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more correctly it will render the object photographed, but the longer will be the required exposure.

Any of the better lenses, either anastigmats or the cheaper rapid rectilinear models, commonly used in hand cameras, will give pictures of fruits at natural size if the camera bellows is long enough. To use a lens having an equivalent' focus of 842 inches, such as one usually finds in a 5x7 camera, a bellows extension of 16 to 18 inches is required.

The notion of photographing fruits and flowers has become so popular and common in this country that many useful special devices have been developed for the work. The best single idea is that which places the camera in a vertical position, photographing downward upon the specimens, which are posed on a glass staging below. The arrangement will be understood better by reference to the accompanying illustrations (Figs. 5 and 6), showing two different types of fruit photographing stands. There are many important advantages furnished by these pieces of apparatus—advantages which can hardly be understood without experience. This whole subject, however, has so many compli



cations, and there is so much to be said on it, that any one interested in photographing fruits would better consult some special work on the subject. Mr. J. Horace McFarland's little pamphlet, “ Photographing Fruits and Flowers" (Photo-Miniature Series, New York), is especially recommended.

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SUPPOSE we undertake to make a description of an apple, or of a sample of a given variety numbering a half dozen specimens. Let us take the blank form shown in Fig. 7, on page 35, and follow the outline there provided.

The fruit is first considered. Possibly it would be more logical to examine the tree first, with its foliage and flowers and other distinctive characters. But in most cases the pomologist relies chiefly on the fruit for his information, he regards it always as the most important—and frequently he has nothing else before him when he makes the description. On account of its relatively great importance, therefore, it is quite proper to take up the description of the variety in this order.

The form is the first characteristic of the fruit to be considered, and one of the most important, especially in pome fruits. To be sure, a given variety may vary considerably in

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Horticultural Department. FIG. 7-APPLY DESCRIPTION BLANK. (MACOUN)

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