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be turned over to expert investigators, and the study of the children still in school left to persons connected with the schools. After the survey was completed, therefore, the directors of the investigation drew up a schedule designed for the pupil who has left school during any one year to be presented to the board of education as a working schedule. They feel, however, that the study of children still in school should be for the purpose of vocational guidance, and should be conducted on a distinctly different basis. No schedule is therefore suggested for this purpose.
The directors would urge that this schedule be filled for all girls who have left school in the year preceding the study. The proposed schedule would consist of two separate sheets, one dealing with the school history of the child and one with the economic situation. The first sheet, covering items 1-10, would be filled in by the teacher as before; items 1-6 from the school records; and 7-10 by the teacher, with the aid of the investigator. The second sheet would be filled in by the investigator through visits to the homes of these girls. (See following blanks.)
1. Parent's or guardian's name. 2. Nativity of father..
Of mother 3. Date of birth of girl ...
Age last birthday 4. Grade of leaving school 5. Type of pupil: (a) Application ..... (b) Scholarship....... (c) Conduct... 6. Health and strength:
(1) Do you regard her as normal or below normal in health and strength?..
(2) Is she mature or young for her years?.. 7. In what subjects is she deficient?..
In what subjects does she excel?.. 8. In what practical work, if any, has she displayed skill or interest?. 9. What is the reason she left school?... 10. Is given an opportunity would she probably attend a local free public trade
(For Character of occupation, use terms Permanent or Temporary; for Regularity of occupation, use terms
Seasonal or Regular.) Members not at work 2. Home conditions....
Grade of family..... (Use terms or describe as to degrees. For Home conditions use terms Comfortable, Lacking in com
fort, Poor.) 3. Rent paid......
Illness in family.. 4. Educational status of family .......
(Use terms Educated, Intelligent, Ignorant.) 5. Extent of parents' interest in trade school...
(Based on parent's statement.) 6. Are parents able to send girl to local free public trade school?.
(Based on investigator's impressions.) 7. Reason why girl left school..... 8. In what practical work if any does she excel?. 9. Supplementary schooling:
(1) Has girl attended any other than regular day school?.
(Public, evening, trade school, business, art, or any other day or evening school.) (2) Length of time....
(3) Department of the school. 9. Business experience of girl:
Length of time.
1. 2. 3. 4.
(B) The firm schedule was designed for a study of the industry, and was drawn up by the directors of the investigation.
Age groups-No. between 14-16...
Age of majority ....
Length of time.
The investigation has shown that item 1, "Conditions of industry, is unnecessary, as no industry has yet been discovered which does not show fluctuation or seasonal aspect. This conclusion is borne out by the Twelfth United States Census tables of numbers of wage earners employed by months. “Change in " is also unnecessary. On Schedule II, an additional column under “Number employed” for “Girls” (including girls over 14 and under 16) should be inserted.
The study of the children who had left school in the preceding year inspired the desire to know if the conditions discovered for this single group of girls were representative. A small card with 6 questions was accordingly drawn up, and with the cooperation of firms and forewomen put into the hands of the workers of some of the
large factories of Worcester as a test case. The returns were not as complete as might have been secured if the investigators could have personally supervised filling in the cards, and we should advise this in the future if permission could be obtained from the firm. The results, did, however, confirm the impressions gained from the study of a single year's group of girls going to work. The third question did not draw as satisfactory results as desired and would be better worded thus: “Were you compelled to leave school to go to work ?”
Questionnaire for women factory workers. 1. How old were you when you left school?... 2. In what grade were you when you left school?. 3. Why did you leave school?...... 4. How long have you been out of school?.. 5. What are the different kinds of work you have done?.
Present.. 6. If the school had taught trades would you have stayed a year longer to learn
SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
The age and schooling certificates in Worcester and Somerville provided invaluable statistics as to total numbers, age, and schooling of girls going to work.
Through the courtesy of the chief district police, lists of factories and shops in the records of the factory inspectors of the cities studied were placed at the disposal of the State board of education. These statistics enabled the investigators to discover what industries were drawing the girls and women workers and to select wisely and visit representative establishments. Sixty-three establishments in Worcester were visited, including not only the largest women-employing? industries, but also those offering greater opportunity for skill, development, and financial advancement.
The names, addresses, and school history of some 500 girls were secured from the public schools of Worcester. Three hundred were followed to the addresses given, and 214 located and visited. The age and schooling certificates of 727 girls who went to work in the past year, the records of 214 girls visited in their homes, the information gained from visits to 63 establishments, and the factory inspectors' reports, therefore, provide the material for the study of the needs of and opportunity for trade training in Worcester.
? The term "women-employing" is used in this study to indicate those in which large numbers of women and girls are engaged. The term "girls" to indicate girls 14 and under 16 years of age.
II. INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN
Worcester is one of the great manufacturing cities of Massachusetts. In 1905 ' it ranked third in New England and twenty-ninth in the United States. The knowledge that many women are working in the industries of Worcester and that many girls are commencing work at a very early age has aroused the schools and the community to endeavor to discover what the real conditions are, and what more can be done by the schools to prepare the girls for their life. It has well been said that children may be either “book-minded” or “motorminded." The "book-minded” take advantage of the present opportunities, continue in one type or another of the schools, and finally enter professional or commercial life. The "motor-minded” girl is one who learns more by seeing, handling, doing things than she does from books. The purpose of this study is threefold: First, to discover what has become of these "motor-minded” girls who have entered industry at 14 or 15 years of age; second, to suggest, if possible, how the schools can persuade them to give a longer period to preparation; and, third, to discover what is the type of preparation which would fit them for the demands of the industries of the community.
It is therefore with these children who have dropped out of school during the past year that this study is concerned. It in no way considers the girls who now remain in school, and can afford a period of four years or more after they have completed the grammar grades; nor does it concern itself in any way with the book-minded child who through accident or temporary discouragement has been forced out of school, but might be influenced to return. It must be kept in mind, therefore, that the study considers the child 14 or 15 years of age, the child whose interests and abilities are for the more active and industrial pursuits.
Three definite lines of attack have been followed in making this study. First, it seemed necessary to gain a general view of all kinds of industries employing women; second, to intensify on those trades which seem to offer to the woman worker the greatest opportunity for self-development, for financial advancement, and for large demand; third, to follow to their homes the girls who had left school to go to work in the past year, to obtain some conception of the economic situation and aims and ambitions of these families.
Although the manufactures of Worcester are more diversified than in many of the New England cities, four great industries, viz, machine operating (manufactures of corsets, women's clothing, shoes, and slippers), textiles, wire and metal goods, and paper products, are the
iCensus of Massachusetts, 1905; III. Manufactures and trade, XXXIX.