Spectrum Analysis in Its Application to Terrestrial Substances, and the Physical Constitution of the Heavenly Bodies

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Longmans, 1872 - 662 páginas
 

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Contenido

THE ELECTRIC LAMP
45
PART II
51
LIGHT
53
ANALOGY BETWEEN LIGHT AND SOUND
55
iPLCTRA OF THE FIXED STARS
61
ANALOGY BETWEEN MUSICAL SOUNDS AND COLOURS
62
REFRACTION OF LIGHT
66
REFRACTION OF MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT BV A PRISM
74
REFRACTION OF THE DIFFERENT COLOURS BY A PRISM
80
THE SOLAR SPECTRUM
85
IQ THE SPECTRA OF THE LIMELIGHT AND THE ELECTRIC LIGHT
90
RECOMBINATION OF THE COLOURS OF THE SPECTRUM
96
INFLUENCE OF THE WIDTH OF SLIT ON THE PURITY OF THE SPECTRUM
98
THE CONTINUOUS SPECTRA OF SOLID AND LIQUID BODIES
100
THE SPECTRA OF VAPOURS AND GASES
101
SPECTRUM APPARATUS
109
MODE OF MEASURING THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE LINES OF THE SPECTRUM
120
THE COMPOUND SPECTROSCOPE
126
BROWNINGS AUTOMATIC SPECTROSCOPE
131
PRISM OF COMPARISON OR REFLECTING PRISM
136
DESIGNATION OF THE LINES OF THE SPECTRUM
143
Changes in the Line H j3 after Lockyer
144
VARIOUS METHODS FOR EXHIBITING THE SPECTRA OF TERRESTRIAL SUBSTANCES 145
145
Reversal of the Cand Flines
146
Youngs Observation of the Reversal of the Dlines
147
Huggins first Observation of a Prominence in full Sunshine
148
Solar Prominences observed by Zollner
149
Lockyers Observation of various Prominences
150
Youngs Observations of various Prominences
151
Youngs Observation of a Chain of Prominences
152
Solar Storm observed by Lockyer on 14th March
153
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY ON THE SPECTRA OF GASES
159
INFLUENCE OF THE TEMPERATURE OF GASES ON THE WIDTH OF THE LINES OF THE SPECTRUM
171
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE DELICACY OF SPECTRUM REACTIONS 174
174
THE COLOURS OF NATURAL OBJECTS
177
ABSORPTION OF LIGHT BY SOLID BODIES
183
ABSORPTION OF LIGHT BY LIQUIDS
185
THE SORBYBROWNING MICROSPECTROSCOPE
190
ABSORFIION OF LIGHT BY GASES
199
RELATION BETWEEN THE EMISSION AND ABSORPTION OF LIGHT
203
REVERSAL OF THE SPECTRA OF GASES
205
the solar spectrum and the fraunhofer lines
227
kirchhoffs scale of the solar spectrum
234
angstroms normal solar spectrum
236
45 KIRCHHOFFS THEORY OF THE PHYSICAL CONSTITUTION
247
THE ATMOSPHERIC LINES IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM
253
AND THEIR SPECTRA
265
TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES
296
THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF 18TH AUGUST 1868
316
THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF 7TH AUGUST 1869
332
Respighis Observations of the Prominences round the entire Limb of the
440
MEASUREMENT OF THE DIRECTION AND SPEED OF
443
Displacement of the Fline Velocity of the Gas streams in ihe
449
Movement of a Gasvortex in the
454
Unequal Displacement of the greenishblue Hydrogen line H
455
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIESSTELLAR
459
Merzs Objectglass Spectroscope
463
Merzs Objectglass Spectroscope Mounting of the Prism
464
Merzs Objectglass Prism
465
Huggins Stellar Spectroscope Perspective View 165 Huggins Stellar Spectroscope Horizontal Section Grubbs Automatic Spectroscopes
467
Huggins Stellar Spectroscope Partial Vertical Section
469
Secchis Stellar Spectroscope
472
Secchis large Telespectroscope 169 Huggins large Telespectroscope
474
Merzs Simple and Compound Spectroscope
477
Merzs Simple Spectroscope 172 Brownings Miniature Spectroscope
478
KIG PAGE 173 Brownings Hand Spectroscope
480
SPECTRA OF THE MOON AND PLANETS
481
Spectrum of Uranus
484
Spectrum of Uranus after Huggins
485
SPECTRA OF THE FIXED STARS
488
Spectrum of Aldebaran a Tauri and that of Betel geux a Orionis compared with the Solar Spec trum and Spectra of Terrestrial Elements 491
491
SECCHlS TYPES OF THE FIXED STARS
495
Spectrum of Sirius
499
Spectrum of a Red Star after Huggins
504
COLOUR OF THE STARS DOUBLE STARS AND THEIR
506
Spectrum of the Star A of a Herculis
511
VARIABLE STARS
513
Variability of a Star according to Zollner
514
Spectrum of the Temporary Star T Corona? Borealis 15th May 1866
521
INFLUENCE OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE STARS
525
Displacement of the Fline in the Spectrum of Sirius
527
The Great Nebula in Orion
534
Central and most brilliant portion of the Great Nebula in the Swordhandle of Orion as observed by Sir John Herschel in his 20foot Reflector at Feld h...
535
The large Magellanic Cloud
536
SPECTRA OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS
537
Spiral Nebula H 1173
538
Spiral Nebula in Canes Venatici H 1622
539
Transition from the Spiral to the Annular form
540
Nebula with several Rings H 854
541
it2 Elliptical Annular Nebula H 1909
542
Double Nebula H 3501
543
Planetary Nebula with two Stars H 838
544
Planetary Nebula H 2098
545
Spectrum of Nebula H 4374
546
COMETS AND THEIR SPECTRA
557
FALLING STARS METEOR SHOWERS BALLS OF FIRE
581
SPECTRUM OF LIGHTNING
607
Appendix A
620
Appendix B
628
List of Works on Spectrum Analysis
635

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Página 195 - In the year 1860, he published his memoir on the relation between the emissive and absorptive powers of bodies for heat, as well as for light, in which occurs the celebrated sentence : " The relation between the power of emission and the power of absorption of one and the same class of rays, is the same for all bodies at the same temperature...
Página 564 - ... bands. A fair measure was obtained of the centre of the middle band, which was the brightest ; it gives for this band a wave-length of about 510 millionths of a millimetre. I was not able to do more than estimate roughly the position of the less refrangible band. The result gives 545 millionths. The third band was situated at about the same distance from the middle band on the more refrangible side. It would appear that this comet is similar in constitution to the comets which I examined in 1868*....
Página 367 - With a powerful spectroscope the light reflected from our atmosphere near the sun's limb edge would be greatly reduced in intensity by the dispersion of the prisms, while the bright lines of the prominences, if such be present, would remain but little diminished in brilliancy. This principle has been carried out by various forms of prismatic apparatus, and also by other contrivances, but hitherto without success.
Página iii - SCHELLEN'S SPECTRUM ANALYSIS, in its application to Terrestrial Substances and the Physical Constitution of the Heavenly Bodies. Translated by JANE and C. LASSELL; edited, with Notes, by W. HUGGINS, LL.D. FRS With 13 Plates (6 coloured) and 223 Woodcuts. 8vo. price 28s. CELESTIAL OBJECTS for COMMON TELESCOPES.
Página 615 - Kirchhoff's map, determined by direct comparison with the map at the time of observation. In some cases an interrogation mark is appended, which signifies not that the existence of the line is doubtful, but only that its precise place could not be determined, either because it fell in a shading of...
Página 194 - In connexion with this subject it may not be out of place to introduce the following extract of a letter from Prof. W. Thomson to Prof. Kirchhoff, dated 1860. Prof. Thomson thus writes : — ' Professor Stokes mentioned to me at Cambridge some time ago, probably about ten years, that Professor Miller had made an experiment testing to a very high degree of accuracy the agreement of the double dark line D of the solar spectrum with the double bright line...
Página 135 - Bunsen flame or a weak spark, the spectrum observed is produced by some compound, probably the oxide of the difficultly reducible metal ; whereas at the enormously high temperature of the intense electric spark these compounds are split up, and thus the true spectrum of the metal is obtained. In none of the spectra of the more reducible alkaline metals (potassium, sodium, lithium) can any deviation or disappearance of maxima of light be noticed on change of temperature.
Página 632 - This paper gives the wave-lengths of the principal lines of the Solar Spectrum. On Wave-lengths. Silliman's Journal, March 1869. GLADSTONE, JH Notes on the Atmospheric Lines of the Solar Spectrum, and on certain Spectra of Gases.
Página 362 - ... as consisting of separate rays, others give to it an almost true geometrical contour; in some of the Spanish sketches a tendency to assume a roughly quadrangular form can be detected, while in most of the Sicilian drawings there is a tendency to an annular form. We pass to the spectroscopic observations of the corona and halo. Prof. Winlock, using a spectroscope of two prisms on a five and a half inch achromatic, found a faint continuous spectrum. Of the bright lines, the most persistent was...
Página 617 - I would call especial attention to the lines numbered 1 and 82 in the catalogue; they are very persistently present, though faint, and can be distinctly seen in the spectroscope to belong to the chromosphere as such, not being due, like most of the other lines, to the exceptional elevation of matter to heights where it does not properly belong. It would seem very probable that both these lines are due to the same substance which causes the DJ line.

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