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in the permanent, and but 116 of the 976 pupils, free from decayed teeth. The cleaning of the mouths of the school children was followed by a subsidence of the epidemic and a notable improvement in efficiency and general health. Work for teeth free to pupils too poor to make payment.
Boston. The Forsyth dental infirmary for children. Washington, The Inter
national congress for hygiene and demography, September 1912. [Boston, Massachusetts, The Wood, Clarke press) n. p. illus. tables. plans. 8o.
Founded by John Hamilton Forsyth and Thomas Alexander Forsyth, in memory of their brothers. Incorporated, 1910, by a special act of legislature; it "represents the first attempt on adequate scale to satisfy the requirements” [of the acute dental needs of children). “It will offer opportunity to all deserving children under the age of 16 to obtain freely expert advice and care for their mouths. ... Its functions will include not only care of the teeth, but also related oral conditions, including defective palates, adenoids, etc. . . . It will bave to do in great part with the prevention of defects by oral prophylaxis. . . . It is expected to furnish valuable practical teaching in oral hygiene. . A research
fellowship has been established.” Brookline. School committee. (Work done in dental hygiene during the year 1910] In its Report for the year ending December 31, 1910. p. 32–34.
Pupils of primary and grammar schools, Brookline, Mass. An increase of 12 per cent in the number of mouths rated in good condition, and a decrease in number of mouths rated in poor condition, of 30
per cent as compared with the first examination held January 28, 1907 (Dr. W. M. Potter). KEYES, Frederick A. Institutional dentistry. Methods. Results. Boston medical and surgical journal, 167: 118–20, July 25, 1912. tables.
Dr. Keyes was requested by the Mother Superior of St. Vincent's orphan asylum, Boston, in November, 1910, to establish a dental infirmary for the care of the children's teeth. Two children were installed as assistants, a great aid in inspiring confidence in the children needing treatment. Monthly lectures were given to the upper grade children, in the schoolroom, and they were required to write compositions after lectures, as aid to the hygienic teachings. Morning and evening tooth drill was Instituted, prize given to child with cleanest mouth at end of month, separate brushes and tooth powder placed in cabinet containing 250 compartments. These were inspected monthly. Every three months the children were lined up and inspected by the dentist, a separate mouth stick being used for each child-just taking two hours to inspect the children in this manner. The following statistical table shows the "relation of oral prophylaxis to infectious diseases:
Record of infectious diseases in St. Vincent's Asylum.
"In the year 1905-6 the home was in quarantine for over three months-an epidemio of scarlet lever of over 75 cases.
"A comparison ... will show that in six months after work was begun , .. the ratio of infectious diseases was reduced 59 per cent; and that in the subsequent year this ratio was reduced to approximately 2 per cent. . .
“Is this absoluto elimination of disease for a period of twelve months a coincidenco? It may be so. ... But certainly no such condition ever existed in St. Vincent's asylum prior to the installation of a dental infirmary."
BUNTING, Russell W. Report of the examination of the mouths of 1,500 school
children in the public schools of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Dental cosmos, 51: 310-22, March 1909. tables.
A report of examination made in 1906, 1907, for the compilation of various dental statistics in connection with anthropological measurements made upon the same children by Dr. Robert Bean. Examinations were made of 1,525 children, from 5 to 17 years of age. Two kinds of records were taken, a dental chart and an anthropological chart.
“From the data thus collected we endeavored to ascertain whether or not there were any correlations between the child's physical or mental development and the time of eruption of the teeth or the amount of dental caries present; also whether the caries and tho tooth eruption were influenced by the type of the individual."
The distribution in the mouth of the 2,068 carious teeth noted (negroes omitted) is shown, there being in the lower jaw 1,167 cases of caries as against 901 in the upper jaw; "in the lower right first molar, 10 per cent of the number erupted at 6 years of age were found to be carious. The percentages steadily increase ... until in the sixteenth year there are in the upper jaw from 35 to 40 per cent of carious first molars ... more than one in every threo examined, and in the lower jaw the same tooth at that age has 70 per cent affected, or two out of every three examined. ...
“The upper incisors show a steady increase in their percentage of caries from the eleventh to the sixteenth year, and at the latter age the centrals have the very high percentage of 35, while the laterals show about half that number. The lower incisors exhibit but little caries at any of the ages examined.
“In the bicuspids there appears to be decided advance in the number decayed between the fifteenth and the sixteenth year, and the upper bicuspids at all ages exhibit about twice as many cases of caries as are found in the same teeth in the lower jaw.
“The canine is seldom decayed in either upper or lower jaw, but the second molar at the age of 16 has between 20 and 30 per cent of the total number affected by caries."
A special study of the 60 negro children of Ann Arbor, and the 112 negro children and 61 white children of Detroit, was made. In the whites, 9.2 per cent of the teeth erupted were decayed; in the negroes, 6.2 per cent.
Percentage of caries in the various types.
Other tables are: Stature weight in relation to eruption: Boys, girls. Stature weight in relation to caries: Boys, girls. Brain weight in relation to eruption: Boys, girls. Brain weight in relation to caries: Boys, girls.
Teeth of girls erupt earlier than boys. In both sexes, individuals large for their age have more teeth present than the undersized or normal. The increase in the caries of the large children over that of the small is so marked, that it is probable there is some cause other than the presence of more teeth.
A great many children with large heads, who were said to be very advanced mentally, were found upon examination, often with mouths full of caries and irregularities. There were 142 cases of malocclusion; 18 cases of very badly developed teeth, and between 30 and 40 cases showing pits or grooves in the incisors and bicuspids.
BARLOW, Peter C. Free dental clinic for children in the city of New York.
Out of 266,426 children examined during 1910, in the public schools, 94,630 were found to have defective temporary teeth, while 69,620 had more or less serious defects of the permanent teeth. Over 20,000
cases have been treated. FAIRCHILD, Beatrice C. The origin, history and progress of some of the dental clinics in New York City. Items of interest, 32:524–29, July 1910.
Prominent dental clinics are the St. Bartholomew's, Children's aid society, Industrial school, and Sullivan street school. At 449 East One hundred and twenty-first street, January 15, 1910, was inaugurated the first free dental clinic for public school children in the city of New York. Up to the present time the work is confined to public schools Nos. 39, 159, and 78.
KNOPF, Siegmund Adolphus. Dental hygiene for the pupils of public schools. New York medical journal, 96: 617-21, September 28, 1912. tables.
A report on the facilities offered by New York public dispensaries for the dental care of school children. Letter sent to superintendents of the 34 important general and special dispensaries, asked four questions as follows:
“1. Does your dispensary have a dental department?
“2. If so, how many dental surgeons are in attendance, and for how many hours a week and at what time are they engaged in giving their services?
“3. Do the patients have to pay for the material for filling teeth, etc., or is it given gratuitously?
"4. If there is no dental service attached to your dispensary, would you be willing to establish one and arrange special hours for school children so that the time for visiting the dispensary may not conflict with school hours?"
The 33 answers appear in full in the report, of which the following is a summary:
6 Are willing to increase or change hours.
2 Are unwilling or unable to change hours.
15 18 8 9 2 5
To the report comprising sixteen dispensaries independent or attached to hospitals, we must add that there exist three dental clinics maintained by the Children's aid society, kept fully employed with the care of the teeth of the children attending the society's schools. There is also one free dental
clinic, being the health department's institution. Rochester. Board of education. (Dental clinic established in the school building
no. 14, by the Rochester dental association) In its Report, 1908–1910, p. 21,
In operation since February 23, 1910; probably the only school dental clinic in the world, in a school building. For the benefit of children of parents unable to pay for dental work. Permission granted to the society to open a second dispensary at school No. 26.
Cleveland. Board of education. [Report of the oral hygiene experiment made in the Marion school) In its Official proceedings, February 27, 1911. p. 44–59.
See also p. 42-43.
“With 97 per cent of the public school children in need of care and treatment, and with the worst oral conditions showing an improvement of from 371 to 50 per cent in working efficiency, would it not be conservative to consider that with all ... the mouths in good Arst class condition that there might be an average increase of at least 10 per cent in working efficiency for all the children in the schools? ..
“The records of 1909 and 1910 show a registration of practically 65,000 pupils in the elementary schools and ... we would show an expenditure of $170,625 a year to educate children handicapped by faulty oral conditions; but, in making the above estimate, our committees placed their percentage at a figure which they are positive is less than half of what actual tests would show. And, if we double the above amount we find that we are spending $341,250 per year to overcome the handicap of faulty oral conditions."
See also: Tabulations of the effect of dental care on the mental powers of the dental class, in Marion
Abstract of a lecture.
"In the public school, our educational system proposes, first, to make a cursory examination of each child, sending into the home a record of that examination, and bringing the parent or guardian a knowledge of a faulty oral condition. ...
“The second step ... is to put into the schools, when the examiner bas finished and the parents and pupils are prepared for them, a system of lectures which explains the purpose, use, care and and treatment of the mouth.
“Third ... is the establishment of the dental clinic ... to make possible the securing of data which will show the value of the healthy oral conditions as related to the working efficiency of the child from the economic side of the question ... from the school reports of the pupils, preceding and followtag treatment.”
In the Cleveland, Ohio, Marion school, an experimental class was formed, of 40 boys and girls selected es having the worst oral conditions of all the pupils. Their school records for the six months preceding the test were taken, two psychological tests made before we began our work; the children furnished with toothbrush and powder and a dental nurse placed over them. Test meals given, the teeth all treated and filled, and a $5 gold piece offered as prize to each child faithfully carrying through the conditions of the test. Two psychological tests will be made during the time of test; and two will be made during the six months following treatment, with the school records, “and from these records it is expected to secure evidence which will show the value of dental service in dollars and cents."
NOTE:—For results, see following references. Report of scientific experiments conducted in the Cleveland public schools for the
purpose of ascertaining the value of healthy conditions of the mouth. Experiments conducted under the auspices of the National dental association, the Ohio State dental society, the Cleveland dental society and the Cleveland board of education. Cleveland, Ohio, Published and distributed by the National mouth hygiene association, April 1, 1912. 35 p. illus. tables. 8°.
Chairman of Oral hygiene committee of the National dental association, W. G. Ebersole, M. D.
In June 1909, 10 dentists and 10 nurses or attendants, began the inspection of the mouth conditions of the 846 children of the Marion school, Cleveland; out of the 846, but 3 were found to have teeth in perfect condition. Out of the entire number of dental charts, 40 were selected, as representing the worst mouth conditions, for the experiment. (1) They were to have their teeth put into perfect condition. (2) They were to brush their teeth carefully three times a day. (3) They were to masticato their food properly, not using liquid with solid food. (4) They were to attend any and every meeting of the class called and to conform to regulations laid down.
In mental efficiency the children made gain of 99.8 per cent shown by psychological tests, one given in May, one in June, one in August and one in September, 1910; last two given on the 4th and 10th of May 1911. Longest time spent on one phase of the work during a test, was less than three minutes. The children who needed the improvement most were the ones who made the greatest gains.
Individual records given. WALLIN, John Edward Wallace. Experimental oral euthenics: An attempt
objectively to measure the relation between community mouth hygiene and the intellectual efficiency and educational progress of elementary school children. Dental cosmos, 54: 404–13, 545–66, April, May 1912. tables. graphs.
“The conclusion is strongly suggested that the desirability of establishing dental clinics in the public schools, for free inspection and treatment, should present itself to the taxpayer as a plain business proposition; ... the paying of proper dividends on the capital invested in the schools.
“We started out with a class of retardates and repeaters. During the experimental year only one of the 27 pupils failed of promotion. According to the best estimates there are 6,000,000 retardates (pupils over age for their grades) in the public schools of the United States. ... About one-sixth are repeaters (pupils who must spend more than one year in one grade). It costs the country annually $27,000,000 to educate overy sixth child over again; i. e., a second, third, or fourth time in the same grade. (Ayres)
“During the experimental year not a single truancy card was made out to these 27 pupils. ... On the psychological side, the class showed an improvement ... which amounted on the average to about 50 per cent. That a largo part of this increased efficiency was directly due to the mouth orthogenics is attested by the parallel pedagogical improvement made by the pupils. . . An efficiency improve ment of 10 per cent .. would amount to one school year in ten ... and in the aggregate would savo
millions of dollars annually to the taxpayer.” WALLIN, John Edward Wallace. Experimental oral orthogenics: An experi
mental investigation of the effects of dental treatment on mental efficiency. Jour nal of philosophy, psychology and scientific methods, 9: 290–98, May 23, 1912.
The Cloveland experimont annotatod elsewhere.
HARRER, W. F. Oral conditions in children as causative factors in disease. Dental cosmos, 51: 196–200, February 1909.
Examination of 247 public school children, Montoursville, Pa. Of 51, ages 6 and 7 years, but 8 had absolutely perfect first permanent molars. Of a total of 1,036 deciduous and permanent teeth, 436 were
defective; in 25 children the number of defective teeth exceeded the intact teeth; 8 children used toothbrush daily, and 4, occasionally.
In the 86 children, ages 8 to 11 years, of a total of 1,781 teeth, 627 wore carious; about 1 pupil out of every 7 used the toothbrush daily.
In the 110 children, ages 11 to 15 years, of a total of 2,616 teeth, 636 were defective; toothbrush used oocasionally by the majority of the children. In 25 of them, from 2 to 4 first permanent molars were decayed beyond help; 15 had good first permanent molars, nearly all filled, as well as the full number of teeth for their respective ages.
Those children whose deciduous teeth had received attention, showed healthy mouths, and "as far as could be learned, they possessed keen mental development. .
“In the children examined a number gave evidence of toxic infections. They were pale, listless, apathetic, gave a history of headache, and were unable to cope with their studies. In some pupils ... from 1 to 3 years behind their proper grade, actually repulsive conditions of the mouth existed. These unfortunates were being deprived of their measure of education, besides endangering the health of tho
school by reason of their susceptibility to infectious disease.” MCCULLOUGH, Piercy B. The Southwark school dental dispensary. Teacher, 16: 133–35, May 1912. illus.
Opened, January 22, 1912, a “municipally operated dental dispensary' in the school. The volunteer organization of dentists, rendering service for 15 months at the city hall (opened, Oct. 5, 1910) were succeeded on January 1, 1912, by a paid corps of eight legally qualified dentists, each serving one-ball
of every working day. (Pittsburgh) Dental and oral hygiene in our public schools. Pittsburgh school bulletin, 3:24-25, May 1910.
Of the 732 children examined in two public schools, 9 mouths found in good condition; 2,909 diseased teeth; 3 children who used toothbrushes. Reading. Board of education. Dental inspection. In its Annual report, 1910 1911. p. 11-12.
The Reading dental society, 1910, detailed 25 of its members for the inspection-8,925 pupils being examined. Less than 3 per cent were found to have perfect teeth, only 4,849 had ever used a toothbrush, but 1,369 had ever been to a dentist, and 1,094 had had permanent teeth extracted. Permanent teeth cavities to the number of 28,548 were found.
In 18 months the free clinic treated the teeth of 275 pupils.
Work of the Reading dental society, operating successfully for three years, a free dental dispensary.
2,010 Green stain..
1,436 Gume abnormal.. Mouth breathers. Cavities in permanent teeth.
2,907 Number of putrescent pulps.
1,162 Number of exposed pulps....
580 Use of toothbrush..
796 (Tables with letter from Dr. H. W. Bohn, dated August 21, 1912, U. S. Bureau of education, Division of school hygiene and sanitation.) SCHLEGEL, George S. The Reading free dental dispensary. Peychological clinic, 3: 249–54, February 15, 1910.
Organized by the Reading dental society, the first man reporting for duty on June 2, 1909. In less than five months, with two of unavoidable delay, the Free dental dispensary was founded, equipped and paid for. Equipment is modern in every particular. The patients are received through the Associated charities, from the public schools, and the general public, the teachers being provided with blanks to be filled out by them for school children. Hours, 9 to 12; 2 to 5; Saturday afternoons excepted.
Dental inspection to begin in the public schools with the September session, 1910.
OTTOFY, Louis. Dental clinics in Manila: Schools, prison hospital, and orphanage. Dental cosmos, 52: 887–93, August 1910. tables. Bibliography: p. 893 (of author's own papers and reports)
First free dental clinic in Manila, January 1904 (Report in Fourth International dental congress. Transactions, 1904) maintained in connection with St. Luke's hospital.
The school clinic, begun January 10, 1910, "is conducted absolutely without cost to the pupils and the school authorities. . . . The work is commenced at half-past seven or eight in the morning, when