less is her security, and if she withstand, the greater her triumph; whilst she is expelling knavery at one gate, falsehood may enter at another, and this contentious combination frequently terminates in the restoration and victorious settlement of both.

Upon the mausoleums of few may justly be recorded the beautiful epitapb which appears upon the tomb of the brave and generous Philip de Villiers de l'Isle d’Adam, in the imperial museum of monuments in Les Petites Augustines, at Paris :

“ Here lies Virtue, vanquishing Fortune.”

But do not let us think, that the Russian is naturally worse than his brethren in other parts of the globe. Heaven has scattered our

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