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last year over half a million forest trees were planted by various plantation and ranch companies throughout the Territory. With a better understanding of the principles of forestry, the necessity of protecting the native forests came clearly to be seen. Continued agitation by committees of the Hawaiian Sugan Planters' Association finally led, six years ago, to the passage of a comprehensive forest law, the creation of a Division of Forestry under the Territorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry, and the definite establishment of a forest reserve system. Hawaii is one of the eleven States and Territories of the Union employing a professionally trained forester. For the last dozen years appropriations have regularly been made for forest work. Directly in the matter of conservation, Hawaii is also one of the Territories that take an active part. At the Conference of the Governors, held last year at the White House, Hawaii was represented by the Governor and three delegates. Almost immediately on his return to the islands, Governor Frear appointed a Territorial Conservation Commission of five members to undertake an investigation of the natural reSources of the Territory, and in other ways to build up public sentiment in favor of a wider application of the principles of conservation. At the recent session of the Hawaiian Legislature provision was made for the carrying out of a number of the recommendations contained in the preliminary report of the Conservation Commission. Public sentiment in favor of conservation is also being fostered by the active work of the Hawaiian branch of the Woman's National Rivers and Harbors Congress, a local chapter of which organization was started last spring. But the interest of Hawaii in conservation does not stop with the agitation of the subject, the protection of the for****, and the utilization of waters for existing industries. What has so far been accomplished is important largely because it points the way to what still remains to do. In the right use of its natural resources, through the medium of conservation, lies the greatest hope for the future of Hawaii. The position of the Territory is unique. From its geographic position it has an importance out of all proportion to its area or population. Lying as it does in the center of the Pacific, 2,100 miles southwest of San Francisco, Hawaii is the only land from which a hostile fleet could menace our western coast. It is the only land which a foreign enemy could use as an effective base in offensive operations, for the coaling capacity of even the largest warships is not sufficient to enable them to come from the nearest possible station, strike, and get back again. The strategic value of Hawaii to the Nation is of such crucial importance that it can hardly be overestimated. The Pacific arena is to be the greatest theatre of commerce that the world has ever seen. But that the Nation may make the most of the natural advantages possessed by Hawaii, it is necessary that there be on the islands an aggressive, self-reliant American community of sufficient numerical strength to control the local situation. Such a population, imbued with the ideals of democratic government, can only be got by bringing white men onto the land as permanent settlers. The most practical way to secure such an increase of desirable citizens is through the reclamation by irrigation of considerable areas of semi-arid land which for the most part are now used for grazing, but which with water could be made available for home-making. At the recent session of the local Legislature, held last spring, a special income tax of 2 per cent in addition to an existing income tax of the same amount was laid on all incomes over $4,000 to provide a fund to “promote the conservation and development of the natural resources of the Territory through immigration and other means.” Under this appropriation cooperative work is now in progress between the Territory and the United States Geological Survey in the measurement of streams and the gathering of exact information in regard to areas that can be reclaimed for homemaking through irrigation. The logical sequel to this investigation is the extension to Hawaii of the benefits of the Federal Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902. To the end of securing from the Congress of the United States the necessary legislation to extend this act to include the Territory, Hawaii frankly seeks the aid of friends on the mainland. The Territory is in no way inclined to shirk its duty in this matter, but the task is too big a one for this small community to handle alone. The Territory will continue to do its part, but in this work it needs help. Since annexation, Hawaii has, in addition to carrying on the Territorial Government, contributed its full share to federal revenues. In looking to the mainland for assistance in having the Reclamation Act extended to Hawaii, the Territory bases its appeal not on the benefits that will accrue locally, but on the broad ground that the Nation has put upon Hawaii certain duties which can only efficiently be performed by an increase in the white population. Because of its strategic position, military and commercial, the development and prosperity of Hawaii affects directly the well-being of the mainland States, particularly of those in the West. Consequently, it is to the interest of those States to assist Hawaii in doing the work that lies ahead. The fundamental object, the cornerstone of the whole Conservation movement, is the making of homes. On the ground that more American homes in Hawaii will make better homes on the mainland, Hawaii appeals to this Con*Vation Congress for encouragement and support.

Hawaii is proud that on the basis of conservation work already completed or now under way, she can take her place in this Congress on an equal footing with mainland States. (..Applause.)



Every year contributes to our language some words or expressions which spring into popularity and are on the lips of every speaker. Many popular favorites pass from use when their alliteration or wit cloys on the mind; but many such expressions or words have come to stay and emerge from their associates to take a dignified place in the language because they may express briefly some idea of genuine value or convey the full meaning of some movement which is recognized as worthy. “Up to you” and “make good,” which so directly express the great fundamental principle of personal responsibility and individualism, are examples of the first type, and “conservation,” which has recently come to be a part of every vocabulary, thoroughly illustrates the second type. Until of late conservation was a rare word in use: its strength lies in the fact that it expresses in one word the manifold efforts of the daily life of man; its popularity was immediate, because the application of this daily principle of life to material developments and altruistic motives in our country was so very rare.

The idea which the word conveys in either the limited or broad sense is not new. The irrigation value of the Nile in ancient Egypt, the forest laws of Switzerland, and conservation of land by dykes in Holland remind one that it is world old in practice. But the principle applied to natural resources from a national standpoint is a recent movement. This plan, however, is not as new as generally believed, for in one of General Washington's letters which gave directions for clearing a road through his plantation we find the following sentence: “Leave the trees standing thick on both sides * * * if too thick they can always be thinned, but if too thin there is no remedy but time to retrieve such an error.” He further comments on the maintaining of fertility of farm lands, and of the “rail fence” says: “No sort of fencing is more expensive or wasteful of timber.” In a letter concerning his last speech to Congress, he shows that he saw these things in their national aspect, for he says: “It must be obvious to every man who considers the agriculture of the country “ ” * and compares the produce of our lands with those of other countries * * * how miserably defective we are in the management of them * * * and if we do not fall on a better mode of treating them, how ruinous it will prove to landed interests. Ages will not produce a systematic change without public attention and encouragement * * * If they were taught how to preserve the old instead of going in pursuit of new and more productive soils, * * * they would make these acres turn out beneficial to themselves—to the mechanics by supplying them with the staff of life on cheaper terms, to the merchants by increasing commerce and exportation, and to the community generally by the influx of wealth reSulting therefrom. In a word it is, in my estimation, a great national object, and if started as fully as the occasion and circumstances will admit, I think it must appear so to all.”

The idea of national conservation, as General Washington saw it, as it concerned the forests and soils, has been until recently the accepted meaning of the word. But the Same principle of nurturing the good and developing every

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