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Wilson, Compton, Washington, D. C. Wallace Wright, Iowa State College,
Iowa. Robert R. Nathan, Washington, D. C. John D. Gorwood, Sioux City, Iowa. Prescott C. Crafts, Jr., Washington, J. Adair Hodges, Kansas State College, D. C.
Kansas. C. V. Noble, University of Florida, John Ise, University of Kansas, Kansas. Florida.
L. J. Pritchard, University of Kansas, John T. Holdsworth, University of
Kansas. Miami, Florida.
Robert W. French, Louisiana State UniRobert R. Zimmerman, Tampa, Fla.
versity, Louisiana. Lee Galloway, Lake Wales, Fla.
Alton R. Hodgkins, Tulane University, Kenneth, Sanow, Miami, Fla.
Louisiana. John H. Burchard, Hollywood, Fla.
Elizabeth L. Porter, New Orleans, La. Eric W. Lawson, Atlanta, Ga.
Henry William Spiegel, Duquesne UniLeo Day Woodworth, Atlanta, Ga.
versity, Pittsburgh, Pa. Cyril O'Donnell, De Paul University, Elinor Pancoast, Goucher College, MaryIllinois.
land. Raymond De Roover, Illinois College, Alice J. Reynolds, Goucher College, Illinois.
Maryland. William T. Beadles, Illinois Wesleyan M. C. Gay, University of Maryland, University, Illinois.
College Park, Md. F. H. Gane, Northwestern University, Dudley Dillard, University of Maryland, Illinois.
College Park, Md. Frederick A. Eksblad, Northwestern James C. Dockeray, University of MaryUniversity, Illinois.
land, College Park, Md. A. M. Simons, Evanston, Ill.
Roy A. Prewitt, Mount Rainier, Md. May Wood-Simons, Northwestern Uni- Jacob Horak, Rock Creek Hills, Md. versity, Illinois.
J. Martin Smith, Takoma Park, Md: Fred E. Clark, Northwestern Univer- Elizabeth Paschal, Baltimore, Md. sity, Illinois.
Bert E. O'Beirene, Michigan State ColJ. William Fredrickson, North Park Col
lege, Michigan. lege, Illinois.
E. Daniel Ryden, Emmanuel Missionary Wallace P. Mors, University of Chicago, College, Michigan. Chicago, Ill.
William R. Sherman, Hillsdale College, Jacob L. Mosak, University of Chicago, Michigan. Chicago, Ill.
William Haber, University of Michigan, Simon E. Leland, University of Chicago, Mich. Chicago, Ill.
Robert W. Stevens, University of MichiWilliam H. Spencer, University of Chi
gan, Michigan. cago, Chicago, Ill.
Philip Arnow, Detroit, Mich. Merten J. Mandeville, University of Thomas F. Divine, Marquette UniverIllinois, Illinois.
sity, Wisconsin. H. Fabian Underhill, University of Illi- Robert A. Winters, Bates College, nois, Illinois.
Maine. Dr. Albert kose, University of Illinois. Walter W. Chadbourne, University of Illinois.
Maine, Maine. Peter Masiko, Wright Junior College, Walter C. Liebner, Milwaukee, Wis. Chicago, Ill.
Macdonald Donaldson, Boston UniverJames Reiner, Chicago, Ill.
sity, Massachusetts. George H. Watson, Chicago, Ill.
John Exter, Harvard University, MasHarland H. Allen, Chicago, Ill.
sachusetts. Loren R. Darr, Chicago, Ill.
Randall Hinshaw, Harvard University, H. 0. Walther, Chicago, Ill.
Massachusetts. Ralph H. Oakes, Chicago, Jll.
Wassily Leontief, Harvard University, Hiram L. Jome, De Pauw University, Massachusetts. Indiana.
C. C. Abbott, Harvard University, MasDean Long, Evansville College, Indiana. sachusetts. Clausin D. Hadley, Indiana University, Donald C. Jackson, Massachusetts InIndiana.
stitute of Technology, Massachusetts. Clarence H. Rosenbaum, Evansville, Everett D. Hawkins, Mount Holyoke Ind.
College, Massachusetts. Sam H. Thompson, Jowa State College, Amy Hewes, Mount Holyoke College, Iowa.
Wilfred s. Lake, Northeastern Univer- | Fritz Machlup, University of Buffalo, sity, Massachusetts.
New York. Lawrence Smith, Wellesley College, William J. Shultz, College of the City of Massachusetts.
New York, New York. Lucy W. Killough, Wellesley College, B. M. Stenfield, Columbia University, Massachusetts.
New York. Hermann F. Arendtz, Boston, Mass. Milton Friedman, Columbia University, George P. Auld, Concord, Mass.
New York. Fritz L. Redlich, Boston, Mass.
Benjamin R. Andrews, Columbia UniPaul A. Raushenbush, Madison, Wis. versity, New York. George J. Stigler, University of Minne-Shortliffe J. Melbourne, Colgate Unisota, Minnesota.
versity, New York. Clifford Pruefer, University of Minne- George P. Adams, Jr., Cornell Unisota, Minnesota.
versity, New York. Emerson P. Schmidt, University of Min- Rudolf K. Michels, Hunter College, New nesota, Minnesota.
York. Lawrence G. Hines, University of Min- Nilan Norris, Hunter College, New York. nesota, Minnesota.
Frederic H. Glade, Jr., New York UniClarence L. Barber, University of Min- versity, New York. nesota, Minnesota.
Walter E. Spahr, New York University, H. G. Heneman, Jr., University of Min- New York. nesota, Minnesota.
John W. Wingate, New York University, Helen G. Canoyer, University of Minne- New York. sota, Minnesota.
Abba P. Leiner, New School for Social Charles E. Lindblom, University of Min- Research, New York. nesota, Minnesota.
Edmund W. Foster, DeWitt Clinton George Filipetti, University of Minne- High School, New York. sota, Minnesota.
Hannah S. Colmes, Girls Commercial Joseph Mire, University of Wisconsin, High School, New York. Wisconsin.
Henry C. Hasbrouck, New York, N. Y. Wendell P. Trumbull, University of C. A. Pearce, New York, N. Y. Mississippi, Mississippi.
Alexander Gourvitch, New York, N. Y. George S. Wehrwein, University of Wis- Leland R. Robinson, New York, N. Y. consin, Wisconsin.
R. C. Leffingwell, New York, N. Y. Mabel M. Smythe, Lincoln University, Arthur C. Holden, New York, N. Y. Missouri.
Verl E. Roberts, New York, N. Y. B. T. McGraw, Lincoln University, Mis- Francis S. Doody, New York, N. Y. souri.
Arthur F. Burns, New York, N. Y. Raymond K. Maneval, Camp Crowder, Robert H. Armstrong, New York, N. Y. Mo.
Joseph A. Pechman, Brooklyn, N. Y. Constance L. Raymaker, Ripon College, D. V. Varley, Bronxville, N. Y. Wisconsin.
John D. Blanchard, Groton, N. Y. R. R. Renne, Montana State College, Rupert B. Vance, University of North Montana.
Carolina, North Carolina. Arthur Schweitzer, University of Wyo- Allen T. Bonnell, University of North ming, Wyoming.
Carolina, North Carolina. Bruce Knight, Dartmouth College, New R. H. Van Voorhis, Duke University, Hampshire.
North Carolina. Hilda K. Gilbert, State Teachers Col- Stewart Scrimshaw, Marquette Unilege, Alabama.
versity, Wisconsin. J. Douglas Brown, Princeton University, B. U. Ratchford, Duke University, North New Jersey.
Carolina. Max Gideonse, Rutgers University, New Frank T. de Vyver, Duke University, Jersey.
North Carolina. W. E. Mason, Fort Dix, N. J.
Horace N. Gilbert, Dayton, Ohio. Henry Bund, Trenton, N. J.
Grace S. M. Zorbagh, Ohio State UniM. Bronfenbraum, University of Colo- versity, Ohio. rado, Colorado.
Jay W. Blum, Kenyon College, Ohio. William F. Obering, Catholic Teachers Carl L. Smith, Elyria, Ohio. College, New Mexico.
William H. McPherson, Oberlin College, Richard F. Behrendt, University of New Ohio. Mexico, New Mexico.
A. M. Hillhouse, University of CincinMaurice H. Robinson, Porter Orch., Ct. nati, Ohio. Murray Ross, Brooklyn College, New Leonard P. Ayres, Cleveland, Ohio. York,
Hans Adler, Oberlin College, Ohio. Rose F. Zunder, Brooklyn College, New Harvey A. Wooster, Oberlin College, York.
Francis H. Bird, University of Cincin-Paul Arnolds-Patron, Texas Technical nati, Ohio.
College, Texas. Russell L. Chrysler, University of Cin- A. B. Cox, University of Texas, Austin, cinnati, Ohio.
Tex. Lloyd A. Helms, Bowling Green, Ohio. Frederick C. McLaughlin, Midland, Louis Hough, Miami University, Ohio.
Тех. N. Gilbert Riddle, Ohio State, Ohio.
Ernest W. Gibson, Texas Christian Adolph 0. Berger, Penn College, Ohio.
University, Texas. Gilbert H. Barnes, Delaware, Ohio.
Ruth A. Allen, University of Texas, Clifford L. James, Ohio State, Ohio.
Texas. Ronald E. Gregg, Toledo, Ohio.
J. B. Bearnson, University of Utah, D. R. Cawthorne, Miami University,
Evan B. Murray, Utah State AgriculRoyal S. Van de Woestyne, University
tural College, Utah. of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Thomas A. Beal, University of Utah, James M. Jarrett, Canton, Ohio.
Utah. Robert F. Bryan, Akron, Ohio.
F. Y. Fox, Latter Day Saints College,
Utah. Peter Nelson, Stillwater, Okla. A. L. Larson, Oklahoma Agricultural W. N. Watson, Utah State College,
Utah. and Mechanical College, Oklahoma.
Kenneth V. James, Kansas City, Mo. William A. Schaper, Norman, Okla. Steen C. Lemon, Oklahoma Agricultural | Alison C. Thorne, Utah State Agricul
tural College, Utah. and Mechanical College, Oklahoma.
Kurt R. Petshek, Middlebury College, Victor P. Morris, University of Oregon,
Byron R. Hayden, Arlington, Va.
W. F. Musbach, Arlington, Va. Paul J. Raver, Bonneville, Oreg.
Hilbert D. Corey, William and Mary Clement Akerman, Portland, Oreg.
College,' Virginia. Kurt Woerner, Wynnewood, Pa.
Charles F. Marsh, William and Mary Frank C. Pierson, Swarthmore College,
College, Virginia. Pennsylvania.
William B. Shaffer, Bethany College, Carl Kelsay, University of Pennsylvania, West Virginia. Pennsylvania.
Robert Mossey, University of WashingDonald M. Marrin, Pennsylvania State
ton, Washington. College, Pennsylvania.
Ronald H. Wolf, Seattle, Wash. Alexander Wall, Westtown, Pa.
John A. Guthrie, State College of WashR. H. Scott, University of Pittsburgh,
ington, Washington. Pennsylvania.
John A. Wolfard, Whitman College, Kenneth D. Hutchinson, Pennsylvania
Washington. State College, Pennsylvania.
R. B. Heflebower, State College of L. H. Russell, Paoli, Pa.
Washington, Washington. Paul F. Gemmill, University of Pennsyl- C. D. Jacobs, State College of Washingvania, Pennsylvania.
ton, Washington. George F. Mitch, Pennsylvania State James K. Hall, University of Washing. College, Pennsylvania,
ton, Washington. Francis Tyson, University of Pitts- Bayard 0. Wheeler, University of burgh, Pennsylvania.
Washington, Washington. Alfred C. Weal, Brown University, William A. McConagher, Lawrence Col. Rhode Island.
lege, Wisconsin. Rudolf F Bertram, Knoxville, Tenn. Sol Davison, San Francisco, Calif. W. Ross Jenkins, Memphis, Tenn. C. Daniel Bremer, Washington, D. C. George A. Doerglos, Knoxville, Tenn. J. E. Shafer, Bowling Green State UniR. A. Larrabee, Nashville, Tenn.
versity, Bowling Green, Ohio. George B. Kohnen, San Antonio, Tex. Roy C. Cave, Arlington, Va. W. Nelson Peach, Dallas, Tex.
L. H. Fritzameier, Oak Park-River A. E. Murdoch, Kerrville, Tex.
Forest High School, Oak Park, Ill. Mr. WOODRUFF. The above list of names includes the names of many Government employees who have been on the public payroll for many years.
Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent to place in the record at this point a communication addressed to Senator Henry D. Hatfield, in May 1930, from the America's Wage Earners' Protective Conference, which was printed at that time in the Congressional Record.
The CHAIRMAN. Without objection, it is so ordered.
(The communication above referred to follows:)
New York City, May 10, 1930. Hon. HENRY D. HATFIELD,
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR HATFIELD : Your letter of May 5, enclosing copy of protest of economists and college professors to an upward revision of the tariff act and to which protest you ask my views, received.
The position of the economists and college professors on tariff legislation is generally well known. With few exceptions they are free traders.
They are neither producers nor creators of any commodity or article of trade. They are generally cloistered in the atmosphere of the schoolroom, and their mental wares do not enter into competition with foreign producers where lower wage levels and longer working hours prevail and where standards of living are not only lower but in other respects much inferior to the standards built up in our own country under the American tariff policy.
Briefly, these economists and college professors are consumers, not producers. Their whole philosophy on tariff legislation is one of selfish interests. Production to them is evidently a mere incident in their whole school of economy.
Whether consciously or unconsciously, they freely admit this truth in their class protest, for they frankly state that “professionals” do not profit by any tariff restriction in trade, and if they would but dare follow the logic of their protest to a finality they would have no tariff protection whatsoever for American industries.
In considering this protest no doubt Congress will bear in mind, which these economists and college professors have ignored or ruthlessly brushel aside in their scheme of things, that despite their erroneous philosophy they are beneficiaries of the American tariff policy, as are all producers and consumers. We cannot under any circumstances set aside America's producers and destroy American industries and expect that consumers will have enhanced their interests. After all, the prosperity of all depends first and foremost upon our productive ability, opportunities, and incentives. Secondly, these economists and college professors are beneficiaries of higher standards of living. Payment for their services is based upon American standards, made possible by the American tariff policy. Surely they will not dispute the fact that economists and college professors in foreign countries, of equal ability, receive a much lesser compensation due to a lower standard of living existing in those countries.
America's workers, during the recent national election, were assured by both political parties that the American standards of living and wages would be protected and enhanced. In order that these assurances may be fulfilled effectively, it is essential that proper and adequate tariff duties be levied on the foreign-made products which compete in the American market with the products of America's workers.
An important and ever-increasing dangerous factor has been entirely overlooked or designedly disregarded by these protesting economists and college professors. Prior to the World War many of the foreign nations were almost wholly dependent upon their agricultural activities and products. A number of these countries are now energetically engaged in industrial activities and an increasing number of European nations are emerging into great industrial nationals.
In so doing they have equipped their plants and factories with the most modern machinery. In a number of cases their mechanical equipments are of a more efficient type than can be found in American factories. In addition, many of these factories are not alone supervised by American engineers but are owned by Ameri. can capital.
Indeed these protestors gloat in the fact that American surplus wealth is being expropriated; that it is being used to exploit cheaper labor markets abroad; that it seeks even to use forced labor; and that America must open its doors and submit to the lowering of its standards of work and life in order that international capital may have full reign. It is not surprising that these protestors should join with our international capitalists, industrialists, and traders, or commercialists. Despite this fact America's wage earners place their faith for the protection of America's producers upon an American and not an international congress.
Merely as one of many examples, European photoengraving establishments are soliciting orders for European-made photoengravings in America at a price of 60 percent less than the American cost of production of similar work. The duty is only 25 percent of the foreign value.
Are we to believe in the theory of low costs advanced by these economists and college professors and permit this American industry, as well as many others, to be destroyed? And, if so, who shall profit in America ? To open America's doors to lower costs of European and Asiatic production can only result in greater idleness and unemployment of America's workers or the lowering of America's costs to equal that of European and Asiatic nationals. Is this what these protesting economists and college professors desire?
In the letter of protest you will note the following: "America is now facing the problem of unemployment. Her labor can find work only if her factories can sell their products."
Here, indeed, we find a most gloomy philosophy of despair. America's wage earners are advised that our sole solution against unemployment is to sell the products of America's wage earners abroad. Then, as if in the same breath, we are advised that we cannot sell to the European and Asiatics unless we buy from them to the same amount, and thus by this mystic logic we must lose America's market to foreign nationals to the same degree and to the same extent that we may capture foreign markets. What sort of political economy is this? Is it not better to hold and protect America's market, the richest of all markets, consuming more than 90 percent of all that we produce, for America's wage earners and American industry?
We are not only facing unemployment, we have millions of American workers who are unable to find employment. One of the reasons for this unemployment is the investment of American capital in foreign countries. In this same letter of protest I find the following: “Many of our citizens have invested their money in foreign enterprises. The Department of Commerce has estimated that such investment amounted to between twelve and fourteen billions of American dollars up to January 1, 1929. These investors, too, would suffer if protective duties were to be increased, since such action would make it still more difficult for their foreign creditors to pay them the interest due them."
Here, indeed, is presented the most grievous of all complaints as filed by these protesting economists and college professors. America's investors abroad must be protected in their foreign investments of America's surplus wealth. America's investors abroad must not be made to suffer by increased protective duties, even though the wages of America's wage earners must be decreased, their hours of work lengthened, and their standards of living be lowered. Here, indeed, we have a frank and eloquent appeal for international capital and capitalists, for international industrialists and commercialists, and not a word of sympathy. for America's wage earners. Indeed, these advisers of our international economy would likewise internationalize America's wage earners and their standards of life and work.
Is it any wonder that those who toil, who do the actual work, and upon whom all ultimately depend should have so little confidence in those who acclaim themselves as the leaders in political economy?
It is self-evident that the taking from American industrial promotion of twelve or fourteen billions of American dollars has reduced the purchasing and consuming power of America's workers and prevents the further development of America's industries.
In many cases investments of American capital have been used to promote industries in foreign countries simply because they can dump the products of the foreign countries on the American market and receive from the sale of these products a larger profit than is obtainable through the sale of similar products, produced in their American factories.
Finally, the plea of peace on earth and good will to man is presented against the enactment of any tariff increases. Evidently we have reached that period of life when a bad cause may be most eloquently presented under the cloak of peace.
Certainly America's wage earners are not excelled in their ambition and desire for peace, but not peace at any price; not peace at the loss of employment; not peace at the lessening of wages and increasing of hours of toil; not peace through the lowering of our standards of living; not peace in order that international capitalists, industrialists, and commercialists may internationalize the labor and markets of the world and enthrone thereon a financial and industrial power that will either enslave the masses of the world or enhance a world-wide revolt against an order that our learned economists and college professors would consciously or unconsciously usher in.