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Henry could, with perfect impunity and without a murmur on the part either of his nobles or his people, consign to the axe of the executioner a man not less illustrious by birth than gifted by nature; gentle and bravea scholar and a soldier—a courtier and a poet.

The excuse for his destruction was that he had committed treason, although the only overt act connecting him with participation in such a crime was the inference of his guilt in having quartered with his own, the royal arms of England. Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, was one of those noblemen distinguished by Richard the Second, by permission to bear the arms of Edward the Confessor, in conjunction with his own proper heraldic achievements. This distinction the Earl of Surrey without doubt inherited, and having obtained the sanction of the herald, assumed the quarterings. He was brought to trial at Guildhall, on the 13th of January, 1547, where he defended himself with great energy and eloquence, rebutting the charges made against him, and disclaiming, with honest indignation, the treasonable inferences attempted to be deduced upon evidence so flimsy, and pretences so transparent to all observers.

Notwithstanding the untenable nature of the charge against him, he was found guilty, with a facility characteristic of those dark and dismal times, when trial by jury was found no impediment to the murderous designs of slavish judges, and a monster on the throne.

From the Middle ward we proceed to the Upper, and entering a small postern gate in that part of the Castle named after Queen Elizabeth, on the east side of Winchester Tower, the visitor finds himself upon the Terrace, where he will close the book, and indulge himself in the contemplation of that magnificent—nay unrivalled prospect, that lies spread before, around, below.

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It is fortunate for us that we have not often dared to indulge in description of natural scenery: here, the attempt would be vain, and as presumptuous as vain. The eye is at once filled to satiety with the extreme beauty of the prospect, and the beholder has no more to do than gaze in bewildered admiration.

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When the tourist has paid sufficient homage to the magnificence of the prospect, he will permit us to direct his attention to the historical associations connected with the classic spot he is now contemplating. The North Terrace was the work of Queen Elizabeth; the East and South Terraces belong to the time of Charles the Second, their whole extent, when finally completed, being nearly two thousand feet in length, and decidedly, taken in connexion with the prospects they overlook, and the noble hill with which they are connected, the most magnificent terrace in the world. This has been the favourite promenade of successive monarchs. Queen Elizabeth is reported to have walked here an hour every day in fine weather. Charles the First, Cromwell, Charles the Second, and James the Second, made it their daily promenade, and engravings are extant representing George the Third in his powdered wig, plain cocked hat, and Windsor uniform, taking the air on this terrace, accompanied by his family. Pepys, in his Diary, bursts out into passionate admiration on contemplating this spot : “But, Lord! the prospect that is in the balcony at the Queen's Lodgings, and the Terrace and Walk, are strange things to consider, being the best in the world, sure.” Evelyn, not less given to swell the praises of the scene, says: “The Terrace towards Eaton, with the Park, meandering Thames, and sweete meadows, yield one of the most delightful prospects in the world."

The Eastern Terrace, open to the public only on special occasions, and separated from the Northern by a railed gateway, where a sentinel is posted, is connected by a flight of steps with the New Garden, a richly-cultivated spot, laid out in a formal manner, and adorned with two vases, the work of Cibber, father of Colley Cibber, which were brought from Hampton Court, together with many statues both of bronze and marble. Under the pentagon terrace which surrounds the garden is an extensive orangery. It has been questioned, whether this exquisite little garden, with its statues, vases, and geometric lines, however appropriate to a palace like Versailles, is in keeping with the sterner magnificence of a Gothic castle. However applicable this remark may be in general, it cannot apply with any force to the present instance, where magnificence both of art and nature so preponderate, that a little prettiness, like this garden, is no more than a mole on the check of beauty, by which the expression is rather heightened than impaired.

Before we enter the state apartments, we may find our advantage in resting awhile upon one of the seats of the North Terrace, and occupying ourselves with recording the leading points of historical interest connected with this, for eight hundred years, the seat of England's monarchs.

We must not omit to acknowledge our obligations, in this part of our subject, to the indefatigable Mr. Lysons, whose account of the history of Windsor anticipates the foundation of the Castle, beginning with Old Windsor.

“Old Windsor, in the hundred of Ripplesmere, lies about two miles southeast of New Windsor. The manor belonged to the Saxon kings, who are supposed to have had a palace at Old Windsor from a very early period. It is certain that King Edward the Confessor sometimes kept his court here; he afterwards gave the manor to the abbot and convent of Westminster. William the Conqueror procured it again from that monastery by exchange, and it appears that, even after the building of Windsor Castle, the palace of Old Windsor was occasionally inhabited by the kings of England, till the year 1110, when King Henry the First, having completed some additional buildings at the Castle, which it is probable was at first intended as a military post, kept his court there for the first time at Whitsuntide; after this it is supposed that Old Windsor soon lost its consequence. The site of the Royal Palace at Windsor is not known.

“When the survey of Domesday was taken, New Windsor, if indeed there was then anything more than the Castle, was neither a parish nor manor. The Castle, which had then been lately built by William the Conqueror, was within the manor and it is probable within the parish of Clewer, of which Windsor was formerly a chapelry: it afterwards became the seat of an extensive manor.

“We are told that William the Conqueror kept his Whitsuntide here in 1071; that a synod was held here in 1072, wherein the province of York was made subject to Canterbury; that William Rufus kept his Whitsuntide, his Christmas, and his Easter here: but it is most probable that all this applies to Old Windsor. Windsor Castle seems to have been intended by William the Conqueror more for a military post, for which by its situation it was well adapted, than for the residence of himself and his successors.

“King Henry the First certainly kept one Christmas at Old Windsor, but having enlarged the Castle with “many fair buildings,' he removed his court to New Windsor. This monarch was married at Windsor to his second queen, Adelaide or Adelicia, daughter of Godfrey, Duke of Louvain, , in 1122; in 1127, he kept his Whitsuntide at Windsor, when David King of Scotland and the English barons swore fealty to the Empress Maude, the king's daughter.

“It does not appear that Windsor Castle sustained any siege in the wars between Stephen and the Empress : but upon the peace, this castle being then esteemed, as to its importance, the second fortress in the kingdom, was committed to the safe custody of Richard de Lucy. King Henry the Second kept his Easter at Windsor in 1170, at which time he entertained William King of Scotland, and his brother David, who came to congratulate him on his return from Brittany.

“When King Richard the First went to the Holy Land, it appears that Hugh Pudsey, bishop of Durham, whom he had appointed one of the governors of the realm during his absence, had the custody of Windsor Castle, which his ambitious colleague William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, the Lord Chancellor, obliged him to surrender, retaining him in prison until he had complied with his demands. Upon the agreement which took place, in 1191, between Earl John and the Lord Chancellor, the king being still in Palestine, Windsor Castle was delivered in trust to the Earl of Arundel. When the news arrived, two years afterwards, of King Richard's imprisonment, John took possession of this castle, which was soon after surrendered to the barons, who were in the king's interest; by a subsequent treaty it was put into the hands of Eleanor, the Queen Dowager.

“King John kept his Christmas at Windsor in 1212; in 1215 he betook himself to this castle as a place of security, the barons being in such power that he did not venture to quit his retreat till after the signature of Magna Charta, which took place on the 15th of June, in that year, at Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, the barons having refused the king's summons to attend him in his own castle; the king remained at Windsor some time afterwards.

“During the wars between King Henry the Third and his barons, Prince Edward garrisoned Windsor Castle with foreigners, who nearly destroyed the town, and did much injury to the country round about : the same year it was given up to the barons, and the king made an order, that Eleanor, wife of Prince Edward, with her daughter and all her household, should without delay retire from the castle. “A great tournament was held in Windsor Park in the sixth year

of the reign of King Edward the First. That monarch, and his successor, King Edward the Second, resided frequently at Windsor, where several of their children were born.

“Their illustrious successor was called Edward of Windsor, from this his native place : in his reign John, king of France, taken at the battle of Poictiers, in 1357, and his son Philip, were prisoners in Windsor Castle, on their

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