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“ Make sacred Charles's tomb for ever known,

Obscure the place, and uninscribed the stone.
O fact accursed ! what tears bas Albion shed!
Heavens! what new wounds, and how her old have bled !
She saw her sons with purple deaths expire,
Her sacred domes involved in rolling fire ;
A dreadful series of intestine wars,
Inglorious triumphs and dishonest scars.

The remains of Charles the First, we are told by Lord Clarendon, were searched for by order of his son, for the purpose of being honoured with a magnificent funeral, but were nowhere to be found: this search must however have been negligently pursued, the coffin of the King having been sufficiently distinguished by his name, and the year in which he perished having been carved on a label or circumscription of lead, by order of the Lords having the management of the funeral. Doubts of the whereabout of the resting-place of the king had become historical. Lord Clarendon observing, in a word, the confusion he had at that time observed to be in that church, and the small alterations which were begun to be made towards decency, so totally perplexed their memories, that they could not satisfy themselves in what place or part of the church the royal body was interred. Yet when any concurred upon this or that place, they caused the ground to be opened at a good distance, and, upon such inquiries, found no cause to believe that they were near the place. To settle these doubts, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in 1813, attended by the Duke of Cumberland, Count Munster, the Dean of Windsor, and Sir Henry Halford, descended into the royal vault, when the coffin of King Charles, as well as those of King Henry the Eighth and his Queen, were discovered in the spot stated by Herbert, and corroborated by Evelyn. Sir Henry Halford published an interesting account of the circumstances attending this investigation, thus describing the appearance of the remains of the ill-fated King :-“The complexion of the face was dark and discoloured. The forehead and temples had lost little or nothing of their muscular substance: the cartilage of the nose was gone, but the left

eye, in the moment of first exposure, was open and full, though it vanished almost immediately; and the pointed beard, so characteristic of the reign of King Charles, was perfect. The shape of the face was a long oval; many of the teeth remained, and the left ear, in consequence of the interposition of some unctuous matter between it and the cerecloth, was found entire. The hair was thick at the back part of the head, and in appearance nearly black. A portion of it which has since been cleaned and dried, is of a beautiful dark brown colour. That of the beard was a reddish brown; on the back part of the head it was more than an inch in length, and had probably been cut so short for the convenience of the executioner—or perhaps by the piety of friends after death, in order to furnish memorials of the unhappy king. On holding up the head to determine the place of separation from the body, the muscles of the neck had evidently contracted themselves considerably, and the fourth cervical vertebra was found to be cut through its substance transversely, leaving the substance of the divided portions perfectly smooth and even; an appearance which could have been produced only by a heavy blow, inflicted with a very sharp instrument, and which furnished the last proof wanting to identify Charles the First.”

The coffin of Henry the Eighth was discovered, at the same time, to contain nothing but the bones of that prince, with the exception of a small portion of beard on the chin: the other coffins in the vault were not examined.

The cenotaph of the lamented Princess Charlotte of Wales is situated in what is called the Urswick Chapel, from Dr. Christopher Urswick, a favourite ambassador of Henry the Eighth, and who, in conjunction with Sir Reginald Bray, was employed in restoring and beautifying the chapel.

Beaufort Chapel, also called St. Mary's, contains monuments of considerable interest. Henry Marquis of Worcester, who so gallantly defended Ragland Castle in Monmouthshire, against the Parliament, for Charles the First, is interred here. On a door in the north side aisle of this chapel are a lock, a grating, and a circular ornament, with the motto of the order of the Garter, all of worked iron, and well worthy observation. A door leading from the chapel to the cloisters, covered with iron scroll-work, and an iron money-box in the south aisle, are also interesting, as well from their elaborate workmanship as from their antiquity.

The Royal Tomb-house, or Cardinal Wolsey's Chapel, was built by Henry the Seventh as a mausoleum for himself and successors; but afterwards abandoning that intention, he commenced the magnificent structure at Westminster which bears his name. Henry the Eighth granted the building to Cardinal Wolsey, who, at the time of his disgrace, had nearly completed a magnificent cenotaph beneath its roof, consisting of white and black marble, with elaborately-worked ornaments of brass, all which being seized upon by the Parliament, was sold as “old brass” to Colonel Venn, then Governor of Windsor Castle.

James II. fitted up the chapel for the performance of mass, and had the ceilings painted by Verrio: the king receiving openly the nuncio of the Pope, caused a popular commotion, in which these paintings and the chapel were much injured. George III. repaired the exterior, and made a vault beneath the chapel for the reception of himself and his family: George III. and his Queen, George IV., William IV., the Princess Charlotte, the Duke of York, the Duke of Kent, the Princesses Amelia and Augusta, rest here.

The Round Tower, or Keep, forming the principal feature of the Middle ward, is the work of William of Wykeham, but raised an additional

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story and modernised from designs by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, and highly interesting, as well from its antiquity, as its situation, and the historical records connected with it. This imposing structure is built on a lofty artificial mount, surrounded by a deep fosse, or ditch. The ascent to the interior is by a long flight of stone steps, guarded by a cannon planted at the top, and levelled at the entrance. Another flight of steps conducts to the battlements of the Tower, whence is presented to the eye a series of most interesting views. On a clear day no less than twelve counties may be observed from this spot; and when the weather is particularly favourable, the Cathedral of St. Paul's may be plainly distinguished.

This town was in former times the residence of a constable or governor of the Castle, who was also Judge in all matters and pleas occurring within the limits of Windsor Forest, whose circumference was at one time no less than one hundred and twenty miles. The office of constable or governor of Windsor Castle, is now merely nominal. The Round Tower, before the late alteration by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, was lower in elevation than at present, but much more picturesque. What it has lost in the romantic, however, has been gained in commodiousness; the windows having been enlarged and rendered uniform, and the old apartments, once the prisons of kings and nobles, converted into convenient sleeping-rooms.

John King of France, and David King of Scotland, the former the captive of Edward the Black Prince at Poictiers, the latter captured by the army under Queen Philippa at the battle of Neville's Cross, were the first prisoners of note confined in the Keep at Windsor Castle. King James the First of Scotland, who at the age of eleven years, on his way from his father's Court to France, fell into the hands of the English, was detained prisoner here by Henry the Fourth, and from the window of his prison-house discovered, walking in the garden, Lady Jane Beaufort.

“Now was there made, fast by the tower's wall,
A garden faire, and in the corners set

with wandes long and small
Rail'd about; and so with leaves beset
Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet,
That lyf (person) was none, walking there forbye,

That might within scarce any wight espy." The emotions with which her presence inspired the royal captive are beautifully described in James's (the above-quoted) poem “King's Quair.” King James was not only celebrated as a warrior and legislator, but carried with him into the sterner regions of the north all the fertilising arts of southern enjoyment, doing everything in his power to win his countrymen to the gay, the elegant, and gentle arts, which soften and refine the character of a people, and wreathe a grace round the loftiness of a proud and warlike spirit. He wrote many poems: one which is still preserved, called “ Christ's Kirk of the Green,” shows how diligently he made himself acquainted with the rustic sports and pastimes which constitute such a source of kind and social feeling among the Scottish peasantry, and with what simple and happy humour he could enter into their enjoyments. He contributed greatly to improve the national music; and traces of his tender sentiment and elegant taste are said

An arbour green,

to exist in those witching airs still piped among the wild mountains and lonely glens of Scotland.

The chivalrous Earl of Surrey was imprisoned in this tower for the crime, it is said, of eating flesh in Lent; though it has been with reason conjectured that this was merely an excuse for his imprisonment, through the jealous fears of Henry: his passion for the Lady Geraldine has been transmitted to us in one of his sonnets, wherein he laments that his captivity here precludes him from all converse with the object of his love:

So cruel prison, how could betide, alas,
As proud Windsor! where I, in lust and joy,
With a king's son my childish years did pass
In greater feast than Priam's son of Troy;
Where each sweet place returns a place full sour!
The large green courts, where we were wont to bove,
With eyes cast up unto the Maidens' tower,
And easy sighs such as men draw in love;
The stately seats, the ladies bright of hue,
The dances short, long tales of great delight,
With words and looks that tigers could but rue;
When each of us did plead the other's right:
The palm-play, where, despoiled for the game,
With dazed eyes, oft we by gleams of love
Have miss'd the ball, and got sight of our dame,
To bait her eyes that kept the leads above :
The gravel ground, with sleeves tied on the helm,
On foaming horse, with swords and friendly hearts;
With cheer as though one would another whelm;
Where we have fought and chased oft with darts.
The wild forest, the clothed bolts with green,
With reins avaled, and swift of breathed horse,
With cry of hounds, and merry blasts between,
Where we did chase the fearful hart of force.
O place of bliss ! renewer of my woes !
Give me account where is my noble fere,
Whom in thy calls thou dost each night enclose
To other leefe, but unto me most dear.

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Such was the picture of a courtier's and a lover's life of those days; no marvel if such a life, so full of happiness and joy, should have been by the poor prisoner pathetically contrasted with his solitary hours of enforced seclusion.

The romantic love and chivalrous life of this accomplished Earl of Surrey have been the favourite theme of the bards who succeeded him: not only poet in himself, he was the cause of poetry in others.

One cannot help reflecting with a melancholy indignation, not unmixed with contempt for the nation that endured such a tyrant, that the brutal



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