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employed in the American chinaware and pottery industry. Also the views of the officers and members of the 20 national and international unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, making up American Wage Earners' Protective Conference, generally known as the tariff group of the American Federation of Labor, comprising a total of approximately 1,000,000 American workers.

We wish first to pay our tribute to and manifest our appreciation of the wisdom and Americanism of this committee which we understand has already unanimously rejected the request that the Congress of the United States delegate in reality to some unnamed commission, board, or person the right to suspend our immigration laws and permit the possible flooding of our country with persons of European and Asiatic countries.

Mr. Chairman, the late revered Samuel Gompers well stated to a congressional committee in 1911 the position of the American Federation of Labor, as follows:

"The advocacy of exclusion, is not prompted by an assumption of superior virtue over our foreign brothers. We disavow for American organized labor the ho ding of any vulgar or unworthy prejudices against the foreigner. We recognize the noble possibilities in the poorest of the children of the earth who come to us from European lands.

"It is not on account of their assumed inferiority that the lines have been drawn by America's workingmen against the indiscriminate admission of aliens to this country. It is simply a case of the self-preservation of the American working classes."

That was the attitude of America's organized workers then, and, at the present time on the question of the indiscriminate entry of aliens into the United States.

Mr. COOPER. You understand that this is not in this bill, do you not?
Mr. DUFFY. Yes, sir; and I so stated.

Mr. COOPER. Do you want to take time to cover something that is not in the bill?

Mr. DUFFY. I would prefer to finish this, if you do not mind.
Mr. COOPER. You may proceed.

Mr. DUFFY. A few years before, speaking on the same subject, the late Samuel Gompers said this, and I quote:

"I do not want you to interpret my remarks as emanating from an advocate of free trade, but it does seem an inconsistency to impose a tax, or a tariff duty, upon the product of the European and Asiatic workmen if this product is brought to the ports of our country, and then to open up the same ports so that the workmen themselves can come here by the million.”

My purpose in stressing that is because American labor sees absolutely no difference between allowing that foreign element to indiscriminately come to our shores, to come into competition with our workingmen for their jobs and allowing the importation of those foreign products which come in competition with goods produced by the same people here who are paid wages they have to be satisfied with.

In substance Gompers very properly demonstrated that it is inconsistent to restrict the immigrant from entry to our country while at the same time to permit the product of the immigrant to enter our country by the payment of a small and inadequate tax or tariff duty.

We, the organized workers, realize full well the inconsistency and the inadequacy of the tariff rates now in force. As Gompers so well stated in 1911, labor's position today is the same on both the subject of indiscriminate entry of persons or property, and for the reason so well stated by Gompers, which I repeat, I quote, “It is simply a case of self-preservation of the American working classes."

Incidentally, the position of the American Federation of Labor on the question of alien immigration and on the entry of competitive products of the workers in foreign countries is identical.

In June 1940 President Green and members of the executive council of the American Federation of Labor publicly appeared before the platform committees of both major political parties and set forth the request of labor on the question of immigration, and, on the question of the entry of competitive products of foreign workers. I quote from the printed platform requests of the American Federation of Labor.

"IMMIGRATION “In order to protect the welfare and the standards of living of the American workers, organized labor has favored from the beginning a restricted and controlled national immigration policy. Upheavals brought about by war conditions

abroad demand the exercise of unremitting vigilance in the enforcement of these controls. We urge the adoption of a declaration in favor of the continuation of the Nation's restricted immigration policy and the progressive application of the Nation's restricted immigration policy and the progressive application of these principles as dictated by changing conditions.”

Following, on the same page, we find that the American Federation of Labor, referring to the entry into American markets of competitive products of workers in foreign countries, requested, I quote:

"PROTECTION OF WAGE AND WORKING STANDARDS "To protect and safeguard the employment opportunities of America's wage earners against unfair competition of the products of workers of low wage and depressed standards and conditions of employment of foreign countries, and, with which we are bound to be faced at the end of the present European and Asiatic wars, and, in order to hold secure the advanced industrial relations and employment standards secured by America's workers through legislative enactments and collective agreements against competition from products of workers in countries of lower standards, it is essential that adequate and proper legislation be had to obtain these ends. We urge the adoption of this policy and procedure."

You will note that this matter of restricting the entry of the competitive products of workers in foreign countries is virtually the same position as labor nas taken on the question of restricted immigration, namely, the position stated by Gompers, “the self-preservation of the American working classes.”

The language herein used forcibly indicates that the American Federation of Labor is mindful of the conditions which America's workers, dependent for their employment opportunities on the production of those articles which compete in American markets with the products of workers in foreign countries, will be faced with the conclusion of the World War.

If we are to safeguard the employment opportunities of America's industrial workers; if we are to provide productive jobs instead of doies for our millions of returned soldiers, sailors, marines, and merchantmen who are now and will continue to be offering their lives that we may continue to retain the freedoms handed down to us by our forefathers; if we are to provide productive jobs for the many thousands now sacrificing their health to provide war munitions, airplanes, ships, etc., for our armed forces, it is essential that we must have tariff legislation which will protect and provide job opportunities by restricting the entry into American markets of competitive foreign-made articles so that at least the land costs, duties paid, of such foreign made articles or goods will be not less than our costs of production of comparable competitive articles or goods.

Your committee having wisely decided to reject the request for the suspension of our immigration laws, to be consistent, we respectfully urge that your committee likewise reject the request before you for authorization to suspend the tariff laws.

With reference to the delegation, in reality, of the authority vested in the Congress to some unknown commission, board or person we believe that if we are to retain the political rights and liberties handed down to us by our forefathers that the Congress has already delegated too many of its responsibilities and obligations vested in it by our laws and traditions.

We realize that we must and that we will win the war. We are prepared to make any necessary sacrifices to insure our winning of the war. We will gladly make any necessary sacrifice to insure that our boys on the battle front and those behind the lines of battle are provided with all that is necessary to insure our winuing of the war.

However, we believe there is neither need or justification of the elected representatives of the people divesting themselves of the obligations and responsibilities they accepted when they sought and won the approval of the electorate to represent the American people in the Congress of the United States.

We do not look for supermen in the Congress of the United States. We do believe that the Congress is composed of able and intelligent men and women. We further believe that the Congress is well equipped to perform many of the responsibilities which, during the past years, they have delegated to others.

With reference to the chinaware and pottery industry let me say first that a none-too-friendly and exhaustive investigation of this industry was made a few years ago hy the United States Tariff Commission. That investigation disclosed that competitive imports supplied 40 percent of the American markets;

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that more than 85 percent of these imports were produced in the homes of Japanese workers, where the father, mother, and children did the producing; that the landed costs, all duties paid, of Japanese articles in American markets had been much below the domestic-American-costs of production; that the net profits of the American industry, without any allowances for depreciation, obsolescence or reserves, were 61 percent for 1 year and some 8 percent for the second year of the period investigated. Also, that the Japanese cartel fixed the prices of all articles shipped to the United States and raised the prices when it was necessary to avoid action of the United States in restricting imports.

Despite these findings and with no war in sight we received neither consideration nor help from the agents of the Congress, namely the United States Tarifi Commission.

It is our belief that on a similar finding by your committee the Congress of the United States would have enacted legislation which would have protected our job opportunities and permitted American workers, dependent for their employment in the pottery and chinaware industry, an opportunity to secure higher wages.

Our industry has eliminated strife and substituted collective bargaining for the past 50 or more years. Our relations with our employers are friendly, but, our workers, as all other Americans, seek to better their economic conditions, and, thus, better provide for their families, when the same is possible.

In order to provide for our families first we must have jobs.

We know from bitter experience that without proper and adequate tariff protection we cannot retain our jobs with decent wage scales and our employers able to market the products of our labor in American markets in competition with the products of the workers with lower labor costs which prevail in foreign countries, either European or Asiatic.

We present this appeal on the same basis as was so ably stated by the late Samuel Gompers, and, substantially renewed by the American Federation of Labor, in 1940, I quote: "It is simply a case of the self-preservation of the American working classes."

In closing, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the Ways and Means Committee, we respectfully urge that your committee be consistent, and, as you have very wisely voted to reject the authority sought to suspend our immigration laws, likewise we urge that you reject the authorization requested to suspend our tariff laws.

I thank you.
Mr. COOPER. Does that complete your statement?
Mr. DUFFY. Yes, sir.

Mr. COOPER. Mr. Duffy, do you think the importation of any pottery is veces sary for our war effort?

Mr. DUFFY. I do not think that it is necessary for the war effort.

Mr. COOPER. I do not think so, either, and I do not think your workers need to be disturbed about this bill.

Mr. JENKINS. Mr. Duffy, I notice from the calendar here that you come from East Liverpool, Ohio.

Mr. DUFFY. That is right.

Mr. JENKINS. I am sorry I did not hear your introduction. I think you come from a section that manufactures probably the largest amount of pottery manufactured anywhere on the American Continent.

Mr. DUFFY. It is the largest.

Mr. JENKINS. It is the largest industry, and your unit extends across into Wellsburg, W. Va., and into East Palestine, Ohio; that is your whole territory?

Mr. DUFFY. We extend all over the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast.

Mr. JENKINS. Your organization is all over the country?
Mr. DUFFY. That is right.

Mr. JENKINS. I understand your position is this: You maintain and hare maintained for years—your organization has—that you need the protection of restricted immigration to protect your workmen?

Mr. DUFFY. Absolutely.

Mr. JENKINS. And you need the protection of the tariff to protect your workmen ?

Mr. DUFFY. Equally so.

Mr. JENKINS. And you recognize you got the protection from immigration and the protection that comes through the tariff by reason of legislation from the Congress?

Mr. DUFFY. Yes.

Mr. JENKINS. And you maintain, if the law is to be changed, that you want the Congress to change it?

Mr. DUFFY. Absolutely.

Mr. JENKINS. That is all. I think you have made a very intelligent and forceful statement.

Mr. COOPER. We thank you for your appearance and the information you have given the committee.

Mr. JENKINS. I further wish to have inserted in the record telegrams which I have received from James M. Duffy, president of the National Brotherhood of Operative Potters, East Liverpool, Ohio, and Harry H. Cook, American Flint Glass Workers Union, Toledo, Ohio. (The telegrams above referred to are as follows:)

TOLEDO, Ohio, April 22, 1943. Hon. THOMAS JENKINS,

Ways and Means Committee, House of Representatives. The American Flint Glass Workers' Union supports the American policy and position of the American Federation of Labor in opposition to the landing in American markets of foreign competitive goods at less than American cost of production. The American Flint Glass Workers' Union is unalterably opposed to continued authorization for trade treaties unless said authorization provides for Congressional approval or Senate ratification that such trade treaties be terminated at the conclusion of the present war or that no provision be made for the entry into American markets of foreign-made competitive goods at less than American cost of production. The position of the American Federation of Labor presented to the platform committee of both political parties has not been changed by any authorized action. We are forwarding to you a copy of the position of the American Federation of Labor on restrictive immigration and on tariff legislation. We would appreciate your placing our position before the Ways and Means Committee.

HARRY H. Cook, President, American Flint Glass Workers' Union.

East LIVERPOOL, Ohio, April 22, 1943. Congressman Thomas A. JENKINS.

The American Federation of Labor has not changed its position as set forth by President Green and members of the executive council, when they appeared before platform committees of both major political parties in June 1940 and urged proper safeguards to the employment opportunities of America's wage earners against unfair competition of the products of low-wage workers and depressed standards of foreign countries.

No one has been authorized to repudiate the 1940 stand of the American Federation of Labor that so vitally concerns so many of its members.

James M. DUFFY, President, National Brotherhood of Operative Potters. We will recess until 2 o'clock.

(Whereupon, at 1 p. m., the committee recessed until 2 p. m. of the same day.)

AFTER RECESS The hearing was resumed at 2 p. m., upon the conclusion of the recess, Hon. Robert L. Doughton (chairman) presiding.

Mr. COOPER. The committee will please be in order. The chairman is detained for a moment or two and has asked me to open the hearing. The next witness on the calendar is Mr. E. L. Caswell. Is Mr. Caswell here?

Mr. CASWELL. Yes, sir.
Mr. COOPER. Come forward, please.

Mr. Caswell, will you please give your name, address, and the capacity in which you appear to the reporter?

STATEMENT OF E. L. CASWELL, PRESIDENT, OVERSEAS

AUTOMOTIVE CLUB, INC., NEW YORK, N. Y. Mr. CASWELL. My name is E. L. Caswell, president, Overseas Automotive Club, Inc., New York.

Mr. COOPER. `About how much time will you require for your main statement, please, sir?

Mr. CASWELL. My main statement I would say would take about 5 minutes.

Mr. COOPER. Do you prefer to complete that without interruption?
Mr. CASWELL. Yes, sir; if I may.
Mr. COOPER. You are recognized for 5 minutes without interruption.

Mr. CASWELL. The Overseas Automotive Club, by unanimous vote of the board of directors, at New York, on January 21, 1943, wishes to go on record as standing squarely behind the reciprocal-trade-agreement program and asks, without reservation, that the enabling act be extended by the present session of Congress, without hampering amenament or damaging change.

This organization, comprising 148 members in 18 States directly concerned with the international distribution of the products of 867 inanufacturers, makes these requests because of its wide experience in the export trade and because of its knowledge of the great benefits that have accrued from the policies of liberal trade across our borders.

Specifically, reductions of trade barriers, through the negotiation of mutually beneficial commercial pacts, have materially increased employment in the factories represented by its members. These products, automotive service, and maintenance parts, are normally distributed in peacetime to many scores of countries throughout the Western Hemisphere—such as Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania—and it cannot be questioned but that the numerous agreements negotiated under this authority materially increased the totals of such sales, adding to the stability and widened employment of American labor.

Having such experience of past improvements and knowing that eventual victory in the coming peace will be through wise, statesmanlike conduct of international business, this organization believes in the principle of the most-favored-nation treatment embodied in the program and in the negotiation of commercial agreements. The tradeagreement program has been highly successful in the past, in the face of growing world disorder. That it would be even more successful in the future, with the return of peace, seems certain.

The Overseas Automotive Club therefore unequivocally upholds the Trade Agreement Act and asks that it be renewed as a nonpartisan measure, necessary both now, during war, and for the negotiation of

That is signed “Overseas Automotive Club, Inc."
Mr. COOPER. Does that complete your statement ?
Mr. CASWELL. Yes, sir.

Mr. COOPER. Are there any questions? If not, we thank you for your appearance and the information given the committee.

The next witness on the calendar is Dr. T. W. Schultz. Doctor, will you please give your name and address and capacity in which you appear to the reporter and, if you have prepared copies of your statement, the clerk will distribute them.

the peace.

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