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XXVII. On the great numbers of old LII. The absurd taste for obscene and

maids and bachelors in London.

pert novels, such as Tristram Shan-

Some of the causes


dy, ridiculed


XXVIII. A description of a club of LIII. The character of an important tri-





XXIX. The proceedings of the club of LIV. His character continued; with that



of his wife, his house, and furni.

XXX. The perfection of the Chinese in



the art of gardening. The descrip LV. Some thoughts on the present situa-

tion of a Chinese garden


tion of affairs in the different coun-

XXXI. Of the degeneracy of some of

tries of Europe


the English nobility. A mush LVI. The dificulty of rising in literary re-

room feast among the Tartars 213

putation without intrigue or riches 215

XXXII. The manner of writing among LVII. A visitation dinner described 216

the Chinese. The eastern tales of LVIII. The Chinese philosopher's son

magazines, &e. ridiculed

214 escapes with the beautiful captive

XXXIII. Of the present ridiculous pas-

from slavery


sior of the nobility for painting 216 LIX. The history of the beautiful


XXXIV. The philosopher's son de-



scribes a lady, his fellow-captive 218 LX. Proper lessons to a youth entering

XXXV. A continuance of his corres-

the world, with fables suited to the

pondence. The beautiful captive



consents to marry her lord. ib. LXI. An authentic bistory of Catharina

XXXVI. The correspondence still con-

Alexowna, wife of Peter the Great 252

tinued. He begins to be disgusted LXII. The rise or the decline of litera-

in the pursuit of wisdom. An

ture, not dependent on man, but

allegory to prove its futility 219

resulting from the vicissitudes of

XXXVII, The Chinese philosopher



praises the justice of a late sentence LXIII. The great exchange happiness for

and instances the injustice of the

show. Their folly in this respect

King of France, in the case of


the Prince of Charolais 221 Lxiv. The history of a philosophic cob:

XXXVIII. The description of true po-



liteness. Two letters of different LXV. The difference between love and

countries, by ladies falsely thought



polite at home

: 222 LXVI. The folly of attempting to learn

XXXIX. The English still have poets,

wisdom by being recluse


though not versifiers

224 LXVII. Quacks ridiculed. Some parti-

XL. The behaviour of the congregation

cularly mentioned


in St Paul's church at prayers 225 LXVIII. The fear of mad dogs ridiculed 200

XLI. The history of China more replete LXIX. Fortune proved not to be blind.

with great actions than that of

The story of the avaricious miller . 202


226 LXX. The shabby beau, the man in

XLII. An apostrophe on the supposed

Llack, the Chinese philosopher, &c.

death of Voltaire


at Vauxhall .


XLIII. Wisdom and precept may lessen

LXXI. The marriage act censured

our miseries, but can never increase LXXIL Life endeared by age


our positive satisfactions

228 LXXIII. The description of a little

XLIV. The ardour of the people of

great man


London in running after sights and LXXIV. The necessity of amusing each



other with new books insisted

XLV. A dream




XLVI. Misery best relieved by dissipa LXXV. The preference


grace to


233 beauty; an allegory


XLVII. The absurdity of persons in

LXXVI. The behaviour of a shopkeeper

high station pursuing employments

to his journeyman


beneath them, exemplified in a

LXXVII. The French ridiculed after

fairy tale


their own mariner


XLVIIL' The fairy tale continued 235 LXXVIII. The preparations of both

XLIX. An attempt to define what is

theatres for a winter campaign 273

meant by English liberty

236 LXXIX. The evil tendency of increas-

L. A bookseller's visit to the Chinese 238 ing penal laws, or enforcing even

LI. The impossibility of distinguishing

those already in being with rigour 274

men in England by their dress. LXXX. The ladies' trains ridiculed 275

Two instances of this

239 LXXXI. The sciences useful in a popu.

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lous state, prejudicial in a barbar-

A story of an incendiary to this




LXXXII. Some cautions on life, taken CVII. The utility and entertainment

from a modern philosopher of

which might result from a journey



into the East


LXXXIII. The anecdotes of several CVIII. The Chinese philosopher at-

poets, who lived and died in cir-

tempts to find out famous men 304

cumstances of wretchedness. 279 CIX. Some projects for introducing Asi-

LXXXIV. The trifling squabbles of

atic employments into the courts of

stage-players ridiculed




LXXXV. The races of Newmarket ri. cx. On the different sects in England,

diculed. The description of a cart

particularly Methodism


281 CXI. An election described


LXXXVI. The fully of the western CXII. A literary contest of great impor-

parts of Europe in employing the

tance; in which both sides fight by

Russians to fight their battles 282 epigram


LXXXVII, The ladies advised to get CXIII. Against the marriage act. A

husbands. A story to this pur-



283 CXIV. On the danger of having too high

LXXXVIII. The folly of remote or

an opinion of human nature . 312

useless disquisitions among the CXV. Whether love be a natural or a fic.



titious passion


LXXXIX. The English subject to the CXVI. A city night-piece



286 CXVII. On the meaniness of the Dutch

XC. The influence of climate and soil

at the court of Japan


upon the temper and dispositions of CXVIII. On the distresses of the poor,


287 exemplified in the life of a private

XCI. The manner in which some philo-



sophers make artificial misery 288 CXIX. On the absurdity of some late

XCII. The fondness of some to admire

English titles


the writings of lords, &c. 289 cxx. The irresolution of the English

XCIII. The philosopher's son is again

accounted for


separated from his beautiful com CXXI. The man ner of travellers in their



usual relations ridiculed


XCIV. The father consoles him upon CXXII. The conclusion


the occasion

291 | The Life of Dr Parnell .


XCV. The condolence and congratula The Life of Henry, Lord Viscount Bo.

tion upon the death of the late



king ridiculed. English mourning Criticism on Massey's Translation of the



Fasti of Ovid


XCVI. Almost every subject of litera Criticism on Barrett's . Translation of

ture has been already exhausted 293

Ovid's Epistles.


XCVIII. A description of the courts of

justice in Westminster Hall . 294

XCVII. A visit from the little beau.

The indulgence with which the

fair sex are treated in several parts

of Asia

No. 1. to VIII.



XCIX. A life of independence praised 296

C. That people must be contented to be

guided by those whom they have

appointed to govern. A story to

this effect


CI. The passion for gaming among ladies


298 No. 1. to XXIV.


CII. The Chinese philosopher begins to

think of quitting England


CIII. The arts some make use of to ap-


CIV. The intended coronation described 300

CV. Funeral elegies written upon the

great, ridiculed.

A specimen of


CVI. The English too fond of believing

every report without examination.

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" The life of a Scholar,” D. Goldsmith has remarked, “ se!dom abounds with adventure: his fame is acquired in solitude; and the historian, who only views him at a distance, must be content with a dry detail of actions by which he is scarce distinguished from the rest of mankind; but we are fond of talking of those who have given us pleasure ; not that we have any thing important to say, but because the subject is pleasing."

Oliver Goldsmith, son of the Reverend Charles Goldsmith, was born in Elphin, in the county of Roscommon, in Ireland, in the year 1729. His father had four sons, of whom Oliver was the third. After being well instructed in the classics, at the school of Mr Hughes, he was admitted a sizer in Trinity College, Dublin, on the 11th of June, 1744. While he resided there, he exhibited no specimens of that genius, which, in maturer years, raised his character so high. On the 27th of February, 1749, O. S. (two years after the regular time), he obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Soon after he turned his thoughts to the profession of physic; and, after attending some courses of anatomy in Dublin, proceeded to Edinburgh, in the year 1751, where he studied the several branches of medicine under the different professors in that university. His beneficent disposition soon involved him in unexpected difficulties; he was obliged precipitately to leave Scotland, in consequence of having en gaged himself to pay a considerable sum of money for a fellow-student.

The beginning of the year 1754, he arrived at Sunderland, near Newcastle, where he was arrested at the suit of one Barclay, a taylor in Edinburgh, to whom he had given security for his friend. By the good offices of Laughlane Maclane, Esq. and Dr Sleigh, who were then in the college, he was soon delivered out of the hands of the bailiff, and took his passage on board a Dutch ship to Rotterdam, where, after a short stay he proceeded to Brussels. He then visited great part of Flanders; and, after passing some time at Strasburg and Louvain, where he obtained the degree of Bachelor in Physic, he accompanied an English gentleman to Geneva.

It is undoubtedly a fact, that this ingenious unfortunate man made most part of his tour on foot. He had left England with very little money; and being of a philosophic turn, and at the time possessing a body capable of sustaining every fatigue, and a heart not easily terrified by danger, he became an enthusiast to the design he had formed of seeing the manners of different countries. He had some knowledge of the French language, and of music; he played tolerably well on the German flute; which, from amusement, became at some times the means of subsistence. His learning produced


him a hospitable reception at most of the religious houses he visited ; and his music made him welcome to the peasants of Flanders and Germany.

On his arrival at Geneva, he was recommended as a proper person for a travelling tutor to a young man, who had been unexpectedly left a considerable sum of money by his uncle Mr S This youth, who was articled to an attorney, on the re. ceipt of his fortune, determined to see the world.

During his continuance in Switzerland, Goldsmith assiduously cultivated his poetical talent, of which he had given some striking proofs at the college of Edinburgh. It was from hence he sent the first sketch of his delightful epistle, called the Traveller, to his brother Henry, a clergyman in Ireland, who, giving up fame and fortune, had retired with an amiable wife to happiness and obscurity, on an income of only forty pounds a year. The great affection Goldsmith bore for his brother, is expressed in the poem before mentioned, and gives a striking picture of his situation.

From Geneva Mr Goldsmith and his pupil proceeded to the south of France, where the young man, upon some disagreement with his preceptor, paid him the small part of his salary which was due, and embarked at Marseilles for England. Our wanderer was left once more upon the world at large, and passed through a number of difficulties in traversing the greatest part of France. At length his curiosity being gratified, he bent his course towards England, and arrived at Dover, the beginning of the winter, in the year 1758.

His finances were so low on his return to England, that he with difficulty got to the metropolis, bis whole stock of cash amounting to no more than a few half-pence. Being an entire stranger in London, his mind was filled with the most gloomy reflections, in consequence of his embarrassed situation. He applied to several apothecaries, in hopes of being received in the capacity of a journeyman; but his broad Irish accent, and the uncouthness of his appearance, occasioned him to meet with insult from most of the medical tribe. At length, however, a chemist, near Fish Street, struck with his forlorn condition, and the simplicity of his manner, took him into his laboratory, where he continued till he discovered that his old friend Dr Sleigh was in London. " It was Sunday,” said Goldsmith,“ when I paid him a visit; and it is to be supposed, in my best clothes. Sleigh scarcely knew me; such is the tax the unfortunate pay to poverty. However, when he did recollect me, I found his heart as warm as ever! and he shared his purse and his friendship with me during his continuance in London."

Goldsmith, unwilling to be a burden to his friend, a short time after, eagerly embraced an offer which was made him to assist the late Rev. Dr Milner, in instructing the young gentlemen at the academy at Peckham; and acquitted himself greatly to the Doctor's satisfaction for a short time; but, having obtained some reputation by the criticisms he had written in the Monthly Review, Mr Griffith, the principal proprietor, engaged him in the compilation of it; and resolving to pursue the profession of writing, he returned to London, as the mart where abilities of every kind were sure of meeting distinction and reward. Hore he determined to adopt a plan of the strictest economy, and, at the close of the year 1759, took lodgings in Green-Arbour Court, in the Old Bailey, where he wrote several ingenious pieces. His first works were, The Bee, a weekly pamphlet; and, An inquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe. The late Mr Newberry who, at that time, gave great encouragement to men of literary abilities, became a kind patron to Goldsmith, and introduced him as one of the writers in the Public Ledger, in which his Citizen of the World originally appeared, under the title of Chinese Letters.' During this time

(according to another account) he wrote for the British Magazine, of which Dr Smollet was then editor, most of those Essays and Tales, which he afterwards collected and published in a separate volume. He also wrote occasionally for the Critical Review; and it was the merit which he discovered in criticising a despicable translation of Ovid's Fasti, by a pedantic school-master, and his Enquiry into the Present State of Learning in Europe, which first introduced him to the acquaintance of Dr Smollet, who recommended him to several of the literati, and to most of the booksellers, by whom he was afterwards patronised. · Through the generosity of Mr Newberry, for whom he had written and compiled a number of pieces, or, in other terms, had held the pen of a ready writer, our author was enabled to shift his quarters from Green-Arbour Court to Wine-Office Court, in Fleet Street, where he put the finishing stroke to his Vicar of Wakefield. Having conciliated the esteem of Dr Johnson by that passport to the human heart, flattery, he gave so strong a recommendation of Goldsmith's novel, that the author obtained sixty pounds for the copy; a sum far beyond his expectation, as he candidly acknowledged to a literary friend. But as Goldsmith's reputation, as a writer, was not yet established, the bookseller was doubtful of the success of the novel, and kept the manuscript by him till the Traveller appeared, when he published it with great advantage.

Among many other persons of distinction who were desirous to know our author, was the Duke of Northumberland; and the circumstance that attended his introduction to that nobleman, is worthy of being related, in order to show a striking trait of his character.

'I was invited,' said the Doctor, 'by my friend Percy, to wait upon the Duke, in consequence of the satisfaction he had received from the perusal of one of my productions. I dressed myself in the best manner I could, and after studying some compli. ments I thought necessary on such an occasion, proceeded to Northumberland House, and acquainted the servants that I had particular business with his Grace. They showed me into the anti-chamber, where, after waiting some time, a gentleman, very elegantly dressed, made his appearance. Taking him for the Duke, I delivered all the fine things I had composed, in order to compliment him on the honour he had done me; when to my great astonishment, he told me I had mistaken him for his master, who would see me immediately. At that instant the Duke came into the apartment; and I was so confounded on the occasion, that I wanted words barely sufficient to express the sense I entertained of the Duke's politeness, and went away exceedingly chagrined at the blunder I had committed.'

The Doctor, at the time of this visit, was much embarrassed in his circumstances; but vain of the honour done hiin, was continually mentioning it. One of those ingenious executors of the law, a bailiff, who had a writ against him, determined to turn this circumstance to his own advantage. He wrote him a letter, that he was steward to a nobleman wbo was charmed with reading his last production, and had ordered him to desire the Doctor to appoint a place where he might have the honour of meeting him, to conduct him to bis Lordship. The vanity of poor Goldsmith immediately swallowed the bait: he appointed the British Coffee-house, to which he was accompanied by his friend Mr Hamilton, the printer of the Critical Review, who in vain remonstrated on the singularity of the application. On entering the coffee-room, the bailiff paid his respects to the Doctor, and desired that he might have the honour of immediately attending him. They had scarce entered Pall Mall, in their way to his Lord.

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