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Cheddar cheese.--Customarily representing more than three-fourths of total domestic output, Cheddar is by far the leading type of cheese produced in the United States. The duty on imports was reduced in the first Canadian agreement and further reduced in the second agreement. Imports, coming almost entirely from Canada, have been irregular recently, but in no year have they exceeded 2.2 percent of domestic production. In 1936 imports amo'inted to 10,800,000 pounds and were substantially larger than in preceding years. The increase resulted partly from the lower rate of duty in effect beginning January 1, 1936, partly from the relatively high United States price of Cheddar compared with the Cansdian during the summer of 1936, and in part from the increased demand in the United States for certain grades of Cheddar suitable for processing. Canadian Cheddar in general has a lower moisture content than the domestic, which makes it desirable for processing.

Imports of Cheddar cheese declined sharply in 1937 and 1938, but they rose again in 1939 to 6,400,000 pounds. Domestic output totaled 522,000,000 pounds, the second largest on record. (See table 5.) The increase in imports in 1939 occurred almost entirely in September and October and was accounted for largely by purchases of a single company, one of the largest domestic buyers of Cheddar. The larger imports from Canada at this time reflected a number of developments in the trade in 1939. First, the price of domestic Cheddar rose materially in the fall, the result partly of a slight decline in domestic output, and partly the speculative effects of the outbreak of the European war. Second, for the purpose of encouraging the production of high-quality cheese, the Canadian Government on June 1 instituted a subsidy program for Cheddar. Because of the subsidy, importers brought in substantial quantities of cheese in anticipation of the imposition of countervailing duties, which finally became effective March 24, 1940 (T. D. 50093). Canadian Cheddar is eligible for a Government bounty amounting to 1 cent per pound if the cheese scores 93 points and 2 cents if it scores 94 or more points. Countervailing duties equal to the amount of the subsidies paid are imposed by the United States on imports from Canada of the respective grades.

Swiss and Gruyere process cheese. The concessions in the cheese group affecting the largest imports were those applying to Swiss (or Emmenthaler type) and Gruyere process cheese. The ad valorem minimum duty on imports was reduced in the Swiss agreement and the specific rate was later reduced in the Finnish agreement. Most of the imports of Swiss cheese, coming largely from Switzerland, sell at prices substantially higher than that of Swiss cheese imported from other countries as well as that of domestic Swiss. The price difference between the imported and domestic has increased in the last decade, and the share of domestic consumption accounted for by imports has declined from more than one-half to less than one-fifth of the total in the last decade. In both 1937 and 1938 imports of Swiss cheese totaled about 10,000,000 pounds and were equal to a little less than one-fourth of domestic output of that type. (See table 5.)

Imports of Gruyere process (a processed Swiss cheese) were valued at $934,000 in 1939. No statistics are available on the domesic output of processed Swiss cheese which is known to be large.

Roquefort and blue-mold cheese. — Roquefort cheese is made from sheep's milk and is imported exclusively from France. It differs from other blue-mold cheese which is made from cows' milk and comes chiefly from Denmark and Italy. There is no known domestic commercial production of Roquefort, and the output of blue-mold cheese is negligible. Imports of Roquefort were valued at $279,000 in 1939, and imports of blue-mold cheese totaled $566,000. The duties on both were reduced in the agreement with France.

Edam and Gouda cheese.-Imports of Edam and Gouda cheese, the duty on which was reduced in the Netherlands agreement, were valued at $371,000 in 1939 and came almost exclusively from the Netherlands. There is no known domestic production of these types of cheese; although apparently similar to Cheddar cheese, they differ in texture and have a characteristic salty flavor.

Other types.--No concessions have been made on other imports of cheese, with the exception of Bryndza cheese, which was a concession item only while the tariff concessions in the agreement with Czechoslovakia were in effect. Italiantype cheese is predominant in imports of the remaining types of cheese, and in recent years imports of that type have averaged approximately 25,000,000 pounds. They have been several times larger than imports of any other type and have accounted for more than two-fifths of all cheese imports. Imports of Italiantype cheese are substantially larger than domestic output of that type which is small compared with total cheese production. The imported and domestic varieties are similar, but not strictly comparable.

TABLE 5.Cheese: Comparison of the domestic output and imports of the principal

types

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1 Preliminary.
? Estimated.
3 Not available.

Statistics are not strictly comparable throughout the period shown, due to changes in classification. • Not including cottage, pot, and bakers' cheese.

Source: Production-Agricultural Statistics, U. S. Department of Agriculture; imports-from official statistics of the U. S. Department of Commerce.

Other dairy products.

Concessions on imports of dairy products other than cheese have been unimportant. In the first trade agreement with Canada the duty on cream was reduced and the concession applied to a quota of 1,500,000 gallons of imports. The domestic production of cream for use as such is more than 1,000,000,000 gallons annually. In the second agreement the rate was reduced further, and no change was made in the quota. Actual imports of cream have been much less than the quota; they amounted to 1,031 gallons valued at $1,761 in 1939. They usually enter in the summer and fall in the deficit area of Boston and New York City.

Imports of the other concession items listed in table 3 have been practically nil compared with domestic output.

EXPORTS AND EXPORT CONCESSIONS Exports are comprised mainly of condensed and evaporated milk (37 percent of the total value in 1938); dried milk (29 percent); and infants' food, malted milk, etc. (19 percent). The principal markets for these and other dairy products are the Philippine Islands, Venezuela, Cuba, and a number of other countries in Latin America, as is shown in table 6.

Tariff concessions (including bindings of existing duties) on dairy products have been obtained in trade agreements with 11 countries, 3 of these are leading foreign markets for dairy products. Venezuela, by far the largest foreign market, granted concenssions (bindings) affecting all but a small part of the United States exports to that country. Eight other Latin-American countries granted concessions on about four-fifths of the United States exports to these countries.

TABLE 6.-Dairy products: Principal markets for United States exports (domestic

merchandise), by items, 1938 (preliminary)

(NOTE.-Italic figures indicate that the specified country granted the United States a concession (duty reduction or binhing) on all or a part of the indicated class of exports.)

(Value in 1,000 dollars)

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Trade-agreement countries:

United Kingdom.
France
Canada.
Newfoundland and Lab-

rador.
Costa Rica
Guatemala.
Honduras.
Bermuda
Jamaica.
Other British West In-

dies.
Cuba.
Netherlands West Indies
Haiti.
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Venezuela
Ceylon
Netherland Indies.
Hong Kong
All other countries.

Total........
Non-trade-agreement coun-
tries:

Philippine Islands.
Panama, Republic of.
Panama Canal Zone.
Mexico.
Peru
China.
Siam.
Union of South Africa.
All other countries.

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20

1
28

3 13 26

S 23 130

6 657

1 6 10 36

24 10
83
25
8 43
1 23
98 259

3
374 1. 107
13 13
1
7
32

2 (1)

4

64 534 129 43 30 291

10 1, 151

14 83 79 85

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44

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12

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25

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76 48

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1 Less than $500.

Source: Compiled by the U. 8. Tariti Commission from official statistics of the U. S. Department of Commerce.

! A complete list of the concessions obtained by the United States from foreign countries is shown in table 7, together with the United States exports to these countries of the productd affected. The value of the exports for which concessions have been obtained was approximately $1,700,000 in 1938 and represented about one-third of the exports of dairy products to all foreign countries; that is, excluding the Philippine Islands.

The principal concessions obtained have applied to dried milk; more than half of the exports of dried milk to foreign countries in 1938 were to countries that have granted the United States concessions on this item. Concessions were obtained on roughly two-fifths of the export of infants' food, malted milk, etc. Less than a fifth of the exports to foreign counteries of condensed and evaporated milk, the principal export group, has been affected by the numerous concessions received on these items.

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Table 7.--Dairy products: Concessions obtained from foreign countries for United States export commodities

Thous. of Thous. of
Fresh and sterilized milk and cream:

dol.

dol. Milk, unsweetened.

Bahamas, Jan. 1, 1939
20 percent general rate (10 percent Same (margin of Brit. pref. bound). 10

15
Brit. pref.).
Cream, fresh

Bermuda, Jan. 1, 1939.
74d per quart general rate (1420 Same (margin of Brit. pref. bound). 14

13
per quart Brit. pref.).
Pure milk and cream

Colombia, Jan. 1, 1939.
0.15 peso per gross kilo.
Bound.

( Milk and cream sterilized. Newfoundland, Jan. 1, 1939 244 cents per pound.

Same (bound against imposition

of Brit. pref.). Total fresh and sterilized milk and cream

24

28
Condensed and evaporated milk and cream:
Evaporated and condensed

Venezuela, Dec. 16, 1939.
0.50 bolivar per gross kilo.
Bound

72 Milk and cream, condensed. Newfoundland, Jan. 1, 1939. 24 cents per pound...

Same (bound against imposition 33

of Brit. pref.). Condensed milk, not less than 8 percent | Costa Rica, Aug. 2, 1937

0.30 colon per gross kilo

Bound..
cream and 25 percent solids.

56

41
Evaporated milk, not less than 7.8 percent .do.

Bound

0.30 colon per gross kilo
cream and 25 percent solids.
Milk, condensed or evaporated

Colombia, May 20, 1936.
0.15 peso per gross kilo
Bound

29

37
Condensed milk.

Honduras, Mar. 2, 1936.
0.30 lempira per gross kilo.
0.20 lempira per gross kilo.

28

22 Evaporated milk

do

0.30 lempira per gross kilo. 0.15 lempira per gross kilo. Evaporated or condensed milk.

Haiti, June 3, 1935. 0.30 gourde per net kilo or 20 percent 10 percent ad valorem..

14

17
ad valorem.
Evaporated or condensed milk and cream Guatemala, June 15, 1936.

0.15 quetzal per gross kilo.
Bound.

9

13
Evaporated and condensed milk.

Ecuador, Oct. 23, 1938
0.45 sucre per legal kilo.
Bound

1

3
Malaya, Jan. 1, 1939: Federated ||$4 per 100 pounds ($4 per 100 Same (margin of Brit. pref.
Evaporated milk

bound).

41
Malay States, Johore, Kedah, 1 $5 per 100 pounds ($4 per 100
Kelantan, Trengganu, Perlis.

(5 (3)
Same (margin of Brit. pref.
pounds Brit. pref.).

bound). Milk condensed (full cream)

Northern Rhodesia, Jan. 1, 1939. 55 2d per 100 pounds (is per 100 58 2d per 100 pounds (6d per 100

pounds Brit. pref.).

pounds Brit. pref.).
Milk condensed.

Sierra Leone, Jan. 1, 1939. 4s per 36 pounds (4s per 36 pounds 48 per 36 pounds (2s per 36 pounds

Brit. pref.).

Brit. pref.).
Milk condensed, containing sugar

France, June 15, 1936.
Various.
Rates reduced through operation

3 (*)

of M. F. N. provision. Total condensed and evaporated milk and

200

221 cream.

See footnotes at end of table.

TABLE 7.Dairy products: Concessions obtained from foreign countries for United States export commodities—Continued

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Dried, whole and skimmed milk:
Dried skimmed and whole milk.

Venezuela, Dec. 16, 1939.
Milk in powder

Colombia, May 20, 1936.
Milk in powder, tablets or other state. Brazil, Jan. 1, 1936-
Powdered milk

Haiti, June 3, 1935
Dried skimmed milk.

Honduras, Mar. 2, 1936.
Dried whole milk.

do.
Dried, powdered milk and cream without June 15, 1936.

admixture of other substances.
Dried skimmed milk.

Costa Rica, Aug. 2, 1937
Dried whole milk

do.
Powdered milk.

Ecuador, Oct. 23, 1938.
Milk and cream, preserved, and milk powders Newfoundland, Jan. 1, 1939

Thous. of Thous. of dol. dol.

661 1, 345
132

211
23

31
3

4
20

21
22

26

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Milk powder imported by manufacturers of
oleomargarine.

Total dried milk
Butter:

Butter

ers.

Cheese:

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