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O'er Britons wield the sceptre of their choice;
And there, to finish what his sires began,
A prince behold! for me who burns sincere,
Ev'n with a subject's zeal. He my great work
Will parent-like sustain ; and added give
The touch, the Graces and the Muses owe.
For Britain's glory swells his panting breast;
And ancient arts he emulous revolves:
His pride to let the smiling heart abroad,
Through clouds of pomp, that but conceal the man;
To please his pleasure; bounty his delight;
And all the soul of Titus dwells in him."
Hail, glorious theme! but how, alas! shall verse, From the crude stores of mortal language drawn, How faint and tedious, sing, what, piercing deep, The goddess flash'd at once upon my soul. For, clear precision all, the tongue of gods, Is harmony itself; to every ear Familiar known, like light to every eye. Meantime disclosing ages, as she spoke, In long succession pour'd their empires forth; Scene after scene, the human drama spread; And still th' embodied picture rose to sight.
Oh thou, to whom the Muses owe their flame; Who bidd'st, beneath the pole, Parnassus rise, And Hippocrenè flow; with thy bold case, The striking force, the lightning of thy thought, And thy strong phrase, that rolls profound, and Oh, gracious goddess! re-inspire my song; [clear; While I, to nobler than poetic fame Aspiring,-thy commands to Britons bear.
government; to ver. 47. The several establishments of Liberty, in Egypt, Persia, Phoenicia, Palestine, slightly touched upon, down to her great establishment in Greece; to ver. 91. Geographical description of Greece; to ver. 113. Sparta and Athens, the two principal states of Grecce, described; to ver. 164. Influence of Liberty over all the Grecian states; with regard to their government, their politeness, their virtues, their arts and sciences. The vast superiority it gave them, in point of force and bravery, over the Persians, exemplified by the action of Thermopylæ, the battle of Marathon, and the retreat of the ten thousand. Its full exertion, and most beautiful effects in Athens; to ver. 216. Liberty the source of free philo sophy. The various schools, which took their rise from Socrates; to ver. 257. Enumeration of fine arts: eloquence, poetry, music, sculp ture, painting, and architecture; the effects of Liberty in Greece, and brought to their utmost perfection there; to ver. 381. Transition to the modern state of Greece; to ver. 411. Why Liberty declined, and was at last entirely lost among the Grecks; to ver. 472. Concluding reflection.
THUS spoke the goddess of the fearless eye; And at her voice, renew'd, the vision rose.
"First in the dawn of time, with eastern swains,
In woods, and tents, and cottages, I liv'd;
While on from plain to plain they led their flocks,
In search of clearer spring, and fresher field.
These, as increasing families disclos'd
The tender state, I taught an equal sway.
Few were offences, properties, and laws.
Beneath the rural portal, palm o'erspread,
The father-senate met. There Justice dealt,
With reason then and equity the same,
Free as the common air, her prompt decree;
Nor yet had stain'd her sword with subject's blood,
The simpler arts were all their simple wants
Had urg'd to light. But instant, these supply'd,
Another set of fonder wants arose,
And other arts with them of finer aim;
Till, from refining want to want impell'd,
The mind by thinking push'd her latent powers, 20
And life began to glow, and arts to shine.
"At first, on brutes alone the rustic war
Lanch'd the rude spear; swift, as he glar'd along,
For then young sportive life was void of toi!,
On the grim lion, or the robber-wolf.
Demanding little, and with little pleas'd:
But when to manhood grown, and endless joys,
Led on by equal toils, the bosom fir'd;
Lewd lazy Rapine broke primeval peace,
And, hid in caves and idle forests drear,
From the lone pilgrim and the wandering swain,
Seiz'd what he durst not earn. Then brother's blood
First, horrid, smok'd on the polluted skies.
Awful in justice, then the burning youth,
Led by their temper'd sires, on lawless men,
The last worst monsters of the shaggy wood,
Turn'd the keen arrow, and the sharpen'd spear.
Then war grew glorious. Heroes then arose;
And balanc'd all.
Spread on Eurota's bank,
40 Amid a circle of soft-rising hills,
The patient Sparta one: the sober, hard,
And man subduing city; which no shape
Of pain could conquer, nor of pleasure charm.
Lycurgus there built, on the solid base
Of equal life, so well a temper'd state;
Where mix'd each government, in such just poise;
Each power so checking, and supporting, each,
That firm for ages, and unmov'd, it stood,
The fort of Greece! without one giddy hour,
50 One shock of faction, or of party-rage.
Who, scorning coward self, for others liv'd,
Toil'd for their ease, and for their safety bled.
West with the living day to Greece I came :
Earth smil'd beneath my beam: the Muse before
Sonorous flew, that low till then in woods
Had tun'd the reed, and sigh'd the shepherd's
But now, to sing heroic deeds, she swell'd [pain;
A nobler note, and bade the banquet burn.
"For Greece my sons of Egypt I forsook :
A boastful race, that in the vain abyss
Of fabling ages lov'd to lose their source,
And with their river trac'd it from the skics.
While there my laws alone despotic reign'd,
And king, as well as people, proud obey'd:
I taught them science, virtue, wisdom, arts:
By poets, sages, legislators sought;
The school of polish'd life, and human kind.
But when mysterious Superstition came,
And, with her civil sister leagu'd, involv'd
In study'd darkness the desponding mind;
Then tyrant Power the righteous scourge unloos'd:
For yielded reason speaks the soul a slave.
Instead of useful works, like Nature's, great,
Enormous, cruel wonders crush'd the land;
And round a tyrant's tomb, who none deserv'd,
For one vile carcass perish'd countless lives.
Then the great Dragon, couch'd amid his floods,
Swell'd his fierce heart, and cry'd-- This flood is
'Tis I that bid it flow. -But, undeceiv'd, [mine,
His phrenzy soon the proud blasphemer felt;
Felt that, without my fertilizing power,
Suns lost their force, and Niles o'erflow'd in vain.
Nought could retard me: nor the frugal state 71
Of rising Persia, sober in extreme,
Beyond the pitch of man, and thence revers'd
Into luxurious waste; nor yet the ports
Of old Phoenicia; first for letters fam'd,
That paint the voice, and silent speak to sight,
Of arts prime source, and guardian! by fair stars,
First tempted out into the lonely deep;
To whom i first disclos'd mechanic arts,
The winds to conquer, to subdue the waves,
With all the peaceful power of ruling trade;
Earnest of Britain. Nor by these retain'd;
Nor by the neighbouring land, whose palmy shore
The silver Jordan laves. Before me lay
The promis'd land of arts, and urg'd my flight.
"Hail Nature's utmost boast! unrivall'd Greece!
My fairest reign! where every power benign
Conspir'd to blow the flower of human-kind,
And lavish'd all that genius can inspire.
Clear sunny climates, by the breezy main,
Iönian or Ægean, temper'd kind,
Light, airy soils. A country rich, and gay;
Broke into hills with balmy odours crown'd,
And,bright with purple harvest joyous vales.[flow'd:
Mountains and streams, where verse spontaneous
Whence deem'd by wondering men the seat of gods,
And still the mountains and the streams of song.
All that boon Nature could luxuriant pour
Of high materials, and ny restless arts
Frame into finish'd life. How many states,
And clustering towns, and monuments of fame,
And scenes of glorious deeds, in little bounds!
From the rough tract of bending mountains, beat
By Adria's here, there by Agaan waves;
To where the deep adorning Cyclade Isles
In shining prospect rise, and on the shore
Of farthest Crete resounds the Libyan main.
"O'er all two rival cities rear'd the brow,
For, drain'd the springs of wealth, corruption there
Lay wither'd at the root. Thrice happy land!
Had not neglected art, with weedy vice
Confounded, sunk. But if Athenian arts
Lov'd not the soil; yet there the calm abode
Of wisdom, virtue, philosophic ease,
Of manly sense and wit, in frugal phrase
Confia'd, and press'd into laconic force.
There, too, by rooting thence still treacherous self,
The public and the private grew the same.
The children of the nursing public hall,
And at its table fed, for that they toil'd,
For that they liv'd entire, and ev'n for that
The tender mother urg'd her son to die.
"Of softer genius, but not less intent
To seize the palm of empire, Athens rose:
Where, with bright marbles big and future pomp,
Hymettus spread, amid the scented sky,
His thymy treasures to the labouring bee,
And to botanic hand the stores of health;
Wrapt in a soul-attenuating clime,
Between Ilissus and Cephissus glow'd
This hive of science, shedding sweets divine,
Of active arts, and animated arms.
There, passionate for me, an easy mov'd,
A quick, refin'd, a delicate, humane,
Enlighten'd people reign'd. Oft on the brink
Of ruin, hurry'd by the charm of speech,
Inforcing hasty counsel immature,
80 Totter'd the rash democracy; unpois'd,
And by the rage devour'd, that ever tears
A populace unequal; part too rich,
And part or fierce with want, or abject grown.
Solon, at last, their mild restorer, rose:
Allay'd the tempest; to the calm of laws
Reduc'd the settling whole; and, with the weight
Which the two senates to the public lent,
As with an anchor fix'd the driving state.
"Nor was my forming care to these confin'd.
90 For emulation through the whole I pour'd,
Noble contention! who should most excel
In government well-pois'd, adjusted best
To public weal: in countries cultur'd high:
In ornamented towns, where order reigns,
Free social life, and polish'd manners fair :
In exercise, and arms; arms only drawn
For common Greece, to quell the Persian pride:
In moral science, and in graceful arts.
Hence, as for glory peacefully they strove,
The prize grew greater, and the prize of all. 170
By contest brighten'd, hence the radiant youth
Pour'd every beam; by generous pride inflam'd,
Felt every ardour burn: their great reward
The verdant wreath, which sounding Pisa gave.
"Hence flourish'd Greece; and hence a race of
As gods by conscious future times ador'd:
In whom each virtue wore a smiling air,
Each science shed o'er life a friendly light,
Each art was nature. Spartan valour hence,
At the fam'd pass, firm as an isthinus stood;
And the whole eastern ocean, waving far
As eye could dart it's vision, nobly check'd,
While in extended battle, at the field
'Of Marathon, my keen Athenians drove
Before their ardent band, an host of slaves.
Hence through the continent ten thousand Greeks
Urg'd a retreat, whose glory not the prime
Of victories can reach. Deserts, in vain, 188
Oppos'd their course; and hostile lands, unknown;
And deep rapacious floods, dire-bank'd with death;
And mountains, in whose jaws destruction grinn'd
Hunger, and toil; Armenian snows, and storms;
And circling myriads still of barbarous foes.
Greece in their view, and glory yet untouch'd,
Their steady column pierc'd the scattering herds,
Which a whole empire pour'd; and held its way
Triumphant, by the sage-exalted chief
Fir'd and sustain'd. Oh, light and force of mind,
Almost almighty in severe extremes !
The sea at last from Colchian mountains seen, 200
Kind-hearted transport round their captains threw
The soldiers fond embrace, o'erflow'd their eyes
With tender floods, and loos'd the general voice
To cries resounding loud-- The sea! the sea!
"In Attic bounds hence heroes, sages, wits,
Shone thick as stars, the milky way of Greece!
And though gay wit, and pleasing grace was theirs,
All the soft modes of elegance and ease;
Yet was not courage less, the patient touch
Of toiling art, and disquisition deep.
"My spirit pours a vigour through the soul, Th' unfetter'd thought with energy inspires, Invincible in arts, in the bright field
Of nobler science, as in that of arms.
Athenians thus not less intrepid burst
The bonds of tyrant darkness, than they spurn'd
The Persian chains: while through the city, full
Of mirthful quarrel and of witty war,
Incessant struggled taste refining taste,
And friendly free discussion, calling forth
From the fair jewel truth its latent ray.
O'er all shone out the great Athenian sage,
And father of philosophy: the sun,
From whose white blaze emerg'd each various sect
Took various tints, but with diminish'd beam.
Tutour of Athens! he, in every street,
Dealt priceless treasure! goodness his delight,
Wisdom his wealth, and glory his reward.
Deep through the human heart, with playful art,
His simple question stole: as into truth,
And serious deeds, he sinil'd the laughing race;
Taught moral happy life, whate'er can bless,
Or grace mankind; and what he taught he was.
Compounded high, though plain, his doctrine broke
In different schools. The bold poetic phrase
Of figur'd Plato; Xenophon's pure strain,
Like the clear brook that steals along the vale;
Dissecting truth, the Stagyrite's keen eye;
Th' exalted Stoic pride; the Cynic sneer;
The slow-consenting Academic doubt;
And, joining bliss to virtue, the glad ease
Of Epicurus, seldom understood.
They, ever-candid, reason still oppos'd
To reason; and, since virtue was their aim,
Each by sure practice try'd to prove his way
The best. Then stood untouch'd the solid base
Of Liberty, the liberty of mind:
For systems yet, and soul-enslaving creeds,
Slept with the mousters of succeeding times. 249
From priestly darkness sprung th' enlightening arts
Of fire, and sword, and rage, and horrid names.
"O, Greece! thou sapient nurse of finer arts!
Which to bright science blooming fancy bore,
Be this thy praise, that thou, and thou alone,
In these hast led the way, in these excell'd,
Crown'd with the laurel of assenting time.
"In thy full language, speaking mighty things;
Like a clear torrent close, or else diffus'd
A broad majestic stream, and rolling on
Through all the winding harmony of sound:
In it the power of eloquence, at large,
Breath'd the persuasive or pathetic soul;
Still'd by degrees the democratic storm,
Or bade it threatening rise, and tyrants shook,
Flush'd at the head of their victorious troops.
In it the Muse, her fury never quench'd,
By mean unyielding phrase, or jarring sound,
Her unconfin'd divinity display'd;
And, still harmonious, form'd it to her will:
Or soft depress'd it to the shepherd's moan,
Or rais'd it swelling to the tongue of gods.
"Heroic song was thine; the fountain-bard,
Whence each poetic stream derives its course.
Thine the dread moral scene, thy chief delight!
Where idle Fancy durst not mix her voice,
When Reason spoke august; the fervent heart
Or plain'd, or storm'd; and in th' impassion'd
Concealing art with art, the poet sunk. [man,
This potent school of manners, but when left
To loose neglect, a land-corrupting plague,
Was not unworthy deem'd of public care,
And boundless cost, by thee; whose every son,
Ev'n last mechanic, the true taste possess'd
Of what had flavour to the nourish'd sou'.
"The sweet enforce of the poet's strain, Thine was the meaning music of the heart. Not the vain trill, that, void of passion, runs In giddy mazes, tickling idle cars;
But that deep-searching voice, and artful hand,
To which respondent shakes the varied soul. 290
Thy fair ideas, thy delightful forms,
By Love imagin'd, by the Graces touch'd,
The boast of well-pleas'd Nature! Sculpture sciz'd,
And bade them ever smile in Parian stone.
Selecting beauty's choice, and that again
Exalting, blending in a perfect whole,
Thy workmen left ev'n Nature's self behind.
From those far different, whose prolific hand
Peoples a nation; they, for years on years,
By the cool touches of judicious toil,
Their rapid genius curbing, pour'd it all
Through the live features of one breathing stone.
There, beaming full, it shone, expressing gods:
Jove's awful brow, Apollo's air divine,
The fierce atrocions frown of sinew'd Mars,
Or the sly graces of the Cyprian queen.
Minutely perfect all! Each dimple sunk,
And every muscle swell'd, as Nature taught.
In tresses, braided gay, the marble way'd;
240 Flow'd in loose robes, or thin transparentveils ;310
Sprung into motion; soften'd into flesh;
Was fir'd to passion, or refin'd to soul.
"Nor less thy pencil, with creative touch,
Shed mimic life, when all thy brightest dames,
Assembled, Zeuxis in his Helen mix'd.
And when Apelles, who peculiar knew
To give a grace that more than mortal smil'd,
The soul of beauty! call'd the queen of Love,
Fresh from the billows, blushing orient charms. Ev'n such enchantment then thy pencil pour'd, That cruel-thoughted War th' impatient torch 321 Dash'd to the ground, and, rather than destroy The patriot picture, let the city 'scape.
"First elder Sculpture taught her sister Art Correct design; where great ideas shone, And in the secret trace expression spoke : Taught her the graceful attitude; the turn, And beauteous airs of head; the native act, Or bold, or easy; and, cast free behind, The swelling mantle's well-adjusted flow. Then the bright Muse, their elder sister, came; And bade her follow where she led the way: Bade earth, and sea, and air, in colours rise; And copious action on the canvass glow: Gave her gay fable; spread invention's store; Enlarg'd her view; taught composition high, And just arrangement, circling round one point, That starts to sight, binds and commands the whole. Caught from the heavenly Muse a nobler aim, And, scorning the soft trade of mere delight, O'er all thy temples, porticos, and schools, Heroic deeds she trac'd, and warm display'd Each moral beauty to the ravish'd eye. There, as th' imagin'd presence of the god, Arous'd the mind, or vacant hours induc'd Calm contemplation, or assembled youth Burn'd in ambitious circle round the sage, The living lesson stole into the heart, With more prevailing force than dwells in words. These rouse to glory; while, to rural life, 350 The softer canvass oft repos'd the soul. There gayly broke the sun-illumin'd cloud; The lessening prospect, and the mountain blue, Vanish'd in air; the precipice frown'd, dire, White, down the rock the rushing torrent dash'd; The Sun shone, trembling, o'er the distant main; The tempest foam'd, immense; the driving storm Sadden'd the skies, and, from the doubling gloom, On the scath'd oak the ragged lightning fell; 359 In closing shades, and where the current strays, With peace, and love, and innocence around, Pip'd the lone shepherd to his feeding flock: Round happy parents smil'd their younger selves; And friends convers'd, by death divided long.
"To public Virtue thus the smiling Arts, Unblemish'd handmaids, serv'd the Graces they To dress this fairest Venus. Thus rever'd, And plac'd beyond the reach of sordid care, The high awarders of immortal fame, Alone for glory thy great masters strove; Courted by kings, and by contending states Assum'd the boasted honour of their birth.
Of rolling ages, light as fabrics look'd
That from the magic wand aërial rise.
"These were the wonders that illumin'd Greece, From end to end."-Here interrupting warm, "Where are they now?" (I cry'd)" say, goddess, where?
"In Architecture too thy rank supreme! That art where most magnificent/appears The little builder man; by thee refin'd, And, smiling high, to full perfection brought. Such thy sure rules, that Goths of every age, Who scorn'd their aid, have only loaded Earth With labour'd heavy monuments of shame. Not those gay domes that o'er thy splendid shore Shot, all proportion, up. First unadorn'd, And nobly plain, the manly Doric rose; Th' lonic then, with decent matron grace, Her airy pillar heav'd; luxuriant last, The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. The whole so measur'd true, so lessen'd off By fine proportion, that the marble pile, Form'd to repel the still or storiny waste
And what the land thy darling thus of old ?"
"Sunk!" she resum'd: "deep in the kindred
Of superstition, and of slavery sunk!
No glory now can touch their hearts, benumb'd
By loose dejected sloth and servile fear;
No science pierce the darkness of their minds ;
No nobler art the quick ambitions soul
Of imitation in their breast awake.
Ev'n, to supply the needful arts of life,
Mechanic toil denies the hopeless hand.
Scarce any trace remaining, vestige grey,
Or nodding column on the desert shore,
To point where Corinth, or where Athens stood.
A faithless land of violence, and death!
Where Commerce parleys, dubious, on the shore;
And his wild impulse curious search restrains,
Afraid to trust th' inhospitable clime.
Neglected Nature fails; in sordid want
Sunk, and debas'd, their beauty beams no more.
The Sun himself seems angry, to regard,
Of light unworthy, the degenerate race;
And fires them oft with pestilential rays:
While Earth, blue poison steaming on the skies,
Indignant, shakes them from her troubled sides.
But as from man to man, Fate's first decree,
Impartial Death the tide of riches rolls,
So states must die, and Liberty go round.
"Fierce was the stand, ere virtue, valour, arts,
And the soul fir'd by me (that often, stung
With thoughts of better times and old renown,
From hydra-tyrants try'd to clear the land)
Lay quite extinct in Greece, their works effac'd
And gross o'er all unfeeling bondage spread.
Sooner I mov'd my much reluctant flight,
Pois'd on the doubtful wing: when Greece with
Embroil'd in foul contention fought no more
For common glory, and for common weal: 430
But, false to freedom, sought to quell the free;
Broke the firm band of peace, and sacred love,
That lent the whole irrefragable force;
And, as around the partial trophy blush'd,
Prepar'd the way for total overthrow.
Then to the Persian power, whose pride they scorn'd,
When Xerxes pour'd his millions o'er the land,
370 Sparta, by turns, and Athens, vilely sued;
Sued to be venal parricides, to spill
Their country's bravest blood, and on themselves
To turn their matchless mercenary arms.
Peaceful in Susa, then, sate the great king;
And by the trick of treaties, the still waste
Of sly corruption, and barbaric gold,
Effected what his steel could ne'er perform.
Profuse he gave them the luxurious draught,
Inflaming all the land: unbalanc'd wide
Their tottering states; their wild assemblies rul'd,
As the winds turn at every blast the seas:
And by their listed orators, whose breath
Still with a factious storm infested Greece,
Rous'd them to civil war, or dash'd them down
To sordid peace.-Peace! that, when Sparta shook
Astonish'd Artaxerxes on his throne,
Gave up, fair-spread o'er Asia's sunny shore,
Their kindred cities, to perpetual chains.
What could so base, so infamous a thought,
In Spartan hearts inspire? Jealous, they saw
Respiring Athens rear again her walls;
And the pale fury fir'd them, once again
To crush this rival city to the dust.
For now no more the noble social soul
Of Liberty my families combin'd;
But by short views, and selfish passions, broke,
Dire as when friends are rankled into foes,
They mix'd severe, and wag'd eternal war;
Nor felt they, furious, their exhausted force;
Nor, with false glory, discord, madness blind,
Saw how the blackening storm from Thracia came.
Long years roll'd on,' by many a battle stain'd, 470
The blush and boast of Fame! where courage, art,
And military glory, shone supreme:
But let detesting ages, from the scene
Of Greece self-mangled, turn the sickening eye.
At last, when bleeding from a thousand wounds,
She felt her spirits fail; and in the dust
Her latest heroes, Nicias, Conon, lay,
Agesilaus, and the Theban Friends:
The Macedonian vulture mark'd his time,
By the dire scent of Cheronea lur'd,
And, fierce-descending, seiz'd his hapless prey..
"Thus tame submitted to the victor's yoke
Greece, once the gay, the turbulent, the bold;
For every Grace, and Muse, and Science born;
With arts of war, of government, elate;
To tyrants dreadful, dreadful to the best;
Whom I myself could scarcely rule: and thus
The Persian fetters, that inthrall'd the mind,
Were turn'd to formal and apparent chains.
"Unless Corruption first deject the pride,
And guardian vigour of the free-born soul,
All crude attempts of violence are vain ;
For, firm within, and while at heart untouch'd,
Ne'er yet by force was Freedom overcome.
But soon as Independence stoops the head,
To vice enslav'd, and vice-created wants;
Then to some foul corrupting hand, whose waste
These heighten'd wants with fatal bounty feeds:
From man to man the slackening ruin runs,
Till the whole state unnerv'd in slavery sinks." 500
celebrated Protogenes; he chose rather to raise the siege than hazard the burning of a famous picture called Jalysus, the master-piece of that 460 painter.
Ver. 442. So the kings of Persia were called by the Greeks.
Ver. 57. Civil tyranny.
Ver. 63. The pyramids.
Ver. 65. The tyrants of Egypt.
Ver. 138. A mountain near Athens. Ver. 142. Two rivers, betwixt which Athens was situated.
Ver. 157. The Areopagus, or supreme court of judicature, which Solon reformed, and improved: and the council of four hundred, by him instituted. In this council all affairs of state were deliberated, before they came to be voted in the assembly of the people.
Ver. 174. Or Olympia, the city where the Olympic games were celebrated.
Ver. 180. The straits of Thermopyla.
Ver. 197. Xenophon.
Ver. 222. Socrates.
Ver. 272. Homer.
Ver. 323. When Demetrius besieged Rhodes, and could have reduced the city, by setting fire to that quarter of it where stood the house of the
Ver. 453. The peace made by Antalcidas, the
Lacedemonian admiral, with the Persians; by
which the Lacedemonians abandoned all the
Greeks established in the lesser Asia to the do-
minion of the king of Persia.
Ver. 459. Athens had been dismantled by the
Lacedemonians, at the end of the first Pelopon-
nesian war, and was at this time restored by
Conon to its former splendour.
Ver. 470. The Peloponnesian war.
Ver. 478. Pelopidas and Epaminondas.
Ver. 480. The battle of Charonea, in which
Philip of Macedon utterly defeated the Greeks.
BEING THE THIRD PART OF
THE CONTENTS OF PART III.
As this part contains a description of the establish-
ment of Liberty in Rome, it begins with a view
of the Grecian colonies settled in the southern
parts of Italy, which with Sicily constituted the
Great Greece of the ancients. With these colo-
nies the spirit of Liberty, and of republics,
spreads over Italy; to ver. 32. Transition to
Pythagoras and his philosophy, which he taught
through those free states and cities; to ver. 71.
Amidst the many small republics in Italy, Rome
the destined seat of Liberty. Her establishment
there dated from the expulsion of the Tarquins.
How differing from that in Greece; to ver. 88.
Reference to a view of the Roman republic given
in the first part of this poem: to mark its rise
and fall, the peculiar purport of this. During
its first ages, the greatest force of Liberty and
virtue exerted; 10 ver. 103. The source
whence derived the heroic virtues of the Ro-
Enumeration of these virtues. Thence
their security at home; their glory, success,
and empire, abroad; to ver. 226. Bounds of
the Roman empire, geographically described;
to ver. 257. The states of Greece restored to
Liberty by Titus Quintus Flaminius, the highest
instance of public generosity and beneficence;
to ver. 328. The loss of Liberty in Rome. Its
causes, progress, and completion in the death of
Brutus; to ver. 485. Rome under the emi-
perors; to ver. 513. From Rome the goddess
of Liberty goes among the Northern Nations;
where, by infusing into them her spirit and
general principles, she lays the ground-work of
her future establishments; sends them in ven-
geance on the Roman empire, now totally en-
slaved; and then, with arts and sciences in her
train, quits Earth during the dark ages; to ver.