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pupils or university students. All poems of remarkable excellence that are suitable for primary pupils are also suitable for pupils in the higher grades and for adults, and the same is true of many prose selections.

The summary that follows, then, is to be regarded as “first aid” to the untrained, inexperienced teacher. The teacher's own personal likes and dislikes and her success in presenting various literary selections should eventually lead her to modify any prescribed course of study. If a teacher of the sixth grade discovers that her pupils should rank only second grade in knowledge and appreciation of literature, she may very properly begin with traditional fairy tales. Another outlined course of study is given in Section XII of this book.

First, second, and third grades. Since pupils in the primary grades read with difficulty if at all, the teacher should tell or read all selections presented as literature in these grades.

No kind of prose is better suited for use in the primary grades than traditional fairy tales. About half a dozen might well be presented in each of the three grades. For the first grade, the simplest should be chosen, such as “The Old Woman and Her Pig,” “Teeny-Tiny,” “The Cat and the Mouse," "The Three Pigs,” “The Three Bears,” and “The Elves and the Shoemaker." As suitable stories for the second grade, we might choose "The Three Sillies," "Little Red Riding Hood," "Cinderella,' "The Three Billy-Goats Gruff," "The Straw Ox," and "The Horned Women." For the third grade, somewhat longer and more complex stories might be chosen.

About half a dozen fables might also be used appropriately in each of the primary grades. Simple Aesopic fables in prose seem best for the first two grades. More complex forms might be chosen for the third grade, for example, “The Story of Alnaschar," "The Good Samaritan,” “The Discontented Pendulum,” “The Musical Ass," "The Swan, the Pike, and the Crab,” and “The Hen with the Golden Eggs."

Much of the nature literature of the primary grades may be in the form of verse, but some simple nature prose may be used successfully. From the selections in this book, "Peter Rabbit" should be chosen for the first grade, while "Johnny Chuck," and "Mr. 'Possum's Sick Spell" are appropriate for the second and third grades.

The simplest of Andersen's Fairy Tales may be used in the third grade, and perhaps in the second. Some suitable stories are “The Real Princess, · The Fir Tree,“The Tinder Box," "The Hardy Tin Soldier,” and “The Ugly Duckling."

The ideal verse for the first grade is nursery rhymes, which may be chosen from the first 135 selections of this book. These may be supplemented by such simple verse as “The Three Kittens," "The Moon,” “Ding Dong,” “The Little Kitty,” “Baby Bye,” “Time to Rise,” “Rain," "I Like Little Pussy,” and “The Star.” In the second and third grades, traditional verses from those following Number 135 in Section II may be used. The poems by Stevenson are ideal for these grades, and those by Field, Sherman, and Christina Rossetti are good. In addition the teacher might select such poems as “The Brown Thrush,” and “Who Stole the Bird's Nest."

Fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Although pupils in these intermediate grades may be expected to read some library books, the teacher should read and tell stories

frequently, for this is the surest way to develop in the pupil a taste for good literature. The teacher should remember, too, that the story she recommends to the pupils as suitable reading should be about two grades easier than those told or read by the teacher. Probably every poem presented as literature in these grades should be read or recited by the teacher because pupils are not likely to get the charm of rhythm, melody, and rhyme if they do the reading. Pupils who dislike poetry are pupils who have not heard good poetry well read.

Myths are appropriate for each of the intermediate grades. Most teachers prefer for the fourth grade the simpler classical myths, such as "A Story of Springtime," "The Miraculous Pitcher," "The Narcissus," and "The Apple of Discord.” In the fifth grade, the teacher may use the more difficult classical myths, reserving the Norse myths for the sixth grade.

Modern fairy and fantastic stories are also appropriate for each of these grades. Suitable stories for the fourth grade are “The Four-Leaved Clover,” “The Emperor's New Clothes,” “The Nightingale,” and “The Story of Fairyfoot.” Stories appropriate for the fifth grade are “The Happy Prince," "The Knights of the Silver Shield,” and “The Prince's Dream.” In the sixth grade, the teacher might use "Old Pipes and the Dryad” and “The King of the Golden River."

Two or three symbolic stories or fables in verse from the last part of Section V should be used in each of these grades.

Nature prose should appeal more and more to children as they advance from the fourth to the eighth grade. Many pupils in the fourth grade will enjoy reading for themselves books by Burgess and Paine, while fifth- and sixth-grade pupils will get much pleasure from the simpler books by Sharp, Seton, Long, Miller, and Roberts. In the intermediate grades, the teacher may read such stories as “Wild Life in the Farm Yard,” “The Vendetta,” “Pasha,” “Moufflou," and "Bird Habits."

Stories of various other kinds may be read by the teacher in the intermediate grades. “Goody Two-Shoes” and “Waste Not, Want Not,” are suitable for the fourth grade. The biographies "How Columbus Got His Ships" and "Boyhood of Washington" are excellent in the fifth or sixth grade as an introduction to history study, and the romance “Robin Hood and the Merry Little Old Woman" may be used appropriately in any of these grades, especially if it is made to supplement a discussion of the Norman conquest.

Most of the poems up to about No. 342, and a few beyond that, are within the range of the work for these grades.

Seventh and eighth grades. Although pupils in the seventh and eighth grades may be expected to read simple narrative readily, the teacher should read to the pupils frequently. It cannot be too much emphasized that reading aloud to children is the surest way of developing an appreciation of the best in literature. In poetry especially this is a somewhat critical time, as the pupil is passing from the simpler and more concrete verse to that which has a more prominent thought content. The persuasion of the reading voice smooths over many obstacles here. Outside the field of poetry, the teacher's work in these grades is mainly one of guidance and direction in getting the children and the right books in contact. Children at

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this period are likely to be omnivorous readers, ready for any book that comes their way, and the job of keeping them supplied with titles of enough available good books for their needs is indeed one to tax all a teacher's knowledge and experience.

The demand for highly sensational stories on the part of pupils in the upper grades is so insistent that it constitutes a special problem for the teacher.

It is a perfectly natural demand, and no wise teacher will attempt to stifle it. Such an attempt would almost certainly result in a more or less surreptitious reading of a mass of unwholesome books which have come to be known as "dime novels.” Instead of trying to thwart this desire for the thrilling story the teacher should be ready to recommend books which have all the attractive adventure features of the "dime novel,” and which have in addition sound artistic and ethical qualities. While many such books are mentioned in the bibliographies in the latter part of this text, it has seemed well to bring together here a short list of those which librarians over the country have found particularly fitted to serve as substitutes for the dime novel. Alden, W. L., The Moral Pirate. Altsheler, Joseph A., The Young Trailers. Horsemen of the Plains. Ii 2 Barbour, Ralph H., The Crimson Sweater. Bennett, John, The Treasure of Peyre Gaillard. Burton, Charles P., The Boys of Bob's Hill. Carruth, Hayden, Track's End. Cody, William F., Adventures of Buffalo Bill. Drysdale, William, The Fast Mail. Grinnell, George Bird, Jack among the Indians. Jack, the Young Ranchman. Hunting, Henry G., The Cave of the Bottomless Pool. Janvier, Thomas A., The Aztec Treasure House. Kaler, James Otis, Toby Tyler, or Ten Weeks with a Circus. London, Jack, The Call of the Wild. Malone, Captain P. B., Winning His Way to West Point. Masefield, John, Jim Davis. Mason, Alfred B., Tom Strong, Washington's Scout. Matthews, Brander, Tom Paulding. Moffett, Cleveland, Careers of Danger and Daring. Munroe, Kirk, Cab and Caboose. Derrick Steriing. O'Higgins, Harvey J., The Smoke Eaters. Quirk, Leslie W., The Boy Scouts of the Black Eagle Patrol. Sabin, Edwin L., Bar B Boys. Schultz, James Willard, With the Indians in the Rockies. Stevenson, Burton E., The Young Train Despatcher. Stevenson, Robert Louis, Treasure Island. Stoddard, William O., Two Arrows. Talking Leaves. Trowbridge, John T., Cudjo's Cave. The Young Surveyor. Verne, Jules, 20,000 Leagues under the Sea. Wallace, Dillon, Wilderness Castaways. White, Stewart Edward, The Magic Forest.

SECTION II

MOTHER GOOSE JINGLES AND NURSERY RHYMES

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c. 1760. Mother Goose's Melody. [Published by John Newbery, London.)

No copy of this issue known to be in existence. c. 1783. Ritson, Joseph, Gammer Gurton's Garland, or the Nursery Parnassus. (1810,

enlarged.] c. 1785. Mother Goose's Melody. [Reprint of Newbery, by Isaiah Thomas, Worcester, Mass.]

(1889. Whitmore, W. H., The Original Mother Goose's Melody, as first issued by John

Newbery, of London, about A.D. 1760. Reproduced in facsimile from the edition as reprinted by Isaiah Thomas, of Worcester, Mass., about A.D. 1785. With introduc

tion and notes.] 1824 ff. Mother Goose's Quarto, or Melodies Complete. [Various issues by Munroe and

Francis, Boston.)
(Hale, Edward Everett, The Only True Mother Goose Melodies. Exact reproduction of the

text and illustrations of the original edition (Mother Goose's Melodies: The Only Pure

Edition) printed in Boston in 1834 by Monroe and Francis. With an introduction. 1826. Chambers, Robert, Popular Rhymes of Scotland. (1870, enlarged.] 1834. Ker, John Bellenden, An Essay on the Archaeology of Popular English Phrases and

Nursery Rhymes. (Supplemented 1840 and 1842.)
1842. Halliwell (Phillips), J. O., The Nursery Rhymes of England.
1849. Halliwell (Phillips), J. O., Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales.
1864. Rimbault, Edward F., Old Nursery Rhymes with Tunes.

IMPORTANT MODERN COLLECTIONS
Baring-Gould, Sabine, A Book of Nursery Songs and Rhymes.
Headland, I. T., Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes.
Jerrold, Walter, The Big Book of Nursery Rhymes.
Lang, Andrew, The Nursery Rhyme Book.
Newell, W. W., Games and Songs of American Children.
Saintsbury, G. E. B., National Rhymes of the Nursery.
Welsh, Charles, A Book of Nursery Rhymes.
Wheeler, William A., Mother Goose's Melodies.

NURSERY RHYMES WITH MUSIC
Crane, Walter, The Baby's Bouquet, a Fresh Bunch of old Rhymes and Tunes.
Homer, Sidney, Songs from Mother Goose.
Le Mair, H. Willebeck, Our Old Nursery Rhymes.
Le Mair, H. Willebeck, Little Songs of Long Ago.
Perkins, Raymond, Thirty Old-Time Nursery Songs.

II.

III.

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Bolton, H. C., Counting-out Rhymes of Children, Their Antiquity, Origin, and Wide Distribution.
Earle, Alice Morse, Child Life in Colonial Days. [Especially chap. xiv.]
Eckenstein, Lina, Comparative Studies in Nursery Rhymes.
Godfrey, Elizabeth, English Children in the Olden Time. [Especially chap. ii.]
Gomme, A. B., The Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

2 vols.
Green, P. B., The History of Nursery Rhymes.
Halsey, Rosalie V., Forgotten Books of the American Nursery.
Field, W. T., Finger posts to Children's Reading, pp. 193 ff.
Moses, M. J., Children's Books and Reading, pp. 40 ff.

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