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whether plaintiff, defendant, or intervenor, may remove a cause by showing the necessary facts. It follows from this that as to an intervenor it is enough to show the citizenship of the parties at the time of his intervention, for, as to him, that is the commencement or bringing of the suit.

But the above-cited section of the act of 1875 further provides that when, in any suit mentioned in the section, "there shall be a controversy which is wholly between citizens of different states, and which can be fully determined as between them, then either one or more of the plaintiffs or defendants actually interested in such controversy may remove said suit to the circuit court of the United States for the proper district." This clause very clearly applies to a controversy between the original plaintiff and an intervenor who may be brought in in the course of the litigation and before trial. It is enough if the controversy described is in the suit; there is no requirement that it shall be between the original parties. The intervenor became a defendant within the meaning of this clause, and since there was very clearly a controversy between him and the plaintiff, in which the original defendant had no interest, and which could be fully determined as between them, the right of removal existed.

If the petition for removal had not been filed until after the intervention, it would, upon the principle of the cases heretofore decided by this court, have been necessary to aver the citizenship of the parties at the time of the intervention; but inasmuch as the petition to intervene and the petition for removal were filed at one and the same time, I am of the opinion that the use of the present tense in the latter was sufficient.

It is not necessary to determine whether the motion is in time, (having been made after judgment,) since, independently of that question, it must be overruled. So ordered.

Pool, Administratrix, v. THE C., B. & Q. R. Co.

(Circuit Court, D. Iowa. May 11, 1881.)

The plaintiff now moves for a new trial. The plaintiff widow and administratrix of Erastus P. Pool, deceased lost his life in consequence of personal injuries recei attempting to make a coupling while in defendant's se The action is to recover damages resulting from the in thus received. The plaintiff's counsel have, in support motion, insisted on many grounds of law and fact w deem it needless to consider. I shall confine what I b: say to the alleged misconduct of the jury. In this r some very material facts relied upon for the motion been disproved. Others have been so far explained by

1. JUROR-MISCONDUCT_PREJUDICE.

Where the natural tendency of what a juror does or says or willingly listens to from others is to bias his mind, or where his misconduct evinces a prejudgment of the case, or ill-will, or passion against the losing party, the inference of prejudice in the true sense inevi. tably follows, because the verdict cannot be said to be the result of a

fair trial. 2. SAME-SAME--SAME.

Under such circumstances the mere facts that the successful party was not in fault, and that the verdict was approved by the court, does

not relieve the case from the inference of prejudice. 3. SAME-SAME-SAME.

Where a juror talks outside the jury room about a case pending and undecided before him, he gives the clearest evidence that he is not

an impartial and unbiased juror. 4. SAME-SAME-SAME.

The statement of a juror that what he has thus said or heard has not affected or influenced his judgment, is not, under such circum

stances, entitled to any weight. 5. NEW TRIAL-MISCONDUCT OF JURORS–PREJUDICE.

Part of the jurors engaged in the trial of a cause passed several consecutive evenings at cards in the room of one of the defendant's counsel, at the hotel where some, but not all, of said jurors were stopping. It appeared that the counsel did not know that these jurors were of the party when he consented that his room should be thus occupied, and that when he discovered that fact he studiously kept aloof from the room every evening until after the card party had dispersed. It further appeared that while the case was yet before the jury and undecided, one of the jurors had talked freely and fully with a third party about the case, and had in such conversation expressed himself to the prejudice of the plaintiff and the plaintiff's counsel. It also appeared that after the jury had retired for consultation that this same juror moved that one of their party act as foreman, and that then, upon motion, said juror was appointed secretary. Held, in view of these circumstances, that the verdict should be set aside and a new trial granted.--[ED

ter affidavits as to relieve the case of the bad aspect in

pa it might otherwise appear to the court. I shall doubtful or disproved facts without notice, confining I tention exclusively to such as have been clearly proved

It undeniably appears that a number of the jurors ing the progress of the trial, passed several conse evenings at cards in the room of one of the defendant's sel, at the hotel where some, but not all, of said juror stopping. This was a great and reprehensible impro and if it did not clearly appear that the jurors men occupied the room in question without any invitation ducement from the defendant's counsel, I would not h to set aside the verdict on that ground alone. But appear affirmatively, by the affidavits which have been that the jurors occupied Judge Trimble's room under circumstances, which relieve both Judge Trimble an

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Blythe, his associate counsel, from any just censure or sibility. It is due alike to the counsel concerned and court that the circumstances referred to should be stat placed upon record.

It appears that Judge Trimble and Mr. Blythe o separate rooms upon the same floor of the hotel. The tlemen were closely occupied at Mr. Blythe's room til the evening of each day during the trial, examining wi and otherwise preparing their defence. Judge 'T room was virtually unoccupied by him till a late hou night, and not, it appears, till the card party had di

Motion for a New Trial.
Hagerman, McCrary & Hagerman, for plaintiff.
H, H. Trimble and J. W. Blythe, for defendant.

LOVE, D.J. This case was tried by jury at the last January term, in Keokuk. The jury gave a verdict for the defendant.

The plaintiff now moves for a new trial. The plaintiff is the widow and administratrix of Erastus P. Pool, deceased, who lost his life in consequence of personal injuries received in attempting to make a coupling while in defendant's service. The action is to recover' damages resulting from the injuries thus received. The plaintiff's counsel have, in support of the motion, insisted on many grounds of law and fact which I deem it needless to consider. I shall confine what I have to say to the alleged misconduct of the jury. In this matter some very material facts relied upon for the motion have been disproved. Others have been so far explained by counter affidavits as to relieve the case of the bad aspect in which it might otherwise appear to the court. I shall pass all doubtful or disproved facts without notice, confining my attention exclusively to such as have been clearly proved.

It undeniably appears that a number of the jurors, dur. ing the progress of the trial, passed several consecutive evenings at cards in the room of one of the defendant's counsel, at the hotel where some, but not all, of said jurors were stopping. This was a great and reprehensible impropriety, and if it did not clearly appear that the jurors mentioned occupied the room in question without any invitation or inducement from the defendant's counsel, I would not hesitate to set aside the verdict on that ground alone. But it does appear affirmatively, by the affidavits which have been filed, that the jurors occupied Judge Trimble's room under peculiar circumstances, which relieve both Judge Trimble and Mr. Blythe, his associate counsel, from any just censure or responsibility. It is due alike to the counsel concerned and to the court that the circumstances referred to should be stated and placed upon record.

It appears that Judge Trimble and Mr. Blythe occupied separate rooms upon the same floor of the hotel. These gentlemen were closely occupied at Mr. Blythe's room till late in the evening of each day during the trial, examining witnesses, and otherwise preparing their defence. Judge Trimble's room was virtually unoccupied by him till a late hour of the night, and not, it appears, till the card party had dispersed.

trial to any member of the jury. But the conduct jurors themselves was plainly inexcusable. Though it have been the result of mere thoughtlessness, it was festly calculated to bring grave suspicion upon ther upon any verdict they might render. All that the publ the living suitor could know was that several of the were actually trying the cause were spending night. night in the rooms of the defendant's counsel. How a what means and under what circumstances they got whether with or without invitation; whether with or w purpose respecting the trial; whether to receive or not ceive hospitality,~could not be known or explained world without. All this would be matter of mere conje and what conjectures were likely to be made it is need say. Even those at the hotel who were informed that jurors were engaged in an innocent game of cards for a ment might very naturally ask why they did not occur room of some one of their own number who was stopp the house.

The fact that the jurors in question occupied Judge Trimble's room at all is satisfactorily explained.

It appears to have been arranged that some jurors in attendance upon the court should while away their evenings at cards in the rooms of Colonel Milo Smith, who was a juror of the regular panel, but not in the Pool case. It so happened that Mrs. Smith, after some days, reached the city, and it therefore became necessary to abandon the arrangement for meeting at Colonel Smith's rooms.

Thereupon John R. Wallace, who was not a juror in the case then on trial, seeing that Judge Trimble's room was unoccupied, asked him if he had any objection to their card party meeting at his room. He did not state to Judge Trimble who the persons engaged in the card playing were; and the latter, when he gave consent to their using his room, was not aware that any juror in the Pool case was of the party. It clearly and indubitably appears that when Judge Trimble and Mr. Blythe afterwards came to know that some members of the jury in the case then on trial were of the card party, they kept studiously aloof from Judge Trimble's room. It is proved clearly that Mr. Blythe was never in the room at all when the jurors were there, and Judge Trimble was in the room only once during the several nights in question, and then only for a single moment to obtain some needed papers. It appears that neither Judge Trimble nor Mr. Blythe ever, on any occasion during the trial, spoke to any jurors concerning the case, or alluded to the same in their presence except in open court. When Judge Trimble found that some members of the jury in the case were occupying his room, as stated, he was placed in a somewhat embarrassing situation. He had given consent to their occupancy of his room, which was practically vacant. He could not well rescind his assent and order them to vacate the room without danger of giving offence and perhaps prejudicing his client's cause. Both he and Mr. Blythe seem to have done all that could reasonably be expected of them under the circumstances; they kept aloof from the room during its occupancy by the jurors, and abstained scrupulously from making any allusion to the case on

The circumstances which have been satisfactori plained to the court were necessarily unknown to the

I and, although public opinion ought by no means to ini or control the verdict of juries, yet a decent regard opinion of mankind is a duty not at all incompatible higher and paramount obligation to do exact justice bi man and man.

Such conduct as I have referred to on the part of while trying a cause, merits the most decided repro It tends directly to bring suspicion and discredit up trials, and upon the administration of justice itse

suitor could feel otherwise than aggrieved at a verd dered against him by jurors so demeaning themselves court which should fail to discountenance such condu brought to its attention would justly lose the esteem a fidence of all just men. If there was no other fac me than the misconduct just mentioned, I should, wi reluctance, permit the verdict to stand. The exampl. I fear, be infinitely mischievous. I should, theref

trial to any member of the jury. But the conduct of the jurors themselves was plainly inexcusable. Though it may have been the result of mere thoughtlessness, it was manifestly calculated to bring grave suspicion upon them and upon any verdict they might render. All that the public and the living suitor could know was that several of them who were actually trying the cause were spending night after night in the rooms of the defendant's counsel. How and by what means and under what circumstances they got there; whether with or without invitation; whether with or without purpose respecting the trial; whether to receive or not to receive hospitality,--could not be known or explained to the world without. All this would be matter of mere conjecture, and what conjectures were likely to be made it is needless to say. Even those at the hotel who were informed that these jurors were engaged in an innocent game of cards for amusement might very naturally ask why they did not occupy the room of some one of their own number who was stopping at the house.

The circumstances which have been satisfactorily explained to the court were necessarily unknown to the public; and, although public opinion ought by no means to influence or control the verdict of juries, yet a decent regard to the opinion of mankind is a duty not at all incompatible with the higher and paramount obligation to do exact justice between man and man.

Such conduct as I have referred to on the part of jurors, while trying a cause, merits the most decided reprobation. It tends directly to bring suspicion and discredit upon jury trials, and upon the administration of justice itself. No suitor could feel otherwise than aggrieved at a verdict rendered against him by jurors so demeaning themselves, and a court which should fail to discountenance such conduct when brought to its attention would justly lose the esteem and confidence of all just men. If there was no other fact before me than the misconduct just mentioned, I should, with great reluctance, permit the verdict to stand. The example would, I fear, be infinitely mischievous. I should, therefore, dis

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